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Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Huang, C., Bisschop, R. & Anderson, J. (2023). A Sensitivity Study of a Thermal Propagation Model in an Automotive Battery Module. Fire technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Sensitivity Study of a Thermal Propagation Model in an Automotive Battery Module
2023 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Thermal runaway is a major concern for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. A manufacturing fault or unusual operating conditions may lead to this event. Starting from a single battery cell, more cells may be triggered into thermal runaway, and the battery pack may be destroyed. To prevent this from happening, safety solutions need to be evaluated. Physical testing is an effective, yet costly, method to assessing battery safety performance. As such, the potential of a numerical tool, which can cut costs and reduce product development times, is investigated in terms of capturing a battery module’s tolerance to a single cell failure. A 3D-FE model of a battery module was built, using a commercial software, to study thermal runaway propagation. The model assumes that when the cell jelly roll reaches a critical value, thermal runaway occurs. This approach was considered to study the module’s tolerance to a single cell failure, which was in reasonable agreement with what had been observed in full-scale experiments. In addition, quantitative sensitivity study on the i) model input parameters, ii) model space, and iii) time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The critical temperature was found to have the greatest influence on thermal runaway propagation. The specific heat capacity of jelly roll was found to significantly impact the thermal runaway time duration. The multi-physics model for battery thermal propagation is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with physical testing.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64217 (URN)10.1007/s10694-023-01383-x (DOI)
Available from: 2023-03-09 Created: 2023-03-09 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Huang, C., Bloching, M. & Lipatnikov, A. (2022). A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel: Experimental and numerical study. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 75, Article ID 104707.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel: Experimental and numerical study
2022 (English)In: Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, ISSN 0950-4230, E-ISSN 1873-3352, Vol. 75, article id 104707Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel is studied using both experimental and numerical methods. The reduced explosion overpressure in the vessel is recorded using two pressure sensors mounted on the wall inside of the vessel. Unsteady three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the experiment are performed using the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model of the influence of turbulence on premixed combustion. The model was thoroughly validated in previous studies and was earlier implemented into OpenFOAM CFD software. The self-acceleration of a large-scale flame kernel is associated with the influence of combustion-induced pressure perturbations on the flow of unburned reactants ahead of the kernel. Accordingly, the FSC model is extended by adapting the well-known experimental observations of the self-similarity of the kernel acceleration. Influence of different turbulence models on the simulated results is also explored. Thanks to the extension of the FSC model, the measured time-dependence of the pressure is well predicted when the k-omega-SST turbulence model is used. © 2021 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Computational fluid dynamics, Corn starch, Dust, Experiments, Flame self-acceleration, Modelling, Open source, OpenFOAM, Turbulent combustion, Vented explosion, Explosions, Navier Stokes equations, Numerical methods, Open source software, Open systems, Starch, Turbulence models, Closure models, Flame speed, Modeling, Open-source, Starch dusts, Turbulent-combustion, Combustion
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57328 (URN)10.1016/j.jlp.2021.104707 (DOI)2-s2.0-85120681383 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 180028; Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR, 2018–05973; Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge AFA-Försäkring for financial support of this project (grant number 180028 ). The computations were enabled by resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at HPC2N partially funded by the Swedish Research Council through grant agreement no. 2018–05973 and RISE Simulation Lab. The SNIC projects SNIC2021-22-217, SNIC2021-5-185 and SNIC2021-22-821 are acknowledged. The authors would like to acknowledge IND EX® for providing the real scale test data of the IND EX® research project “Influence of the Explosion Relief Device Geometry on its Venting Efficiency”.

Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Gehandler, J., Olofsson, A., Hynynen, J., Temple, A., Lönnermark, A., Andersson, J., . . . Huang, C. (2022). BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.0.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.0
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

Publisher
p. 44
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:47
Keywords
New energy carriers, alternative fuel vehicle, battery, alternatively powered vehicles, electric vehicle, pressure ship, biogas vehicle, CNG vehicle, hydrogen vehicle, fire, explosion, manual firefighting, tactics, risk, ro-ro ship
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59162 (URN)978-91-89561-86-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-26 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Huang, C., Andrei, L. & Lönnermark, A. (2022). Development of a numerical tool using an open-source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions. Mölndal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a numerical tool using an open-source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dust explosion has been a constant threat to the physical working environment of the Swedish process industries which deal with combustible powders. Examples of such industries are pellets, paper, metal processing, food and feed, pharmaceuticals, and additive industries. This project aims at (i) development of physics-based and well-validated models which address the important combustion phenomena in dust explosions, (ii) development of a well-verified and an efficient numerical tool based on an open-source toolbox OpenFOAM for predicting consequences of dust explosions and (iii) simulation of large-scale dust explosions in the process industries. The project result improves the understanding of dust explosions, and it provides the process industries with a numerical tool for designing safer process plant regarding dust explosions.The model and code development were carried out in a step-by-step fashion. First, the so-called Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model for premixed turbulent combustion, was implemented into OpenFOAM. The implementation was verified against analytical solutions for 1-dimensional planar and 3-dimensional spherical turbulent flames. Second, the developed code including the model, i.e., FSCDustFoam, was validated against experimental data on corn starch dust explosion in a fan-stirred explosion vessel under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Third, the FSC model was extended by adapting the well-known experimental observations of the self-similarity of the flame acceleration to address large-scale industrial dust explosions. An excellent agreement between measurements of vented corn starch dust explosions in an 11.5 m3 vessel and the simulations using the extended the FSC model was obtained.In spite of the successful development of FSCDustFoam, challenges remain. Specifically, the current version of FSCDustFoam cannot address the effect of different shapes of vent openings on dust explosions. Nevertheless, FSCDustFoam is a promising tool to be applied and further developed to resolve the challenging reality regarding dust explosions in the Swedish process industries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mölndal: , 2022. p. 94
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61115 (URN)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 180028
Note

  The authors would like to acknowledge AFA Försäkring for financial support of this project (grant number 180028). The computations were enabled by resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at HPC2N partially funded by the Swedish Research Council through grant agreement no. 2018-05973 and RISE Simulation Lab. The SNIC projects SNIC2021-22-217, SNIC2021-5-185 and SNIC2021-22-821 are acknowledged. Åke Sandgren and Erik Andersson at HPC2N are specially acknowledged. The authors would like to acknowledge IND EX® for providing the real scale test data of the IND EX® research project “Influence of the Explosion Relief Device Geometry on its Venting Efficiency”.

Available from: 2022-10-28 Created: 2022-10-28 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Huang, C., Temple, A., Ramachandra, V., Anderson, J. & Andersson, P. (2022). Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions. Gothenburg: Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thermal propagation is one of the major challenges when batteries will be used in dwellings in large scale. It means the exothermic reactions in the cell are out of control and can lead to a fast release of flammable and toxic gases. In a system involving a large number of cells, thermal runaway can rapidly propagate from one battery cell to the whole system, which means substantial fire and explosion risks, an event that is important to mitigate and prevent. Multi-physics simulations together with full-scale testing is a cost-effective method for designing safer batteries. This project aims at simulating thermal runaway initiation and propagation using a multi-physics commercial software GT-Suite. 

A battery thermal runaway model containing 12 prismatic cells based on 3-D Finite Element approach was built using GT-Suite. The computed thermal runaway time instants versus thermal runaway cell number were compared with full-scale experimental data with reasonable agreement. Quantitative sensitivity study on the model input parameters and model space and time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The thermal runaway model was then extended with an electric equivalent sub-model to simulate the short circuit. With the electrical model acting as the input to the thermal model, the most interesting output of the simulation is the change in temperature of the cells, dependent on the current in the cells, with respect to time. The current is determined by the value of the external resistance through which the short takes place and the voltage level of the battery pack. The obtained results from the above short circuit simulations can only be used as a starting point and not as absolute values for neither triggering the thermal model nor for accurately simulating a battery under an electrical load. Furthermore, GT-Suite was applied to simulate the gas dispersion inside a room. A comparative study of the dispersion of toxic gases during thermal runaway, utilising an arbitrary release of HCN to represent the battery gases, in a small compartment with natural ventilation was investigated and the results compared the same situation simulated in FDS. The pipe based modelling supported by GT-Suite has limited applicability and overestimated the concentrations close to the ceiling whereas the lateral concentrations where underestimated. 

The multi-physics model for battery thermal runaway process is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with full-scale testing. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gothenburg: Research Institutes of Sweden, 2022. p. 33
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:121
Keywords
battery thermal runaway, multi-physics simulation, short circuit, dwelling, gas dispersion
National Category
Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62016 (URN)978-91-89757-02-8 (ISBN)
Funder
Brandforsk, 322-001
Available from: 2022-12-22 Created: 2022-12-22 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Burgén, J., Gehandler, J., Olofsson, A., Huang, C. & Temple, A. (2022). Safe and Suitable Firefighting. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safe and Suitable Firefighting
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The level of protection for personal protective equipment (PPE) in firefighting is important for Swedish shipowners; they want to be sure that the equipment they provide is sufficiently safe for the types of fires that can occur onboard. Shipowners also want to be updated on risks related to the carriage of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Safety products and equipment used onboard ships with a European flag must be certified in accordance with the Marine Equipment Directive (MED) and follow the regulations in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). For fire suits, this means that they must be certified according to one of three standards listed in MED. Two of these standards cover suits used in special cases, with very intense radiant heat, and should only be worn for short periods. The third standard, EN 469, is the same standard that is referred to the PPE Regulation 2016/42, making EN 469-approved fire suits used among European firefighters ashore. However, EN 469 contains two different performance levels where the lower level is not suitable for protection against risks encountered when fighting fires in enclosures. Based on a user study and a risk assessment for AFVs, a set of suggested changes to MED and SOLAS were prepared, together with a set of recommendations for operators that were found important but not subject for regulations. A ready-to-use quick guide, containing the most important results, has been developed for operators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2022. p. 62
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:32
Keywords
Firefighter outfit, fire suit, personal protective equipment, firefighting, SOLAS, Marine equipment directive, wheel mark, alternative fuel vehicle, electric vehicle, gas-powered vehicle
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58911 (URN)978-91-89561-56-4 (ISBN)
Funder
The Swedish Mercantile Marine FoundationAFA Insurance
Available from: 2022-03-28 Created: 2022-03-28 Last updated: 2024-05-15Bibliographically approved
Huang, C., Bloching, M. & Lipatnikov, A. (2022). Vented dust explosions: comparing experiments, simulations and standards. In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards: . Paper presented at Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vented dust explosions: comparing experiments, simulations and standards
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel is studied by comparing experiments, simulations and thestandards. The reduced explosion overpressure inside the vessel is recorded using two pressure sensors installed on theinner wall of the vessel. 3D Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the experiment are performedusing the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model and its extended version. The FSC model predicts the influence of turbulenceon premixed combustion, and the extended version allows for self-acceleration of a large-scale flame kernel, which isassociated with the combustion-induced thermal expansion effect. Such an extension is highly relevant to large-scaleindustrial application. The explosion overpressure-time trace computed using the extended FSC model agrees reasonablywell with the experimental data. Furthermore, the effect of vent size and ignition location on the explosion overpressureis studied by comparing the simulation results and the standards. The developed numerical tool and model is especiallyuseful for scenarios, which are not addressed in the standards, and it deserves further study in simulations of other largescalesdust or gaseous explosions together with comparison with experiments.

Keywords
Simulations, experiments, standards, vent size, ignition position, corn starch, vented dust explosions, Computational Fluid Dynamics, turbulent combustion, flame self-acceleration, open source, OpenFOAM.
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59293 (URN)
Conference
Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards
Available from: 2022-05-30 Created: 2022-05-30 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Huang, C., Lönnermark, A. & Lipatnikov, A. (2021). Development of a numerical tool using an open source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions: Part report (from 2020-02-01 until 2021-01-31).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a numerical tool using an open source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions: Part report (from 2020-02-01 until 2021-01-31)
2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Dammexplosioner är ett konstant hot mot de svenska industrier som hanterar material eller utför processer som skapar brännbart damm, såsom pelletstillverkare, livsmedelsindustri, metallindustri m.m. Det aktuella projektet syftar till att (i) utveckla välvaliderade numeriska modeller som kan ta hänsyn till de viktigaste förbränningsfenomenen, (ii) utveckla ett numeriskt verktyg baserat på en öppen källkod, och (iii) beräkna verkliga dammexplosionsscenarier i samråd med representanter för berörda industrier. Projektresultatet kan fylla kunskapsluckorna när det gäller förståelse för dammexplosioner, att uppskatta konsekvenser av dammexplosioner, ge rekommendationer för bättre konstruktion av byggnader och relevanta säkerhetssystem, och därmed ge personalen en säkrare arbetsmiljö. I slutet av det första och i början av det andra projektåret, har den utvecklade numeriska plattformen, som innehåller dammexplosionsmodellen validerats med de experimentella data för dammexplosioner i majsstärkelse i Leeds förbränningskärl under välkontrollerade experimentella förhållanden. Därefter har ett samarbete etablerats med Rembe Research and Technology Center i Tyskland för att applicera den utvecklade numeriska plattformen för att simulera en storskalig industriell dammexplosion. Parallellt med samarbetet med Rembe, har ett samarbete etablerats med Gexcon för att utföra en gemensam studie om dammexplosioner med det utvecklade verktyget i projektet och den kommersiella koden FLACS-DustEx.

Abstract [en]

Dust explosion is a constant threat to the Swedish industries which deal with combustible powders such as pellets producers, food industry, metal industry and so on. This project aims at (i) development of high-fidelity and well-validated models which address important combustion phenomena during a dust explosion, (ii) development of an efficient numerical tool based on an open source toolbox for predicting consequences of dust explosions and (iii) simulation of dust explosions in scenarios of process industries in cooperation with the reference group members of this project. The project result will improve the understanding of dust explosions, help the process industries in designing better vent system in case of dust explosion, and create a safer working environment. During the end of the first and the beginning of the second year, the developed numerical platform including the dust explosion model was validated against experimental data on corn starch dust explosion in a fan-stirred explosion vessel, obtained by Bradley et al. (1989), under well-controlled laboratory conditions. After that, a collaboration was established between the project members and Rembe Research and Technology Center in order to apply the developed numerical platform for simulating large-scale industrial vented dust explosions. In parallel with the collaboration with Rembe, a collaboration with Gexcon was established in order to perform a joint study of dust explosion modelling using the developed numerical platform and the commercial code FLACS-DustEx.

Publisher
p. 35
Series
afa försäkrings-rapport
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56584 (URN)
Available from: 2021-09-17 Created: 2021-09-17 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Huang, C. (2021). Modelling of a vented corn starch dust explosion using an open source code. In: : . Paper presented at Global Dust Safety Conference 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of a vented corn starch dust explosion using an open source code
2021 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dust explosion is a constant threat to industries which deal with combustible powders e.g. woodworking, metal processing, food and feed, pharmaceuticals and additive industries. Physics-based, well-verified and well-validated models and numerically efficient codes are important tools for designing dust explosion protection systems where the current standards are not applicable. This work aims at (i) presenting a physics-based dust explosion model based on an open source code OpenFOAM, (ii) comparing the computed pressure traces with the measured ones for a vented corn starch dust explosion in a 11.5 m3 vessel, and (iii) highlighting the future work.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52670 (URN)
Conference
Global Dust Safety Conference 2021
Available from: 2021-03-30 Created: 2021-03-30 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Huang, C. (2021). Modelling of premixed turbulent combustion of cornflour dust-air cloud using OpenFOAM. In: : . Paper presented at 38th International Symposium on Combustion. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of premixed turbulent combustion of cornflour dust-air cloud using OpenFOAM
2021 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dust explosion is a constant threat to industries which deal with combustible powders such as pellets producers, food industry, metal industry and so on. The present work aims atdeveloping a numerical tool by (i) implementing a premixed turbulent combustion model into an open-source CFD software OpenFOAM, (ii) verifying the implementation using analytical solutions,and (iii) validating the approach in unsteady 3D RANS simulations of cornflour dust explosions investigated experimentally using the Leeds fan-stirred bomb [1-3]. A detailed description of thiswork is reported in a recent publication [4].

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2021
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52669 (URN)
Conference
38th International Symposium on Combustion
Available from: 2021-03-30 Created: 2021-03-30 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6175-6595

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