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Publications (10 of 43) Show all publications
Arvidson, M., Gehandler, J. & Bleye, J. (2023). Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships. In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: . Paper presented at Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023 (pp. 107).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, 2023, p. 107-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about firefighting measures including water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) and tactics and equipment used for manual firefighting on ro-ro cargo and ro-ro passenger ships. A test series involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV’s) and battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) under as equal test conditions as possible were conducted to investigate the performance efficiency of the drencher system. In addition, manual firefighting equipment and tactics was evaluated on three BEV fire tests. It is concluded that a fire in the two types of vehicles is different but share similarities. However, a fire in a BEV does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in an ICEV for the drencher system design given in current international recommendations. Similarly, there are common (e.g., handheld fire extinguishers and hoses) and new (e.g., fire blanket and water-cooling device) manual firefighting equipment that effectively can be used to control or limit a BEV fire.

Keywords
: ICEV, BEV, sprinkler systems, water spray system, drencher system, manual firefighting, ro-ro spaces, ships.
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71491 (URN)
Conference
Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023
Note

The project has received funding from the European Union’sHorizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 814975

Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved
Willstrand, O., Gehandler, J. & Andersson, P. (Eds.). (2023). Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023. Paper presented at Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 7th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2023, held in Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, trucks and trains, or related infrastructure, such as car parks or vehicle transport at sea. Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced, with emphasis on high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas. Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge. FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators, rescue services and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different types of vehicles. In recognition of the fact that many of the fire problems faced by these vehicles are the same, the solutions to them can also be similar. In the proceedings you will find papers on vehicle fire development, bus fires, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, and car park fires. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, 2023. p. 249
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67533 (URN)978-91-89757-88-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Li, Y. Z., Lönnermark, A., Gehandler, J. & Ingason, H. (Eds.). (2023). Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. Paper presented at Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 26-28, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This publication includes the Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Stavanger, Norway, April 26-28, 2023. The Proceedings include 45 papers and 16 posters. The papers were presented in 16 different sessions, i.e., Keynote sessions, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Safety, Risk Management & Explosion, Digitization, Explosion, Poster Corner, Ventilation 1&2, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems, Tenability and Evacuation, Emergency Management, Evacuation, Safety Management, Fire Dynamics and Resistance. Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Ove Njå (University of Stavanger, Norway), Vladimir Molkov (Ulster University, UK), Ulf Lundström (Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden), Mirjam Nelisse (TNO, The Netherlands), and Gunnar Jenssen (SINTEF, Norway). We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

Publisher
p. 680
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67532 (URN)978-91-89757-89-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 26-28, 2023
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Gehandler, J. (2023). Risks with hydrogen in underground facilities.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risks with hydrogen in underground facilities
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

RISE has previously studied alternative fuels, such as batteries and gaseous fuels including liquid and compressed hydrogen (GH2). Each fuel has its unique risks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a cryogenic fluid and is thus stored in cooled liquid form, which entails specific risks. The purpose of this report is to, based on the current state of research, map the risks of hydrogen in underground facilities in relation to conventional fuels and investigate which technical measures can be taken to reduce the risks. Unlike diesel, hydrogen (and for instance methane or gasoline) has such a low flash point that an emission can be ignited at normal temperature by a small ignition source. Hydrogen is also very buoyant, with strong diffusion and dispersion characteristics, accordingly it accumulates at high points in a subsurface environment. Hydrogen requires very low energy to ignite at or near stoichiometric mixing with air at around 30%. The lower flammability limit is, compared to other flammable fuel/air mixtures high at around 4%, which means that many smaller releases in ventilated spaces will be too lean. Explosions would require a higher hydrogen concentration, above 8% or more. In subsurface environments, containment contributes to a higher increase in pressure, as well as an increased risk of explosion for both GH2 and LH2. The handling of hydrogen underground can therefore be seen as problematic. When it comes to hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, however, there are safety measures to achieve equivalent safety with conventional vehicles. For example, the shut-off valve (mandatory in regulation) on each tank that reduces the risk of leakage, and through the development of explosion-free composite tanks (not mandatory in regulation) in the event of fire that provide a less dangerous fire scenario than a diesel or gasoline tank in case of fire. When it finally comes to transporting hydrogen, pipelines are the long-term sustainable (and safe) alternative. Transport of compressed hydrogen gives a low amount of gas per trailer and entails relatively higher risks than CNG underground, for example in tunnels. The usage of liquid hydrogen, so far, has an impressive safety record, events like BLEVE or fireballs appear to be rare. The transport of liquid hydrogen provides a larger amount of hydrogen per trailer (than for compressed hydrogen) with a relatively lower risk than, for example, LNG in the open, but a slightly higher risk for explosion of accumulated gas compared to GH2 in enclosed spaces. The safety requirements for transport of compressed hydrogen are less stringent than for road vehicles, e.g., with regard to shut-off valves and melt-fuses and could be improved. Several risk mitigation measures for tunnels and other underground facilities have been identified.

Publisher
p. 34
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:85
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67759 (URN)978-91-89821-58-3 (ISBN)
Note

Finansierat av RISE Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC)

Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Gehandler, J., Olofsson, A., Hynynen, J., Temple, A., Lönnermark, A., Andersson, J., . . . Huang, C. (2022). BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.0.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.0
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

Publisher
p. 44
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:47
Keywords
New energy carriers, alternative fuel vehicle, battery, alternatively powered vehicles, electric vehicle, pressure ship, biogas vehicle, CNG vehicle, hydrogen vehicle, fire, explosion, manual firefighting, tactics, risk, ro-ro ship
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59162 (URN)978-91-89561-86-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-26 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Burgén, J., Gehandler, J., Olofsson, A., Huang, C. & Temple, A. (2022). Safe and Suitable Firefighting. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safe and Suitable Firefighting
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The level of protection for personal protective equipment (PPE) in firefighting is important for Swedish shipowners; they want to be sure that the equipment they provide is sufficiently safe for the types of fires that can occur onboard. Shipowners also want to be updated on risks related to the carriage of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Safety products and equipment used onboard ships with a European flag must be certified in accordance with the Marine Equipment Directive (MED) and follow the regulations in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). For fire suits, this means that they must be certified according to one of three standards listed in MED. Two of these standards cover suits used in special cases, with very intense radiant heat, and should only be worn for short periods. The third standard, EN 469, is the same standard that is referred to the PPE Regulation 2016/42, making EN 469-approved fire suits used among European firefighters ashore. However, EN 469 contains two different performance levels where the lower level is not suitable for protection against risks encountered when fighting fires in enclosures. Based on a user study and a risk assessment for AFVs, a set of suggested changes to MED and SOLAS were prepared, together with a set of recommendations for operators that were found important but not subject for regulations. A ready-to-use quick guide, containing the most important results, has been developed for operators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2022. p. 62
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:32
Keywords
Firefighter outfit, fire suit, personal protective equipment, firefighting, SOLAS, Marine equipment directive, wheel mark, alternative fuel vehicle, electric vehicle, gas-powered vehicle
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58911 (URN)978-91-89561-56-4 (ISBN)
Funder
The Swedish Mercantile Marine FoundationAFA Insurance
Available from: 2022-03-28 Created: 2022-03-28 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Gehandler, J., Lönnermark, A., Runefors, M., Madsen, D. & Egardt, E. (2022). Tactical depressurization of hydrogen containers with civilian rifle and ammunition. In: : . Paper presented at The Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (ISFEH10)organized in Oslo, Norway from 22 to 27 May 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tactical depressurization of hydrogen containers with civilian rifle and ammunition
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2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There can be situations, for example if gas containers have been damaged in a vehicle crash, when the fire and rescue service would like to depressurize the gas containers through shooting with a civilian rifle. Modern high-pressure hydrogen containers are designed for a working pressure of 700 bars. This means that they have a very thick and strong shell made of composite material. At the same time the fire and rescue service only have access to civilian rifles and ammunition that can be bought for hunting purposes. Thus, tactical and safe depressurization of hydrogen containers is a big challenge. RISE have, together with the Södra Älvsborgs Fire and Rescue Services (SÄRF), Swedish Civil Contingency Agency, and Lund University conducted shooting tests of gas tanks mounted on a hydrogen gas vehicle and three stand-alone hydrogen gas tanks. The shooting tests were conducted at Remmene shooting field in Sweden. Thirteen shooting tests with hydrogen tanks placed in favouarable positions were performed. Out of these, only four tests were succesful in puncturing the individual gas tank in a single shot. Furthermore, two unwanted events occurred; one rupture (after 7 shots) and two powerful jets (after 20 and one shot respectively). This shows that further development and research is required in order to develop a method to safely depressurize high pressure hydrogen tanks.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66109 (URN)
Conference
The Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (ISFEH10)organized in Oslo, Norway from 22 to 27 May 2022
Note

Finansierat av RISE Tunnel Underground Safety Center (TUSC).

Available from: 2023-08-28 Created: 2023-08-28 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Gehandler, J. & Millgård, U. (2022). TUSC HANDBOK Brandskydd under byggtiden för tunnlar och andra undermarksanläggningar: Med exempel på risker och förslag på åtgärder (2ed.). Borås: RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TUSC HANDBOK Brandskydd under byggtiden för tunnlar och andra undermarksanläggningar: Med exempel på risker och förslag på åtgärder
2022 (Swedish)Book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Ingen ska skadas eller drabbas av sjukdom på grund av sitt arbete. Detta ställer krav på genomtänkt utformning av brandskyddet och utrymningssäkerhet under byggtiden för tunnel eller andra undermarksanläggningar. Ett syfte med denna handbok är att tydliggöra vilka krav som ställs på brandskydd under byggtiden, samt ge exempel på vanliga brandrisker och förslag på hur dessa kan hanteras.

Handboken vänder sig till aktörer, såsom byggherrar, projektörer, entreprenörer och byggarbetsmiljösamordnare, involverade i planering, projektering och byggnation av undermarksanläggningar. Med undermarksanläggning menas här väg-, järnväg-, vatten-, avlopps- kabel- och distributionstunnel, bergrum och slutförvar.  Handboken omfattar inte gruva, byggnader ovan mark, eller brandskydd i färdigställd anläggning.

Handboken är avsedd att användas som vägledning och inspiration vid planering, projektering, genomförande, samt utbildning och övning med fokus på brandsäkerhet. 

Klicka på länken ”TUSC Handbok” högst upp till höger för att öppna handboken. Strax under finns det en länk till en MS Power Point introduktion till handboken, ett övningsprotokoll och ett kommunikations material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2022. p. 57 Edition: 2
Keywords
Brandskydd, brand, risk, arbetsmiljö, tunnlar, undermarksanläggningar
National Category
Environmental Engineering Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58985 (URN)978-91-89561-82-3 (ISBN)
Note

Finansierat av RISE Tunnel Underground Safety Center (TUSC).

2022-05-23: ny version av fulltext-rapport. 

2022-09-22: ny version av fulltext-rapport. 

Available from: 2022-04-12 Created: 2022-04-12 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Amon, F., Gehandler, J., McNamee, R., McNamee, M. & Vilic, A. (2021). Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment. Fire safety journal, 120, Article ID 103071.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment
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2021 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, article id 103071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden the responsibility for environmental damage when emergency responders are called to an incident is increasingly focussing on the responders. The problem is that most incident response personnel do not have the training and expertise to assess the environmental consequences of their suppression operations. The Fire Impact Tool was developed for training responders about how fire effluents and suppression media affect air, surface/groundwater and soil. The tool has three interdependent parts: fire models (for vehicles and enclosures), an environmental risk assessment (ERA) model for local impacts, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) model for global impacts. Users can create two scenarios that are compared with a reference case in which responders arrive at the incident and prevent the fire from spreading beyond the vehicle or enclosure but do not suppress the fire. The Fire Impact Tool is not intended for use during an actual fire incident. This work does not answer every question for every possible fire scenario, but it does provide a framework for deeper, broader, more comprehensive training and pre-planning. This is a necessary step toward a future in which responders are prepared to make informed decisions about firefighting strategies and tactics that include environmental consequences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Compartment fires, Decision support tool, Environment, Environmental risk assessment, Lifecycle assessment, Modelling, Pre-planning, Suppression, Training, Vehicle fires, Artificial life, Enclosures, Environmental impact, Forestry, Life cycle, Personnel training, Risk assessment, Emergency responders, Environmental consequences, Environmental damage, Fire suppression, Incident response, Informed decision, Life cycle assessment model, Fires
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45005 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2020.103071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85084384175 (Scopus ID)
Note

Article; CODEN: FSJOD; Funding details: Fire Protection Research Foundation; Funding text 1: The project team would like to thank Brandforsk and the National Fire Protection Association/ Fire Protection Research Foundation for their financial support for this work.

Available from: 2020-05-26 Created: 2020-05-26 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Gehandler, J., McNamee, R., McNamee, M. & Amon, F. (2021). Interaktiv Miljöbedömning vid Insats: IMI-verktyget. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaktiv Miljöbedömning vid Insats: IMI-verktyget
2021 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Continued development of the Fire Impact Tool
Abstract [sv]

Programmet ”IMI-verktyget” (se länk till höger) är utvecklat för att ge räddningstjänst, studenter och forskare ett verktyg för att öka kunskapen angående konsekvenserna av taktiska val vid respons till en brand, exemplifierad av några fordons- och rumsbränder.

I rapporten till höger (”fulltext”) beskriver hur verktyget fungerar och innehåller också exempel på datorlabbar som skulle kunna genomföras inom en brandingenjörsutbildning eller räddningsledarutbildning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2021. p. 30
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2021:115
Keywords
Environmental impact, environmental risk assessment, life cycle assessment, fire, fire and rescue service
National Category
Engineering and Technology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57483 (URN)978-91-89561-06-9 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2020-00450
Available from: 2021-12-28 Created: 2021-12-28 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8548-657x

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