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Khalili, P., Blinzler, B., Kádár, R., Bisschop, R., Försth, M. & Blomqvist, P. (2019). Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite. Materials, 12(7), Article ID 2648.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite
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2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Elium®, Mechanical properties, Polymer-matrix composites, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Glass transition, Graphene, Morphology, Natural fibers, Resins, Scanning electron microscopy, Smoke, Tensile strength, Cone calorimeter, Flame-retarded, Graphene-based composites, Mechanical behaviour, Nano-platelets, Peak heat release rates, Resin infusion, Tensile fracture surfaces, Polymer matrix composites
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39935 (URN)10.3390/ma12172648 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071880886 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Chalmers Tekniska Högskola; Funding text 1: The financial support for this project is provided by Chalmers Area of Advance: Materials Science. The work was performed by the support of All Wood Composites Platform based in Chalmers University of Technology and the fire tests were sponsored by RISE. The authors would like to thank Arian Nasseri for the technical support in the samples' preparation and thank Mina Fazilati and Amir Masoud Pourrahimi for the assistance in performing the SEM and FTIR tests.

Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Ochoterena, R. & Försth, M. (2018). The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows. Fire and Materials, 42(7), 873-876
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows
2018 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 873-876Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

National Category
Other Materials Engineering Building Technologies Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33937 (URN)10.1002/fam.2630 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047463692 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Österlund, L., Niklasson, G., Granqvist, C.-G., Järn, M., Eriksson, J., . . . Ludvigsson, M. (2018). “Transparent Intelligence” for Sustainable Development. In: : . Paper presented at 15th International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids (PNCS) and European Society of Glass Science and Technology Conference (ESG, Saint Malo, France.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Transparent Intelligence” for Sustainable Development
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Transparent materials are essential in everyone’s life. They enable daylight to reach the interior of buildings, thereby contributing to both our physical and mental well-being; they are the primary component for communication via optical fibers and a key component in electronic devices such as protective cover and/or dielectric material; and they enable clean energy production through solar panels or algae reactors by acting as protective and light transmitting barriers. Adding functions to transparent materials in an intelligent way creates further opportunities to use and enhance the beneficial impacts of transparency. The concept Transparent Intelligence covers transparent materials and products with integral intelligent functions – passive, active or interactive. By using Transparent Intelligence it is possible to embrace many of the societal challenges that we are facing today. The concept can be divided into five broad industrial sectors: Built Environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Solar Energy, Mobility, and Materials. A perspective on how Transparent Intelligence can improve the sustainable development of our world will be presented, using examples of electrochromic windows for energy-efficient buildings, photocatalytic coatings for improved indoor air quality, transparent conductive coatings for antennas, bandpass filters for mobile phone indoor coverage, UV down-converting components for efficient solar energy, hygienic surfaces for infection mitigation on electronic devices, printed electronics for sustainable glass packaging, and IR-reflecting coatings for fire safety.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34106 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids (PNCS) and European Society of Glass Science and Technology Conference (ESG, Saint Malo, France
Projects
Smart Housing Småland
Funder
VINNOVA, 2016-04218
Available from: 2018-07-11 Created: 2018-07-11 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Edelbro, C., Hulthén, E., Clausen, E., Tanner, D., Herrera Herbert, J., Jonsson, K., . . . Försth, M. (2017). European Initiative on CDIO in Raw Material Programmes. In: : . Paper presented at 2017 13th International CDIO Conference in Calgary, Canada. June 18-22, 2017.. Calgary
Open this publication in new window or tab >>European Initiative on CDIO in Raw Material Programmes
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on a cost-efficient, secure, sustainable supply and use of raw materials, a new generation of skilled people entering industry, universities and research needs to be developed. Today’s technical MSc graduates in raw materials and especially primary resources (i.e. exploration, extraction, mining and mineral processing and metallurgy) best suits large companies where they often act as specialists and experts. For small to medium enterprises as well as for our future engineers other skills than technical are necessary. As a part of the KIC Raw Materials, the education project “The implementation of CDIO in raw material programmes” started in 2016. The project focuses, during 2016-2017, on (WP1) faculty- and (WP2) pilot case development. There are no academic institutes in Europe that have yet applied CDIO for primary resource related MSc programmes. This paper describes an education project within the KIC Raw material and presents key outputs with implementing CDIO in mining and metallurgy related programmes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Calgary: , 2017
Keywords
Faculty development, program development, raw materials, Standards: 1, 2, 9, 10
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33935 (URN)
Conference
2017 13th International CDIO Conference in Calgary, Canada. June 18-22, 2017.
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2019-02-04Bibliographically approved
Girardin, B., Fontaine, G., Duquesne, S., Försth, M. & Bourbigot, S. (2017). Measurement of kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal degradation for flame retarded materials: Application to EVA/ATH/NC. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 124, 130-148
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal degradation for flame retarded materials: Application to EVA/ATH/NC
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 124, p. 130-148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The modelling of the behavior of a material exposed to fire is very complex and needs the coupling of fluid dynamics, combustion, heat and mass transfer, kinetics and so forth. A growing amount of studies and numerical models are reported in this field since the last decade. The aim of these models is to predict the fire behavior of wood, charring or non-charring polymers and even intumescent materials. However, these studies are seldom applied to formulated materials and especially flame retarded materials. In this study, an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer was formulated with a flame retardant (aluminum tri-hydroxide) and a synergist (nanoclays). A systematic approach for the characterization of the thermo-physical properties of the material as well as of its optical properties and the heat capacity of the decomposition gases is proposed and applied in this study. It is shown that it is possible to evaluate the input data required for pyrolysis modelling, even for multi decomposition steps materials. It is also shown that the diffusion of the gases inside the material had to be considered on the opposite of the classical assumption found in other studies. Indeed, using low mass diffusivity was the sole way to predict in the same time the temperature distribution and the mass loss rate of the material in a gasification experiments.

Keywords
Aluminum tri-hydroxide, Diffusion, Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, Fire retardancy, Gasification, Heat capacity, Montmorillonite, Pyrolysis modelling, Thermal conductivity, Aluminum, Capillary flow, Clay minerals, Ethylene, Hydrophobicity, Mass transfer, Nanocomposites, Optical properties, Organometallics, Polyvinyl acetates, Pyrolysis, Specific heat, Thermodynamics, Thermoplastic elastomers, Charring polymers, Decomposition gas, Flame-retarded, Heat and mass transfer, Kinetics and thermodynamics, Thermo-physical property, Characterization
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31025 (URN)10.1016/j.jaap.2016.12.034 (DOI)2-s2.0-85014121221 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Järn, M., Welinder, J., Andersson, A., Liinanki, M. & Försth, M. (2017). Transparent intelligens för en bättre värld - en sammanfattning av fyra år med TIME. GLAS (2), 58-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transparent intelligens för en bättre värld - en sammanfattning av fyra år med TIME
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2017 (Swedish)In: GLAS, no 2, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Glastjänster för GBF AB, 2017
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29886 (URN)
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Ochoterena, R., Willstrand, O. & Försth, M. (2016). Electrosprays for fire suppression.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrosprays for fire suppression
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A continuous current with a potential ranging between 10 and 30 kV was applied to a single-hole nozzle for modifying the properties of the generated water spray. The nozzle produced a full-cone spray by injecting water into quiescent air at atmospheric conditions varying the injection pressure between 0.2 and 0.6 MPa. Back-illuminated photography and laser-based holography were used for recording the effect of the electrical current on spray properties such as cone angle and droplet sizes. Results from this study indicate that applying a potential above 20 kV yields wider cone angles, more homogenously distributed spray patterns, and reduced droplet sizes than non-assisted sprays.Key words: electrosprays, water mist

Publisher
p. 20
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2016:15
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28002 (URN)978-91-88349-19-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Johansson, R., Post, J. & Försth, M. (2016). Extended field of application (EXAP) forreaction-to-fire Euro-classification of coppercommunication cables (CCC).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended field of application (EXAP) forreaction-to-fire Euro-classification of coppercommunication cables (CCC)
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The feasibility of an EXAP procedure for copper communication cables (CCC) has been investigated. The test set consisted of 47 different cables split into 9 families. An analysis method for quantifying the confidence of an EXAP procedure was defined.A similar EXAP procedure as for power cables was investigated, but where the safety margin sm was varied between 0% and 40% of the class limits for the corresponding Euroclasses. For power cables, and also for optical cables (OF) this safety margin was fixed to 10% of the class limits for the main classification (B2ca, Cca, and Dca) and 20% fire the smoke classes S1 and S2. For the analysed CCC it was found that the safety margin must be higher in order to obtain a confidence on the same level as for the OF EXAP already published in a Position Paper. The error rate for the OF EXAP was 2% for the main class. This error rate was obtained with a safety margin of 30% of the class limits for CCC. Even higher safety margins result in a lower error rate but a trade-off must be made between confidence in the EXAP and a reasonable, not too conservative, classification of CCC.Therefore a CCC EXAP is proposed with a safety margin sm = 30% of the class limits for the corresponding Euroclasses.Key words: EXAP, CPR, reaction to fire, copper communication cables, CCC

Publisher
p. 52
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2016:53
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27995 (URN)978-91-88349-55-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Lindström, J. & Försth, M. (2016). Fire Test of Profile Plank for Transformer Pit Fire Protection. Fire technology, 52(2), 309-319
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Test of Profile Plank for Transformer Pit Fire Protection
2016 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 309-319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In general it is recommended to fill a transformer pit with rock ballast to extinguish the fire if there is a leakage of burning transformer oil. There is a lack of technology-neutral performance requirements for the design of solutions for fire extinguishment in transformer pit fires. This hampers the introduction of alternatives to the traditional method of filling the pit with rocks. Therefore we have conducted quantitative tests where temperatures and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2 were measured at different position in a transformer pit subjected to burning oil simulating an accidental rupture and leakage. The tests were conducted to investigate the extinguishing capacity of one specific alternative solution, i.e. a profile plank layer over the pit. Three tests were performed with 90°C and 140°C pre-heated transformer oil. In the second test, a 19 cm water bed was used to examine the impact of rain water in the pit. The result showed that the profile plank extinguished the flames in a few seconds and that the water level did not have any significant effect on the result. The measurements showed that the temperatures peaked at 600–800°C 50 cm above the profile plank in all tests but dropped to under 100°C in 14–16 s. Furthermore the O2-concentration dropped to 3–5 vol% below the plank, which contributed to the rapid extinction of the burning oil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2016
Keywords
Transformer pit, Transformer oil, Transformer fire, Profile plank, Thermocouples, Gas analysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-398 (URN)10.1007/s10694-014-0409-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-06-22 Created: 2016-06-22 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Brandt, J., Försth, M., Willstrand, O. & Rakovic, A. (2016). Improved fire safety of buses in Europe. In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016: . Paper presented at 1st Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, June 16-17, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark (pp. 9-9).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved fire safety of buses in Europe
2016 (English)In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 9-9Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
Bus Fires, Fire suppression systems, UNECE regulation 107
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28323 (URN)
Conference
1st Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, June 16-17, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7140-4737

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