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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Andren, O. C., Ingverud, T., Hult, D., Håkansson, J., Bogestål, Y., Caous, J. S., . . . Malkoch, M. (2019). Antibiotic-Free Cationic Dendritic Hydrogels as Surgical-Site-Infection-Inhibiting Coatings.. Advanced Healthcare Materials, Article ID e1801619.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic-Free Cationic Dendritic Hydrogels as Surgical-Site-Infection-Inhibiting Coatings.
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2019 (English)In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, article id e1801619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A non-toxic hydrolytically fast-degradable antibacterial hydrogel is herein presented to preemptively treat surgical site infections during the first crucial 24 h period without relying on conventional antibiotics. The approach capitalizes on a two-component system that form antibacterial hydrogels within 1 min and consist of i) an amine functional linear-dendritic hybrid based on linear poly(ethylene glycol) and dendritic 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, and ii) a di-N-hydroxysuccinimide functional poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker. Broad spectrum antibacterial effect is achieved by multivalent representation of catatonically charged β-alanine on the dendritic periphery of the linear dendritic component. The hydrogels can be applied readily in an in vivo setting using a two-component syringe delivery system and the mechanical properties can accurately be tuned in the range equivalent to fat tissue and cartilage (G' = 0.5-8 kPa). The antibacterial effect is demonstrated both in vitro toward a range of relevant bacterial strains and in an in vivo mouse model of surgical site infection.

Keywords
antibacterial, dendrimer, hydrogels, surgical-site infection
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37820 (URN)10.1002/adhm.201801619 (DOI)30735288 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Rozenbaum, R., Su, L., Umerska, A., Eveillard, M., Håkansson, J., Mahlapuu, M., . . . Sharma, P. (2019). Antimicrobial synergy of monolaurin lipid nanocapsules with adsorbed antimicrobial peptides against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in vitro is absent in vivo. Journal of Controlled Release, 293, 73-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial synergy of monolaurin lipid nanocapsules with adsorbed antimicrobial peptides against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in vitro is absent in vivo
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Controlled Release, ISSN 0168-3659, E-ISSN 1873-4995, Vol. 293, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bacterial infections are mostly due to bacteria in their biofilm-mode of growth, while penetrability of antimicrobials into infectious biofilms and increasing antibiotic resistance hamper infection treatment. In-vitro, monolaurin lipid nanocapsules (ML-LNCs) carrying adsorbed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) displayed synergistic efficacy against planktonic Staphylococcus aureus, but it has not been demonstrated, neither in-vitro nor in-vivo, that such ML-LNCs penetrate into infectious S. aureus biofilms and maintain synergy with AMPs. This study investigates the release mechanism of AMPs from ML-LNCs and possible antimicrobial synergy of ML-LNCs with the AMPs DPK-060 and LL-37 against S. aureus biofilms in-vitro and in a therapeutic, murine, infected wound-healing model. Zeta potentials demonstrated that AMP release from ML-LNCs was controlled by the AMP concentration in suspension. Both AMPs demonstrated no antimicrobial efficacy against four staphylococcal strains in a planktonic mode, while a checkerboard assay showed synergistic antimicrobial efficacy when ML-LNCs and DPK-060 were combined, but not for combinations of ML-LNCs and LL-37. Similar effects were seen for growth reduction of staphylococcal biofilms, with antimicrobial synergy persisting only for ML-LNCs at the highest level of DPK-060 or LL-37 adsorption. Healing of wounds infected with bioluminescent S. aureus Xen36, treated with ML-LNCs alone, was faster when treated with PBS, while AMPs alone did not yield faster wound-healing than PBS. Faster, synergistic wound-healing due to ML-LNCs with adsorbed DPK-060, was absent in-vivo. Summarizing, antimicrobial synergy of ML-LNCs with adsorbed antimicrobial peptides as seen in-vitro, is absent in in-vivo healing of infected wounds, likely because host AMPs adapted the synergistic role of the AMPs added. Thus, conclusions regarding synergistic antimicrobial efficacy, should not be drawn from planktonic data, while even in-vitro biofilm data bear little relevance for the in-vivo situation. © 2018

Keywords
Antimicrobial peptides, Biofilms, Monolaurin, Nanocapsules, Wound-healing, Zeta potentials, Bacteria, Peptides, Suspensions (fluids), Zeta potential, Antibiotic resistance, Antimicrobial peptide, Antimicrobial synergies, Bacterial infections, Staphylococcal strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Wound healing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36563 (URN)10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.11.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057086211 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 604182; Funding details: Seventh Framework Programme, FP7;

Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Chinga-Carrasco, G., Ehman, N., Filgueira, D., Johansson, J., Vallejos, M., Felissia, F., . . . Area, M. (2019). Bagasse—A major agro-industrial residue as potential resource for nanocellulose inks for 3D printing of wound dressing devices. Additive Manufacturing, 28, 267-274
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bagasse—A major agro-industrial residue as potential resource for nanocellulose inks for 3D printing of wound dressing devices
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2019 (English)In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 28, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sugarcane bagasse, an abundant residue, is usually burned as an energy source. However, provided that appropriate and sustainable pulping and fractionation processes are applied, bagasse can be utilized as a main source of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). We explored in this study the production of CNF inks for 3D printing by direct-ink-writing technology. The CNF were tested against L929 fibroblasts cell line and we confirmed that the CNF from soda bagasse fibers were found not to have a cytotoxic potential. Additionally, we demonstrated that the alginate and Ca 2+ caused significant dimensional changes to the 3D printed constructs. The CNF-alginate grids exhibited a lateral expansion after printing and then shrank due to the cross-linking with the Ca 2+ . The release of Ca 2+ from the CNF and CNF-alginate constructs was quantified thus providing more insight about the CNF as carrier for Ca 2+ . This, combined with 3D printing, offers potential for personalized wound dressing devices, i.e. tailor-made constructs that can be adapted to a specific shape, depending on the characteristics of the wound healing treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
3D printing, Alginate, Bagasse, Biomaterials, Nanocellulose, Scaffolds, Calcium compounds, Cell culture, Cellulose, Scaffolds (biology), 3-D printing, Agro-industrial residue, Cellulose nanofibrils, Dimensional changes, Fractionation process, Potential resources, Sugar-cane bagasse, Wound-healing treatment, 3D printers
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38888 (URN)10.1016/j.addma.2019.05.014 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065648577 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Funding details: Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Funding details: Norges Forskningsråd, 271054; Funding text 1: This work has been funded by the ValBio-3D project (Grant ELAC2015/T03-0715 Valorization of residual biomass for advanced 3D materials; Research Council of Norway , Grant no. 271054). The authors acknowledge the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and the Universidad Nacional de Misiones (Argentina) for the financial support. Thanks to Mirjana Filipovic, Ingebjørg Leirset and Anne Marie Reitan (RISE PFI) for laboratory analyses.

Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-06-03Bibliographically approved
Håkansson, J., Ringstad, L., Umerska, A., Johansson, J., Andersson, T., Boge, L., . . . Mahlapuu, M. (2019). Characterization of the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo Efficacy of the Antimicrobial Peptide DPK-060 Used for Topical Treatment.. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 9, Article ID 174.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo Efficacy of the Antimicrobial Peptide DPK-060 Used for Topical Treatment.
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 9, article id 174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antimicrobial peptides, also known as host defense peptides, have recently emerged as a promising new category of therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases. This study evaluated the preclinical in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo antimicrobial activity, as well as the potential to cause skin irritation, of human kininogen-derived antimicrobial peptide DPK-060 in different formulations designed for topical delivery. We found that DPK-060 formulated in acetate buffer or poloxamer gel caused a marked reduction of bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro (minimum microbicidal concentration <5 μg/ml). We also found that DPK-060 in poloxamer gel significantly suppressed microbial survival in an ex vivo wound infection model using pig skin and in an in vivo mouse model of surgical site infection (≥99 or ≥94% reduction in bacterial counts was achieved with 1% DPK-060 at 4 h post-treatment, respectively). Encapsulation of DPK-060 in different types of lipid nanocapsules or cubosomes did not improve the bactericidal potential of the peptide under the applied test conditions. No reduction in cell viability was observed in response to administration of DPK-060 in any of the formulations tested. In conclusion, the present study confirms that DPK-060 has the potential to be an effective and safe drug candidate for the topical treatment of microbial infections; however, adsorption of the peptide to nanocarriers failed to show any additional benefits.

Keywords
DPK-060, antimicrobial peptides, cubosomes, lipid nanocapsules, skin infections
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39066 (URN)10.3389/fcimb.2019.00174 (DOI)31192163 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Boge, L., Hallstensson, K., Ringstad, L., Johansson, J., Andersson, T., Davoudi, M., . . . Andersson, M. (2019). Cubosomes for topical delivery of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 134, 60-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cubosomes for topical delivery of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37
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2019 (English)In: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, ISSN 0939-6411, E-ISSN 1873-3441, Vol. 134, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the use of cubosomes for topical delivery of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) LL-37 was investigated. Topical delivery of AMPs is of great interest for treatment of skin infections caused by bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. AMP containing cubosomes were produced by three different preparation protocols and compared: (i) pre-loading, where LL-37 was incorporated into a liquid crystalline gel, which thereafter was dispersed into nanoparticles, (ii) post-loading, where LL-37 was let to adsorb onto pre-formed cubosomes, and (iii) hydrotrope-loading, where LL-37 was incorporated during the spontaneously formed cubosomes in an ethanol/glycerol monooleate mixture. Particle size and size distribution were analyzed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), liquid crystalline structure by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and release of LL-37 by a fluorescamine assay. Proteolytic protection of LL-37 as well as bactericidal effect after enzyme exposure was investigated. The skin irritation potential of cubosomes was examined by an in vitro epidermis model. Finally, the bacterial killing property of the cubosomes was examined by an ex vivo pig skin wound infection model with Staphylococcus aureus. Data showed that a high loading of LL-37 induced formation of vesicles in case of cubosomes prepared by sonication (pre-loading). No release of LL-37 was observed from the cubosomes, indicating strong association of the peptide to the particles. Proteolysis studies showed that LL-37 was fully protected against enzymatic attacks while associated with the cubosomes, also denoting strong association of the peptide to the particles. As a consequence, bactericidal effect after enzyme exposure remained, compared to pure LL-37 which was subjected to proteolysis. No skin irritation potential of the cubosomes was found, thus enabling for topical administration. The ex vivo wound infection model showed that LL-37 in pre-loaded cubosomes killed bacteria most efficient.

Keywords
alcohol, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL 37, cubosome, drug carrier, fluorescamine, glycerol oleate, hydrotrope, nanoparticle, unclassified drug
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37674 (URN)10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.11.009 (DOI)30445164 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-8505687655 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Granskog, V., García-Gallego, S., von Kieseritzky, J., Rosendahl, J., Stenlund, P., Zhang, Y., . . . Malkoch, M. (2018). High-Performance Thiol–Ene Composites Unveil a New Era of Adhesives Suited for Bone Repair. Advanced Functional Materials, 28(26), Article ID 1800372.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Performance Thiol–Ene Composites Unveil a New Era of Adhesives Suited for Bone Repair
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 26, article id 1800372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of adhesives for fracture fixation can revolutionize the surgical procedures toward more personalized bone repairs. However, there are still no commercially available adhesive solutions mainly due to the lack of biocompatibility, poor adhesive strength, or inadequate fixation protocols. Here, a surgically realizable adhesive system capitalizing on visible light thiol–ene coupling chemistry is presented. The adhesives are carefully designed and formulated from a novel class of chemical constituents influenced by dental resin composites and self-etch primers. Validation of the adhesive strength is conducted on wet bone substrates and accomplished via fiber-reinforced adhesive patch (FRAP) methodology. The results unravel, for the first time, on the promise of a thiol–ene adhesive with an unprecedented shear bond strength of 9.0 MPa and that surpasses, by 55%, the commercially available acrylate dental adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond of 5.8 MPa. Preclinical validation of FRAPs on rat femur fracture models details good adhesion to the bone throughout the healing process, and are found biocompatible not giving rise to any inflammatory response. Remarkably, the FRAPs are found to withstand loads up to 70 N for 1000 cycles on porcine metacarpal fractures outperforming clinically used K-wires and match metal plates and screw implants.

Keywords
adhesives, biomedical applications, composites, photochemistry, polymeric materials, Biocompatibility, Composite materials, Dental composites, Dental materials, Fracture, Fracture fixation, Functional polymers, Medical applications, Photochemical reactions, Polymeric implants, Polymers, Chemical constituents, Coupling chemistry, Dental adhesive system, Dental resin composites, Inflammatory response, Shear bond strengths, Surgical procedures, Bone
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33958 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201800372 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048981911 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: KI, Karolinska Institutet; Funding details: MSCA-IF-2014-655649, MSCA, H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions; Funding details: 2010-435; Funding details: 2014-03777; Funding details: 2012-0196, Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; 

Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Chinga-Carrasco, G., Ehman, N. V., Pettersson, J., Vallejos, M. E., Brodin, M., Felissia, F. E., . . . Area, M. C. (2018). Pulping and Pretreatment Affect the Characteristics of Bagasse Inks for Three-dimensional Printing. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 6(3), 4068-4075
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pulping and Pretreatment Affect the Characteristics of Bagasse Inks for Three-dimensional Printing
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2018 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 4068-4075Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bagasse is an underutilized agro-industrial residue with great potential as raw material for the production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for a range of applications. In this study, we have assessed the suitability of bagasse for production of CNF for three-dimensional (3D) printing. First, pulp fibers were obtained from the bagasse raw material using two fractionation methods, i.e. soda and hydrothermal treatment combined with soda. Second, the pulp fibers were pretreated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation using two levels of oxidation for comparison purposes. Finally, the CNF were characterized in detail and assessed as inks for 3D printing. The results show that CNF produced from fibers obtained by hydrothermal and soda pulping were less nanofibrillated than the corresponding material produced by soda pulping. However, the CNF sample obtained from soda pulp was cytotoxic, apparently due to a larger content of silica particles. All the CNF materials were 3D printable. We conclude that the noncytotoxic CNF produced from hydrothermally and soda treated pulp can potentially be used as inks for 3D printing of biomedical devices. 

Keywords
3D printing, Biomedical devices, Characterization, Chemical modification, Nanocellulose, Bagasse, Cellulose, Silica, 3-D printing, Agro-industrial residue, Cellulose nanofibrils, Fractionation methods, Hydrothermal treatments, TEMPO-mediated oxidation, Three-dimensional (3D) printing, 3D printers, Chemical Treatment, Printing, Three Dimensional Design
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33512 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b04440 (DOI)2-s2.0-85043320290 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: UN, Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Funding details: CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Funding details: NTNU, National Taiwan Normal University; Funding details: EDS; Funding details: PFI, Population Foundation of India; Funding details: 271054, Norges Forskningsråd; 

Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Kuna, V. K., Padma, A. M., Håkansson, J., Nygren, J., Sjöback, R., Petronis, S. & Sumitran-Holgersson, S. (2017). Significantly accelerated wound healing of full-thickness skin using a novel composite gel of porcine acellular dermal matrix and human peripheral blood cells. Cell Transplantation, 26(2), 293-307
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Significantly accelerated wound healing of full-thickness skin using a novel composite gel of porcine acellular dermal matrix and human peripheral blood cells
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2017 (English)In: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 293-307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel composite gel from decellularized gal-gal-knockout porcine skin and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) for full-thickness skin wound healing. Decellularized skin extracellular matrix (ECM) powder was prepared via chemical treatment, freeze-drying and homogenization. The powder was mixed with culture medium containing hyaluronic acid to generate a pig skin gel (PSG). The effect of the gel in regeneration of full-thickness wound was studied in nude mice. We found significantly accelerated wound closure already on day 15 in animals treated with PSG only or PSG+hPBMC as compared to untreated and hyaluronic acid treated controls (p<0.05). Addition of the hPBMC to the gel resulted in marked increase of host blood vessels as well as the presence of human blood vessels. At day 25, histologically, the wounds in animals treated with PSG only or PSG+hPBMC were completely closed as compared to controls. Thus, the gel facilitated generation of new skin with well arranged epidermal cells and restored bilayer structure of the epidermis and dermis. These results suggest that porcine skin ECM gel together with human cells may be a novel and promising biomaterial for medical applications especially for patients with acute and chronic skin wounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2017
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology Pharmaceutical Sciences Biomaterials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27768 (URN)10.3727/096368916X692690 (DOI)27503828 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85012224726 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-06 Created: 2017-01-06 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Björn, C., Mahlapuu, M., Mattsby-Baltzer, I. & Håkansson, J. (2016). Anti-infective efficacy of the lactoferrin-derived antimicrobial peptide HLR1r. Peptides, 81, 21-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-infective efficacy of the lactoferrin-derived antimicrobial peptide HLR1r
2016 (English)In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 81, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a new class of drug candidates for the treatment of infectious diseases. Here we describe a novel AMP, HLR1r, which is structurally derived from the human milk protein lactoferrin and demonstrates a broad spectrum microbicidal action in vitro. The minimum concentration of HLR1r needed for killing ≥99% of microorganisms in vitro, was in the range of 3-50 μg/ml for common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and for the yeast Candida albicans, when assessed in diluted brain-heart infusion medium. We found that HLR1r also possesses anti-inflammatory properties as evidenced by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion from human monocyte-derived macrophages and by repression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) secretion from human mesothelial cells, without any cytotoxic effect observed at the concentration range tested (up to 400 μg/ml). HLR1r demonstrated pronounced anti-infectious effect in in vivo experimental models of cutaneous candidiasis in mice and of excision wounds infected with MRSA in rats as well as in an ex vivo model of pig skin infected with S. aureus. In conclusion, HLR1r may constitute a new therapeutic alternative for local treatment of skin infections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
AMP, antibiotic resistance, Candida albicans, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, wound infection
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-124 (URN)10.1016/j.peptides.2016.04.005 (DOI)2-s2.0-84966327461 (Scopus ID)
Note

SP Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces Publication nr A3668

Available from: 2016-06-02 Created: 2016-05-31 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Mahlapuu, M., Håkansson, J., Ringstad, L. & Björn, C. (2016). Antimicrobial peptides: An emerging category of therapeutic agents. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 6(DEC), Article ID 194.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial peptides: An emerging category of therapeutic agents
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 6, no DEC, article id 194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides, are short and generally positively charged peptides found in a wide variety of life forms from microorganisms to humans. Most AMPs have the ability to kill microbial pathogens directly, whereas others act indirectly by modulating the host defense systems. Against a background of rapidly increasing resistance development to conventional antibiotics all over the world, efforts to bring AMPs into clinical use are accelerating. Several AMPs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as novel anti-infectives, but also as new pharmacological agents to modulate the immune response, promote wound healing, and prevent post-surgical adhesions. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological role, classification, and mode of action of AMPs, discuss the opportunities and challenges to develop these peptides for clinical applications, and review the innovative formulation strategies for application of AMPs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Research Foundation, 2016
Keywords
AMP, antimicrobial peptide, anti-infectives, antibiotic resistance, therapeutic agents
National Category
Infectious Medicine Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27767 (URN)10.3389/fcimb.2016.00194 (DOI)2-s2.0-85009823798 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published 27 December

Available from: 2017-01-06 Created: 2017-01-06 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4270-8475

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