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Hagsten, C., Innings, F., Trägårdh, C., Hamberg, L., Paulsson, M. & Nylander, T. (2019). Removal of UHT dairy fouling — An efficient cleaning process by optimizing the rate controlling alkaline cleaning step. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 113, 101-107
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of UHT dairy fouling — An efficient cleaning process by optimizing the rate controlling alkaline cleaning step
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2019 (English)In: Food and Bioproducts Processing, ISSN 0960-3085, E-ISSN 1744-3571, Vol. 113, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A rigid mineral-based deposit, termed ultra-high temperature (UHT) fouling, is formed on heat exchanger surfaces during milk processing at 140 °C. The removal of this type of fouling is for the first time assessed using a laser triangulation sensor and a camera, to measure changes in the thickness and to visualize structural changes in the fouling in situ. The process was monitored during both the alkali and acid cleaning steps. There was no global swelling of the fouling layer during alkali cleaning under the investigated conditions. However, significant degradation of the protein network was observed, which affected the acid cleaning step and the efficiency of the cleaning process. We conclude that treatment with alkali is required to facilitate the removal of deposits with high mineral content during the acid cleaning step. The results have implications for optimizing the cleaning process so as to minimize energy expenditure, while ensuring efficient heat transfer and maintaining product quality.

Keywords
Cleaning, Cleaning agent concentration, Dairy fouling, Mineral deposit, Protein degradation, UHT, Dairies, Fouling, Heat exchangers, Heat transfer, Mineral resources, Minerals, Proteins, Alkaline cleaning, Cleaning agents, Cleaning process, Energy expenditure, Laser triangulation sensor, Rate-controlling, Ultrahigh temperature
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36918 (URN)10.1016/j.fbp.2018.11.010 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057977224 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas;

Available from: 2018-12-28 Created: 2018-12-28 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Hagsten, C., Altskär, A., Gustafsson, S., Loren, N., Trägårdh, C., Innings, F., . . . Nylander, T. (2019). Structural and compositional changes during UHT fouling removal—Possible mechanisms of the cleaning process. Food Structure, 21, Article ID 100118.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and compositional changes during UHT fouling removal—Possible mechanisms of the cleaning process
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2019 (English)In: Food Structure, ISSN 2213-3291, Vol. 21, article id 100118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment of milk forms a deposit or fouling in the processing equipment that is mineral-based with an enclosed protein network. This study addresses the fundamental mechanisms that control the removal of this deposit. For this purpose, the structural and compositional changes during the cleaning process have been studied. The structure analysis was performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on samples that were quenched at different stages of the cleaning process. It was found for acid cleaning that the mineral content is rapidly decreasing in the fouling layer as the cleaning continues, but there is still an intact protein structure with the similar thickness as the original fouling. For alkali cleaning, part of the protein structure was subsequently removed from the outside towards the stain-less steel as a function of time, while the mineral structure was mostly remaining. The break-up of the organic network structure, which likely involves depolymerization of protein aggregates, were found to control the cleaning efficiency. The weakening of the protein network facilitates the removal of the UHT fouling layer during the acid cleaning step and allow for an efficient cleaning cycle. The chemical reactions that occur within the fouling layer between the hydroxyl ions and the protein network was modeled according to a depolymerization reaction and a mechanistic model of the cleaning process is presented. © 2019

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Cleaning, Fouling structure, Mechanistic model, Milk fouling, Mineral deposit, Protein depolymerization, Protein net-work
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39449 (URN)10.1016/j.foostr.2019.100118 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067823105 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas; Funding text 1: We acknowledge the financial support of TvärLivs , which is a cooperative venture between The Swedish Research Council Formas, The Swedish Farmers Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems Vinnova, Livsmedelsföretagen, and Svensk Dagligvaruhandel, as well as Tetra Pak Processing Systems and Arla Foods. Appendix A

Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B., Hamberg, L. & Isaksson, S. (2017). Continuous tubular microwave heating of particulate foods at high temperatures. The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous tubular microwave heating of particulate foods at high temperatures
2017 (English)In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of particulate pumpable foods, designed and implemented at RISE Agrifood and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a particulate, viscous model food at high-temperature conditions at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the centre of the tube, and two cavities fed by TM120 modes that heat primarily in the tube periphery. In this paper, combined TM020 and TM120 tubular microwave heating is evaluated as an alternative to high-temperature short-time (HTST) processing for a high-concentrated particulate model product. Rapidness in heating of the product was evaluated after tubular microwave heating for different time-temperature conditions, corresponding to the required microbiological inactivation for a model product intended for storage at ambient conditions. Moreover, the effects on product quality of the microwave heated model soup were investigated in terms of texture, piece integrity and colour. Microstructural analysis was used to gain an understanding of the effects of heating at a microscopic scale. It was found that the microwave-assisted HTST system results in large process flexibility. Additionally, it offers advantages in product quality in terms of piece integrity and texture.

Keywords
continuous process, heat rapidness, high-concentration large particulates, high-temperature short-time (HTST), Microwave in-flow heating, microwave-assisted HTST system, particulate foods, preservation, pumpable foods, tubular heating, Food storage, Heating, Microwave heating, Microwave tubes, Microwaves, Quality control, Wood preservation, High temperature, Microwave assisted, Thermal processing (foods)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32817 (URN)10.1080/08327823.2017.1388942 (DOI)2-s2.0-85033664975 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Hagsten, C., Altskär, A., Gustafsson, S., Loren, N., Hamberg, L., Innings, F., . . . Nylander, T. (2016). Composition and structure of high temperature dairy fouling. Food Structure, 7, 13-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composition and structure of high temperature dairy fouling
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2016 (English)In: Food Structure, ISSN 2213-3291, Vol. 7, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fouling structure and composition is dependent on the product, but also on the heating process applied to it. The structure will have profound effect on the cleaning process and the down time in the production plant. Here, the structure of high temperature (137 °C) milk fouling has been investigated, which so far has not been sufficiently studied in a systematic way. This particular fouling has a high content of the mineral calcium phosphate and a relatively low concentration of protein. Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) reveals a crystalline structure of calcium phosphate in agreement to the chemical analysis of the bulk layer. Microscopic investigations visualize the heterogeneous structure and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows a spatial variation of the elements through the radius of the sample.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Calcium phosphate, CLSM, Dairy fouling structure, EDX, SEM, UHT
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-415 (URN)10.1016/j.foostr.2015.12.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-84959282242 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-23 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B., Isaksson, S., Hamberg, L., Fhager, A. & Hamnerius, Y. (2016). Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity. The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, 50(1), 43-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity
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2016 (English)In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 43-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of foods, designed and implemented at SP Food and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a homogeneous model food for high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions, at constant total input microwave power, at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the tube centre, and two TM120 mode cavities that heat primarily in the tube periphery. The temperature uniformity of the homogeneous model food after microwave heating is here evaluated in terms of spatial distribution, for different set-ups of input microwave power in each cavity and for different order of the placement of the cavities, while maintaining the total input microwave power. The microwave heating uniformity is evaluated, based on measured and calculated radial temperature profiles. Combined TM020 and TM120 heating was found to result in more uniform heating by means of spatial temperature uniformity over the tube cross section. Furthermore, appropriately selected microwave power distribution between the centre and periphery heating cavities results in a stable heating profile in the studied food, that differs only about 10 °C or less between highest and lowest average values directly after microwave heating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keywords
Microwave in-flow heating, continuous process, microwave tubular heating, pumpable food, microwave pasteurization, microwave-assisted HTST system, homogeneous foods
National Category
Other Physics Topics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Food Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31310 (URN)10.1080/08327823.2016.1157318 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Sonesson, U. G., Lorentzon, K., Andersson, A., Barr, U.-K., Bertilsson, J., Borch, E., . . . Wall, H. (2016). Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(5), 664-676
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden
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2016 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 664-676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing a supply chain inevitably means that various attributes of the product and its system will change. This project assumed this challenge and delivered detailed descriptions, life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluations, and consequence assessments of the supply chains of six commodities, i.e., milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken, and bread, from a Swedish region. This paper presents results for the pork supply chain. Methods: In the project setup, experts on production along supply chains designed three scenarios for environmentally improved systems. These scenarios, i.e., the ecosystem, plant nutrients, and climate scenarios, were intended to address different clusters of environmental goals. The next step was to challenge these scenarios by considering their possible consequences for products and systems from the food safety, sensory quality, animal welfare, consumer appreciation, and (for primary production only) cost perspectives. This led to changes in production system design to prevent negative consequences. The final supply chains were quantified using LCA and were again assessed from the three perspectives. Results and discussion: The scenario design approach worked well, thoroughly and credibly describing the production systems. Assessment of consequences bolstered the credibility and quality of the systems and results. The LCA of pig production and smoked ham identified large potentials for improvement by implementing available knowledge: global warming potential (GWP) could be reduced 21–54 % and marine eutrophication by 14–45 %. The main reason for these improvements was improved productivity (approaching the best producers’ current performance), though dedicated measures were also important, resulting in increased nitrogen efficiency, more varied crop rotations for crop production and better production management, and improved animal health and manure management for animal production. Reduced post-farm wastage contributed as did reduced emissions from fertilizer production. Conclusions: The working approach applied was successful in integrating LCA research with food system production expertise to deliver results relevant to supply chain decision-makers. The consequence assessments brought considerable value to the project, giving its results greater credibility. By introducing constraints in the form of “no negative consequences and no increased costs,” the work was “guided” so that the scenario design avoided being hampered by too many opportunities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Ferlag, 2016
Keywords
Consequence assessment, Environment, Food system scenarios, Future food production, LCA, Sustainable food chains
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-330 (URN)10.1007/s11367-015-0969-5 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Bertilsson, J., Barr, U., Borch, E., Normann, A., Nielsen, T., Gunnarsson, S., . . . Östergren, K. (2014). Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.. Göteborg, Sverige: SIK Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.
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2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg, Sverige: SIK Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik, 2014
Series
SIK Rapport, ISSN 0436-2071 ; 886
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-606 (URN)
Funder
VINNOVA, 2011-03764
Available from: 2016-06-29 Created: 2016-06-29 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Loren, N., Hamberg, L. & Hermansson, A.-M. (2006). Measuring shapes for application in complex food structures (ed.). Food Hydrocolloids, 20(5), 712-722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring shapes for application in complex food structures
2006 (English)In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 712-722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The image analysis method of Fourier shape description is implemented to analyse shaped food microstructural entities, independent of their complexity, because entity shape is an important and nearly unexploited possibility for designing food material properties. The method is described in four steps: the accuracy of image acquisition, representation of the object outline, calculation of components and interpretation of the components, all focusing on colloidal food system applications. Three different common food systems are used to emphasise the possibilities that Fourier shape description offers for food structure design and food processing. Fourier shape measurements make it possible to quantify, present a typical shape and determine the distribution of shape independently of size of model food suspension consisting of complex shaped entities. This was done in an automatic and replicable way. The time evolution of entities structured in a flow field during model processing is analysed using Fourier shape descriptors. Graphs of time-dependent, low order single Fourier components allow control of the entity shape during processing. Differences in the shape of water domains in heterogeneous emulsions are quantified and classified on different length scales using a multivariate hypothesis test. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Food Engineering, Livsmedelsteknik
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-8593 (URN)10.1016/j.foodhyd.2005.06.011 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Walther, B., Hermansson, A.-M., Tiemeyer, A., Hamberg, L., Fischer, P. & Windhab, E. (2005). Drop deformation dynamics and gel kinetics in a co-flowing water-in-oil system (ed.). Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 286(1), 378-386
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drop deformation dynamics and gel kinetics in a co-flowing water-in-oil system
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2005 (English)In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 286, no 1, p. 378-386Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drop deformation and superimposed gel kinetics were studied in a fast continuous-flow process for a water-in-oil system. Highly monodisperse drops were generated in a double capillary and then deformed passing through a narrowing rectangular channel geometry. Nongelling deformation experiments were used to establish the process and compare it with existing theories. Thereafter, temperature induced drop gelation was included to study its effect on deformation and gel kinetics on short timescales and at high temperature gradients. The disperse phase was a ?-carrageenan solution with additional sodium and potassium ions for gelation experiments. Sunflower oil was used for the continuous phases. Nongelling experiments showed that shear forces are able to deform drops into ellipsoids. A comparison with the small deformation theory by Taylor was surprisingly good even when drop deformation and flow conditions were not in steady state. Superimposed gelation on the deformation process showed clearly the impact of the altered rheological properties of the dispersed and continuous phase. Deformation first increased on cooling the continuous phase until the onset of gel formation, where a pronounced decrease in deformation due to increasing droplet viscosity/viscoelasticity was observed. Drop deformation analyses were then used to detect differences in gelation kinetics at high cooling rate within process times as short as 1.8 s. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Food Engineering, Livsmedelsteknik
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-8865 (URN)10.1016/j.jcis.2005.01.054 (DOI)15848441 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Innings, F., Hamberg, L. & Tragardh, C. (2005). Dynamic modelling of the deformation of a drop in a four-roll mill (ed.). Chemical Engineering Science, 60(17), 4771-4779
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic modelling of the deformation of a drop in a four-roll mill
2005 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 60, no 17, p. 4771-4779Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The deformation of a drop flowing along the centre streamline of a four-roll mill (4RM) has been investigated. The velocities and elongation rates along the centre streamline in the 4RM were measured using particle tracking velocimetry. The deformation and position of the deforming drops were photographed with a video camera. A dynamic, one-dimensional, analytical simulation model describing the drop deformation has been developed. The model is based on Taylor's [1964. International Congress on Applied Mechanics, vol. 11, 790-796] static conical drop shape model, but has been extended to include elliptic drops undergoing rapid deformation. The model was incorporated into a numerical scheme using Matlab and the drop deformation in the 4RM was simulated. The simulations were compared with the results of the experiments with the help of a dynamic Weber number incorporating the exact effect of the continuous phase stress on the deformation of the drop. With a dynamic Weber number of 0.42 the agreement between the experiments and the simulations along the whole deformation process was excellent for all three drop diameters studied. With this model the deformation of drops of all sizes in different elongation fields can be calculated, for example sub-micron-sized drops in a high-pressure homogeniser. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Food Engineering, Livsmedelsteknik
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-8457 (URN)10.1016/j.ces.2005.03.020 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7150-9099

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