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He, K., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Shi, L. & Cheng, X. (2024). Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 144, Article ID 105550.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation
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2024 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 144, article id 105550Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is an important parameter for tunnel safety. The present study analyzed the characteristics of the maximum excess ceiling gas temperature driven by double fire sources in a naturally ventilated tunnel. A series of small-scale tunnel fire experiments were carried out with different fire separation distances and heat release rates. Theoretical analysis based on the equivalent virtual origin was also performed. The results showed that there exists only one peak gas temperature when the two fire plumes are merged before reaching the ceiling, while two peak gas temperatures can be observed when the two fire plumes are completely separated. The maximum excess gas temperature below the tunnel ceiling gradually decreases with an increasing fire separation distance in the plume merging region (S < Scp). When the fire separation distance increases further (S > Scp), the effect of the fire separation distance on the maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is very limited. Furthermore, a model using an equivalent fire source was proposed to predict the maximum excess gas temperature below the ceiling, considering different plume merging states. The present study contributes to the understanding of the maximum excess gas temperature characteristics of the smoke flow driven by double fires with an equal heat release rate in naturally ventilated tunnels. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Ceilings; Fires; Gases; Merging; Smoke; Thermal plumes; Ventilation; Double fire source; Fire separation; Gas temperature; Heat release; Maximum excess gas temperature; Natural ventilation; Separation distances; Temperature profiles; Tunnel fires; Ventilated tunnels; Gas temperature
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68815 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2023.105550 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180417123 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Brandforsk
Note

This work was financially supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2022YFC3005201 ), the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC), the Swedish Fire Research Board (BRANDFORSK), Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (No. CX2320007001 ), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grants (No. WK2320000048 and No. WK2320000056 ) and USTC Tang Scholar, which are greatly acknowledged.

Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Willstrand, O., Pushp, M., Ingason, H. & Brandell, D. (2024). Uncertainties in the use of oxygen consumption calorimetry for heat release measurements in lithium-ion battery fires. Fire safety journal, 143, Article ID 104078.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncertainties in the use of oxygen consumption calorimetry for heat release measurements in lithium-ion battery fires
2024 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 143, article id 104078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate measurement of the heat release from a battery fire is vital for risk management, product development and construction of accurate models. Oxygen consumption calorimetry is the most common method for heat release measurements in experimental fire tests. The strength of the method is that it can be applied to unknown compositions of fuel with sufficient accuracy. Despite that this method is used to estimate heat release from battery fires, the method is subject to discussion. In this work, the method is studied in-depth, and potential errors are structured and quantified. Uncertainties associated with self-generated oxygen and internal heat generation, total gas release from the battery and impact on the heat release calculations, as well as the assumed E-factor (i.e., heat release per unit mass of oxygen consumed), are thoroughly discussed. For a Li-ion battery fire, it is concluded that oxygen consumption calorimetry will exclude internal heat generation and underestimate the total heat released from the external flaming fire by up to 10 %. In addition, high rate of combustion reactions can result in that the measured peak heat release rate is underestimated much more, up to 100 %. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Calorimeters; Calorimetry; Carbon dioxide; Enthalpy; Fires; Heat generation; Ions; Lithium compounds; Oxygen; Risk assessment; Risk management; Uncertainty analysis; Carbon dioxide generation calorimetries; Fire tests; Heat release; Heat release rate; Oxygen consumption calorimetry; Release measurements; Release rate; Thermal runaways; Total heat released; Uncertainty; Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-70010 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.104078 (DOI)2-s2.0-85181765133 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-00064Swedish Energy Agency, 51787-1
Note

This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064), and STandUP for Energy.

Available from: 2024-01-16 Created: 2024-01-16 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Ingason, H. (2023). Branddynamik i oventilerade väg- och järnvägstunnlar.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Branddynamik i oventilerade väg- och järnvägstunnlar
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report describes the fire dynamic conditions in natural ventilated tunnels. A summary of the today’s knowledge about the dynamic fire conditions in nonventilated road or railway tunnel is given. The concept of fire dynamic conditions includes the variation of different parameters in length and height at different ventilation conditions. This primarily applies to parameters such as fire development, heat and smoke gas dispersion, gas temperatures, heat radiation towards objects and surrounding wall construction, flame lengths and sight length and toxic conditions in the smoke gases.

Publisher
p. 61
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:113
Keywords
tunnel, slope, natural ventilation, fire, stratification, gas temperature, gas velocity, radiation, gas concentrations.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67745 (URN)978-91-89821-98-9 (ISBN)
Note

Uppdraget är initierat av Trafikverket och är ett uppdrag inom ramen för Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC).

Available from: 2023-11-13 Created: 2023-11-13 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Jiang, L., Olofsson, A., Ingason, H., Evegren, F. & Mindykowski, P. (2023). Effect of opening geometries on fire development in a ro-ro space. Ships and Offshore Structures, 272-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of opening geometries on fire development in a ro-ro space
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2023 (English)In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, p. 272-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of model scale experiments were conducted to study the fire development in a ro-ro deck with various opening geometries. The experiments were performed in a 1/8 reduced scale model with a heptane pool fire as fire source. Experimental results show that both the ventilation factor and the opening position affect the fire development. The critical opening ratio for the fire to self-extinguish is 4%, with the opening locating at the bottom of the side walls while no self-extinction is found for other tests. A higher opening position and a larger opening height provide better flow exchange between the deck and the ambient, but this effect is only obvious for 4% opening. Numerical study shows that Fire Dynamic Simulator used with default simple settings underestimates the fire development and yields an early extinction when fire self-extinction occurs. For freely developed fire with large openings, FDS gives more close results to experiments.

Keywords
Ro-ro space; fire development; opening; ventilation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58834 (URN)10.1080/17445302.2022.2038467 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationThe Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation
Note

The tests and simulations constitute parts of the research project RO5 (ro-ro spacefire ventilation) which isfinanced by Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) and The Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation (Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus).

Available from: 2022-03-18 Created: 2022-03-18 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
He, K., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H. & Cheng, X. (2023). Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 133, Article ID 104967.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation
2023 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, article id 104967Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Other Civil Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64962 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2022.104967 (DOI)
Note

This project was financially supported by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC), and the Swedish Fire Research Board (BRANDFORSK), which are greatly acknowledged. 

Highlights:•Fire spread in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation was studied.•A simplified temperature model for tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed.•Criterion for fire spread to two nearby vehicles in tunnel was investigated.•Critical fire spread distance in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was discussed.

 

 

Available from: 2023-06-09 Created: 2023-06-09 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Guo, Q., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Yan, Z. & Zhu, H. (2023). Numerical study on thermally driven smoke flow characteristics in long tunnels under natural ventilation. International journal of thermal sciences, 192, Article ID 108379.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical study on thermally driven smoke flow characteristics in long tunnels under natural ventilation
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2023 (English)In: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1290-0729, E-ISSN 1778-4166, Vol. 192, article id 108379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper focuses on the flow structures and mass flow rates of thermally driven smoke flows induced by fires in long transportation tunnels under natural ventilation. The important influencing factors including heat release rate (HRR), tunnel width and height, are taken into consideration. The mechanism of the smoke flow movement is explored. The results show that for a fire in a long naturally ventilated transportation tunnel, there exists a critical point which is dependent on HRR and tunnel geometry. This critical point is defined as the location where the smoke layer thickness and the outgoing mass flow rate increase towards it and decrease after it. Further, it is found that the critical point moves farther away from the fire source in a wider or higher tunnel, while it lies closer to the fire source for a higher HRR. A correlation is proposed to estimate the location of the critical point. The outgoing mass flow rates along the tunnel are calculated using the two-layer flow model and well-mixed flow model of thermally driven flows, and the results indicate that these models produce satisfactory predictions of the mass flow rates if the vertical temperature profile is known. © 2023 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Masson s.r.l., 2023
Keywords
Critical point, Long tunnel, Mass flow rate, Smoke flow structure, Tunnel fire, Flow rate, Flow structure, Mass transfer, Smoke, Ventilation, Heat release, Long tunnels, Mass-flow rate, Natural ventilation, Release rate, Smoke flows, Thermally driven, Tunnel fires, Fires
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64422 (URN)10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2023.108379 (DOI)2-s2.0-85154579409 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Y.Z. Li; Fire and Safety, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Box 857, SE-501 15, Sweden; email: yingzhen.li@ri.se;  The author(s) would like to acknowledge the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) for the financial support. This work was also financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 52208408 ), Key Laboratory of Large Structure Health Monitoring and Control in Hebei Province ( KLLSHMC2101 ) and Taiyuan University of Science and Technology ( 20232014 ) in China.

Available from: 2023-05-11 Created: 2023-05-11 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Li, Y. Z., Lönnermark, A., Gehandler, J. & Ingason, H. (Eds.). (2023). Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. Paper presented at Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 26-28, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This publication includes the Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Stavanger, Norway, April 26-28, 2023. The Proceedings include 45 papers and 16 posters. The papers were presented in 16 different sessions, i.e., Keynote sessions, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Safety, Risk Management & Explosion, Digitization, Explosion, Poster Corner, Ventilation 1&2, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems, Tenability and Evacuation, Emergency Management, Evacuation, Safety Management, Fire Dynamics and Resistance. Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Ove Njå (University of Stavanger, Norway), Vladimir Molkov (Ulster University, UK), Ulf Lundström (Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden), Mirjam Nelisse (TNO, The Netherlands), and Gunnar Jenssen (SINTEF, Norway). We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

Publisher
p. 680
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67532 (URN)978-91-89757-89-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 26-28, 2023
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Zhao, S., Yang, H., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H. & Liu, F. (2023). Theoretical and numerical study on smoke descent during tunnel fires under natural ventilation condition. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 142, Article ID 105414.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical and numerical study on smoke descent during tunnel fires under natural ventilation condition
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2023 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 142, article id 105414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The smoke stratification and the smoke descent along a tunnel are of the utmost importance for personnel evacuation. The paper investigates the smoke descent along a tunnel during a naturally ventilated tunnel fire. A theoretical model is developed to predict the smoke depth below the ceiling along the tunnel. A series of numerical simulations of full-scale tunnel fires are conducted to compare with the developed model, and some coefficients such as the entrainment coefficient are determined from the simulation results. The concepts of critical moment and critical distance are proposed to characterize the smoke descent along the tunnel. The results show that as the smoke spreads longitudinally, the smoke depth below the tunnel ceiling continuously increases. The temperature decay along the tunnel due to heat losses and air entrainment at the smoke layer interface is considered as the main parameter for the smoke descent. After the vitiated air returns back to the fire source, the smoke stratification in the entire tunnel will be significantly reduced. The smoke layer depth along the tunnel based on the temperature distribution is relatively stable in the process of smoke development, which is not sensitive to the HRR, but influenced by the tunnel width, and this method could only be used before the critical moment. The outcomes of this study could provide references for a better understanding of smoke movement in naturally ventilated tunnels and provide technical guidelines for fire safety designers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Air entrainment; Fires; Ventilation; Condition; Critical moment; Natural ventilation; Personnel evacuations; Smoke descent; Smoke layer; Smoke stratification; Stratification; Tunnel fires; Ventilated tunnels; Smoke
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67456 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2023.105414 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171775524 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors would like to acknowledge the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) for the financial support. Thanks to Qinghua Guo for the valuable discussions and technical assistance during his stay at RISE. Shengzhong Zhao and Haoran Yang were also financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 52208115 ), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2020QE279 ) and Plan of Guidance and Cultivation for Young Innovative Talents of Shandong Province.

Available from: 2023-10-06 Created: 2023-10-06 Last updated: 2023-10-06Bibliographically approved
Ingason, H., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Jiang, L. (2022). Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel. Fire safety journal, 129, Article ID 103567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel
2022 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 129, article id 103567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of 1:3 intermediate scale tunnel fire tests was performed to investigate the performance of a fully automatic sprinkler system in a road tunnel. The experiments were carried in a container tunnel with scaled geometry, using wood pallets as the fire source to simulate HGV fires. The activation of the sprinklers was simulated by using thermocouples that corresponded to a given Thermal Response Index (RTI) of a sprinkler bulb or a link. A total of 12 tests were carried out with varying longitudinal velocities (0.8–1.7 m/s), sprinkler activation temperatures (68–141 °C), water densities (2.9–8.7 mm/min) and types of arrangement of the fuel. The activation times, number of activated sprinklers, maximum heat release rates and other key parameters are presented and analyzed. The results show that the water density plays a key role in the performance of the automatic sprinkler systems tested. A high tunnel ventilation velocity, low water density and low sprinkler activation temperature are not recommended. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Activation, Automatic sprinkler, Model scale, Tunnel fire, Tunnel velocity, Chemical activation, Fires, Flammability testing, Sprinkler systems (irrigation), Thermocouples, Activation temperatures, Fire tests, Performance, Road tunnel, Sprinkler activation, Tunnel fires, Water density, Hose
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58999 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103567 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127092273 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering, SKB; Funding details: Trafikverket; Funding text 1: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundstr?m at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.; Funding text 2: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) . The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundström at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Kumm, M., Storm, A., Ingason, H. & Hådell, P. (2022). Räddningsinsatser med och utan säker tillgång till släckvatten i spårtunnlar. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Räddningsinsatser med och utan säker tillgång till släckvatten i spårtunnlar
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Fire and rescue operations with and without secured water supply in rail tunnels
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten avses att utgöra ett stöd för planering och riskbedömning inför och vid räddningsinsatser i spårtunnlar. Rapporten sammanfattar tidigare forskning och kunskap avseende branddynamik i tunnlar, räddningstjänstens förflyttning vid insats, brandsläckning i fordon samt insatshöjande åtgärder i form av såväl bärbar teknik och utrustning som permanenta installationer i tunneln.

Räddningsinsatser i tunnlar har traditionellt innefattat samtidig slanguppbyggnad, baserat på tolkningen av arbetsmiljöföreskrifterna för rökdykning (AFS 2007:7) samt förfarandet vid rökdykarinsatser vid brand i byggnad. Förhållandena vid bränder i byggnader och vid bränder i tunnlar skiljer väsentligt. I en byggnad är tillgången till säker vattenförsörjning en förutsättning för rökdykarens säkerhet. I en tunnel, där ytskikten är obrännbara, brandgaserna inte ansamlas i ett begränsat utrymme och berget kyler brandgaserna längre bort från branden, är inte alltid tillgången till säker vattenförsörjning det som bäst tillgodoser säkerheten för räddningstjänstens personal när arbetsmoment som inte innefattar släckning genomförs. Detta innebär inte att kraven på säkerhet ska sänkas, utan att andra åtgärder som bibehåller eller höjer säkerhetsnivån behöver vidtas. Sådana åtgärder kan vara utökad användning av värmekamera, utökad övervakning av luftförsörjningen, tekniska installationer som stödjer orientering och vägledning samt utrustning, exempelvis spårbundna räddningstrallor, som medför snabbare förflyttning och minskad luftförbrukning.

I rapporten föreslås en indelning i fyra zoner, som direkt kopplar till de branddynamiska förhållanden som råder i respektive zon. Förenklat innebär zonindelningen följande:

  • Kall zon – Ingen risk för rökfyllnad. Ingen risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
  • Sval zon – Viss risk för rökfyllnad. Ingen risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
  • Varm zon – Delvis eller helt rökfylld tunnel, men liten risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
  • Het zon – Direkt påverkan från branden. Brand eller risk för brand.

Till respektive zon kopplas sedan relevanta skyddsnivåer och det arbete som bedöms kunna genomföras beskrivs. I varm zon bedöms arbete kunna genomföras utan tillgång till säkert vatten, utom i de fall syftet med arbetet är att bygga upp vattenförsörjning för senare arbete i het zon. I het zon ska alltid säker tillgång till vattenförsörjning finnas.

En viktig del av en säker insats i tunnlar, med eller utan säkert vatten, är den kunskap som både den enskilde rökdykaren och de befäl som beslutar om operativa eller strategiska åtgärder behöver besitta. Rapporten ger därför både en vetenskaplig grund för beslut och pekar på indikatorer som kräver övervakning i syfte att säkerställa rökdykarnas arbetsmiljö.

Abstract [en]

Fire and rescue operations in buildings require systems that secure access to water for firefighting. The working environment for the firefighters and the risks they are exposed to differ substantially between enclosure fires and fires in tunnels. Traditionally, fire and rescue operations in tunnels in Sweden have included build-up of the hose system parallel with advancement towards the fire. Both real life fires and full-scale firefighting tests have shown the challenges with slow moving speeds when the hose system is built up. In cases when water is not required for extinguishment or self-protection, the simultaneous hose build-up leads to a less effective rescue operation. This report compiles previous research and knowledge regarding fire and rescue operations in underground constructions and suggests a risk-based approach where the required safety level is adapted to the fire-related conditions in rail tunnels. Indicators related to the firefighters’ safety are presented and the need of future research is identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2022. p. 47
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:39
Keywords
fire and rescue, rail tunnels, secured water supply, risk assessment
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59376 (URN)978-91-89561-77-9 (ISBN)
Projects
TUSC Tunnel and Underground Safety Center
Note

220628: Ny version inlagd av pdf pga "liten miss i en av bilagorna". 8 ggr nedladdad./Een

Available from: 2022-06-22 Created: 2022-06-22 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9340-6768

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