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Otxoterena Af Drake, P. & Försth, M. (2024). Measurements of droplet size and velocity for three selected nozzles.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements of droplet size and velocity for three selected nozzles
2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sprays produced by injecting water into quiescent air by three different types of nozzles were characterised by optical methods. The droplet velocities and droplet size distributions were assessed by the use of high speed shadowgraphs.

Series
RISE Rapport ; 2024:25
Keywords
water spray, droplet size, velocity
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72330 (URN)978-91-89896-73-4 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-00521
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-03-28Bibliographically approved
Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Blom, J., Arvidson, M. & Försth, M. (2024). Mechanisms and performance of different fixed fire fighting systems in tunnels – summary of laboratory and tunnel fire tests.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms and performance of different fixed fire fighting systems in tunnels – summary of laboratory and tunnel fire tests
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2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents both small scale laboratory tests and tunnel fire tests carried out in a FORMAS project. Four series of small scale laboratory tests were conducted to obtain the material properties, burning properties, water spray distributions, and spray droplet size distributions. The main efforts were, by adopting the Froude scaling, seven series of tests conducted in a about 50 m long container tunnel with a scale of 1 to 3. This report presents results on the influence of low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure water-based fixed fire fighting systems (FFFSs) on fire development, fire spread to adjacent vehicles, structural protection, tenability, smoke control, spray deflection and spray resistances. The focus is to compare the performance of three default FFFSs and to evaluate the efficiency of each of the FFFS. The results show that the default low pressure FFFS performs well in term of suppressing the fire development, preventing the fire spread to nearby vehicles, providing tenable conditions for evacuation and rescue service, protecting tunnel structure and easing the problem with spray deflection due to tunnel ventilation. The default high pressure FFFS is usually on the opposite side while the default medium pressure FFFS usually lie in between.

Publisher
p. 75
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2024:22
Keywords
tunnel fire, fixed fire fighting system, fire suppression, fire spread, ventilation, smoke control, deflection, ventilation resistance, structural protection
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72327 (URN)978-91-89896-70-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Arvidson, M. & Försth, M. (2024). Performance of various water-based fire suppression systems in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation. Fire safety journal, 146, Article ID 104141.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of various water-based fire suppression systems in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation
2024 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 146, article id 104141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure water-based fire suppression systems were tested in a medium scale tunnel (scale 1:3). The primary objective was to investigate which of these systems are most effective in the suppression or control of different types of tunnel fires. The default low, medium and high pressure systems refer to full scale water flow rates of 10 mm/min, 6.8 mm/min and 3.7 mm/min, respectively. Some other water densities were also tested to investigate the effects, as well as different ventilation velocities and activation criteria. Several series of fire tests were conducted for different fire scenarios. The fire scenarios considered included idle wood pallet fires, loosely packed wood crib fires, loosely packed wood and plastic crib fires, and pool fires, with or without a top cover on the fuel load. Comparisons of the three default systems based on the three parameters: heat release rate, energy released and possibility of fire spread, show that the performance of the default low pressure system is usually the most effective based on the parameters studied. The default high pressure system usually yields results less effective in comparison to the default low pressure system. The performance of the default medium pressure system usually lies in between them. The high pressure system behaves very differently in comparison to the others, in terms of tunnel ventilation velocity, water density, operating pressure, and the presence of the top cover. © 2024 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Fire protection; Flammability testing; Flow of water; Ventilation; Fire suppression; Heat release; Heat release rate; Low pressure systems; Medium pressure; Operating pressure; Performance; Release rate; Tunnel fires; Water density; Fires
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72758 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2024.104141 (DOI)2-s2.0-85189859035 (Scopus ID)
Note

The work was financially supported by the Swedish Research Council Formas (2019-00521), which is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to express their gratitude to Prof. Patrick van Hees at Lund University for his valuable input in the test planning process. Thanks also to our colleague Joel Blom, and other technicians at RISE for the great assistance in conducting the tests, and the Södra Älvsborg's Rescue Service for the support on site.

Available from: 2024-05-16 Created: 2024-05-16 Last updated: 2024-05-16Bibliographically approved
Dominguez, A., Borggren, J., Xu, C., Otxoterena, P., Försth, M., Leffler, T. & Bood, J. (2023). A compact Scheimpflug lidar imaging instrument for industrial diagnostics of flames. Measurement science and technology, 34(7), Article ID 075901.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A compact Scheimpflug lidar imaging instrument for industrial diagnostics of flames
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2023 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 34, no 7, article id 075901Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scheimpflug lidar is a compact alternative to traditional lidar setups. With Scheimpflug lidar it is possible to make continuous range-resolved measurements. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a Scheimpflug lidar instrument for remote sensing in pool flames, which are characterized by strong particle scattering, large temperature gradients, and substantial fluctuations in particle distribution due to turbulence. An extinction coefficient can be extracted using the information about the transmitted laser power and the spatial extent of the flame. The transmitted laser power is manifested by the intensity of the ‘echo’ from a hard-target termination of the beam located behind the flame, while the information of the spatial extent of the flame along the laser beam is provided by the range-resolved scattering signal. Measurements were performed in heptane and diesel flames, respectively. © 2023 The Author(s). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2023
Keywords
combustion, lidar, real-time monitoring, Laser beams, Remote sensing, Extinction coefficients, Imaging instruments, Laser power, Particle scattering, Particles distribution, Pool flames, Real time monitoring, Remote-sensing, Scheimpflug, Spatial extent, Optical radar
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64308 (URN)10.1088/1361-6501/acc268 (DOI)2-s2.0-85151560787 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, TM17-0309; Funding details: VINNOVA, 2018-01551; Funding text 1: This project was supported by research Grants from Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, Vinnova (Smartare Elektroniksystem, Project Number 2018-01551) and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) through Project Number TM17-0309.

Available from: 2023-04-25 Created: 2023-04-25 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
El Houssami, M., Försth, M., Fredriksson, H., Drean, V., Guillaume, E., Hofmann-Böllinghaus, A. & Sandinge, A. (2023). Fire safety of interior materials of buses. Fire and Materials, 47(7), 910
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safety of interior materials of buses
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2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 910-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study provides an analysis on the fire safety of passengers and the fire protection of coaches and buses. A brief review of major bus fire incidents, an overview of current regulations in Europe, and their limitations are presented. The study finds that the current small-scale fire test methods described in UN ECE Reg No. 118 need to be replaced by test methods that can assess the reaction to fire of materials when exposed to ignition sources of varying sizes. To address these shortcomings, the study proposed an expert recommendation to update the material fire safety requirements and testing for buses. Additional measures are proposed, derived from objectives and strategies applied in other transport sectors, and can be tested through existing European and international standards, which are widely used by several industries. These measures aim to extend the time with tenable conditions for a safe evacuation in case of fire, reduce the degree of damage to buses, reduce the risk for fast and excessive thermal exposure on modern energy carriers needed for a more sustainable transport sector. © 2023 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Fire extinguishers, Fire protection, Risk assessment, Safety testing, 'current, Coach, Current regulations, Fire safety, Interior materials, Regulation, Small scale, Test method, Testing method, Transport sectors, Fires, bus, testing methods
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64227 (URN)10.1002/fam.3134 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149227479 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Correspondence Address:  M. Försth, RISE, Sweden; 

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2024-05-27Bibliographically approved
Sjöström, J., Försth, M., Otxoterena Af Drake, P. & Svensson, R. (2022). Ignition of natural fuels from strikes between steel and rocks.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ignition of natural fuels from strikes between steel and rocks
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ignition of natural fuels by sparks from strikes between metals and hard rock is far from understood and the ignition potential of sparks from rock strikes during heavy machinery operations is disputed in the scientific literature. This study utilises a spectrally resolved technique to study the temperature evolution of metal sparks from rock strikes. The study shows that initial temperature after collision can easily reach 1500 °C and this temperature can increase additionally by several hundred degrees as rapid oxidation processes are initiated, often leading to further disintegration of the fragment. The average temperature of fragments from such collisions is here measured to 1400 – 2000 °C and the combination of temperature, size and exothermic processes makes them viable for forest litter igniting. However, ignition on forest lands is always an unlikely, although possible outcome of heavy machinery operations and should be considered in risk assessment of the activity.

Publisher
p. 54
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:22
Keywords
Ignition, sparks, stone, metal, forestry, wildfire
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62355 (URN)978-91-89561-39-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-01-03 Created: 2023-01-03 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Khalili, P., Blinzler, B., Kádár, R., Bisschop, R., Försth, M. & Blomqvist, P. (2019). Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite. Materials, 12(7), Article ID 2648.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite
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2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Elium®, Mechanical properties, Polymer-matrix composites, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Glass transition, Graphene, Morphology, Natural fibers, Resins, Scanning electron microscopy, Smoke, Tensile strength, Cone calorimeter, Flame-retarded, Graphene-based composites, Mechanical behaviour, Nano-platelets, Peak heat release rates, Resin infusion, Tensile fracture surfaces, Polymer matrix composites
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39935 (URN)10.3390/ma12172648 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071880886 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Chalmers Tekniska Högskola; Funding text 1: The financial support for this project is provided by Chalmers Area of Advance: Materials Science. The work was performed by the support of All Wood Composites Platform based in Chalmers University of Technology and the fire tests were sponsored by RISE. The authors would like to thank Arian Nasseri for the technical support in the samples' preparation and thank Mina Fazilati and Amir Masoud Pourrahimi for the assistance in performing the SEM and FTIR tests.

Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Byström, A., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Försth, M., Van Hees, P., Kovacs, P. & Runefors, M. (2019). Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet. RISE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE: , 2019. p. 77
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:109
Keywords
brandsäkerhet, brandrisker, solenergi, solpanel, PV, växelriktare, ljusbåge, regelverk, rekommendationer, energieffektiva byggnader, Li-jonbatterier, energilager, räddningstjänst, brandbekämpning
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40752 (URN)978-91-89049-34-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Ochoterena, R. & Försth, M. (2018). The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows. Fire and Materials, 42(7), 873-876
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows
2018 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 873-876Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

National Category
Other Materials Engineering Building Technologies Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33937 (URN)10.1002/fam.2630 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047463692 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Österlund, L., Niklasson, G., Granqvist, C.-G., Järn, M., Eriksson, J., . . . Ludvigsson, M. (2018). “Transparent Intelligence” for Sustainable Development. In: : . Paper presented at 15th International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids (PNCS) and European Society of Glass Science and Technology Conference (ESG, Saint Malo, France.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Transparent Intelligence” for Sustainable Development
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Transparent materials are essential in everyone’s life. They enable daylight to reach the interior of buildings, thereby contributing to both our physical and mental well-being; they are the primary component for communication via optical fibers and a key component in electronic devices such as protective cover and/or dielectric material; and they enable clean energy production through solar panels or algae reactors by acting as protective and light transmitting barriers. Adding functions to transparent materials in an intelligent way creates further opportunities to use and enhance the beneficial impacts of transparency. The concept Transparent Intelligence covers transparent materials and products with integral intelligent functions – passive, active or interactive. By using Transparent Intelligence it is possible to embrace many of the societal challenges that we are facing today. The concept can be divided into five broad industrial sectors: Built Environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Solar Energy, Mobility, and Materials. A perspective on how Transparent Intelligence can improve the sustainable development of our world will be presented, using examples of electrochromic windows for energy-efficient buildings, photocatalytic coatings for improved indoor air quality, transparent conductive coatings for antennas, bandpass filters for mobile phone indoor coverage, UV down-converting components for efficient solar energy, hygienic surfaces for infection mitigation on electronic devices, printed electronics for sustainable glass packaging, and IR-reflecting coatings for fire safety.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34106 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids (PNCS) and European Society of Glass Science and Technology Conference (ESG, Saint Malo, France
Projects
Smart Housing Småland
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-04218
Note

Funding: Vinnova 2016-04218

Available from: 2018-07-11 Created: 2018-07-11 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7140-4737

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