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Fjellgaard Mikalsen, RagniORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0979-2369
Publications (10 of 30) Show all publications
Sesseng, C., Reitan, N. K., Storesund, K., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. & Hagen, B. (2020). Effect of particle granularity on smoldering fire in wood chips made from wood waste: An experimental study. Fire and Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of particle granularity on smoldering fire in wood chips made from wood waste: An experimental study
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2020 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Fires in wood waste storages cause financial losses, are difficult to extinguish, and emit large amounts of fire effluents. The mechanisms related to fires in wood chip piles are not well elucidated. To find suitable preventive measures for handling such fires in wood waste, a better understanding of the physical properties of wood waste is needed. The present study investigates how granularity affects mechanisms of smoldering fire and transition to flaming in wood chip piles. Eighteen experiments with samples inside a top-ventilated, vertical cylinder were conducted. Heating from underneath the cylinder induced auto-ignition and smoldering fire, and temperatures and mass loss of the sample were measured. The results showed that granularity significantly affects the smoldering fire dynamics. Material containing larger wood chips (length 4-100 mm) demonstrated more irregular temperature development, higher temperatures, faster combustion, and higher mass losses than material of smaller wood chips (length <4 mm). The larger wood chips also underwent transition to flaming fires. Flaming fires were not observed for small wood chips, which instead demonstrated prolonged and steady smoldering propagation. The differences are assumed to be partly due to the different bulk densities of the samples of large and small wood chips affecting the ventilation conditions. Increased knowledge about these combustion processes and transition to flaming is vital to develop risk-reducing measures when storing wood chips made from wood waste in piles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2020
Keywords
fire, granularity, smoldering, transition to flaming, waste, wood chips
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44454 (URN)10.1002/fam.2812 (DOI)2-s2.0-85080871260 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2020-03-17Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Durgun, Ö., Williams Portal, N., Orosz, K., Honfi, D. & Reitan, N. K. (2020). Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review. Journal of Emergency Management, 18(1), 51-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NLM (Medline), 2020
Keywords
article, earthquake, European Union, flooding, highway, human
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43969 (URN)10.5055/jem.2020.0450 (DOI)2-s2.0-85079106935 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-17 Created: 2020-02-17 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
Rebaque, V., Ertesvåg, I., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2020). Experimental study of smouldering in wood pellets with and without air draft. Fuel, 264, Article ID 116806.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study of smouldering in wood pellets with and without air draft
2020 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 264, article id 116806Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dry wood pellets (diameter 8 mm) of mixed Norwegian spruce and pine were tested in samples of 1.25 kg (1.7 l) in configurations with and without air draft from below. The pellets were placed in a vertical 15 cm diameter cylinder on top of a hot plate. Air draft inlet, when allowed, came through narrow openings in the cylinder bottom periphery. The bulk void of 36% formed channels for gas flows within the pellets bed. Initially, the samples were heated externally from below for 6 h. Time series of distributed temperatures were recorded, together with values of the mass. Smouldering with air draft was observed with two distinct behaviours: Type 1, where the sample after the period of external heating cooled down for several hours, and then increased in temperature to intense smouldering, and Type 2, where the sample went into intense smouldering before the end of external heating. Without draft airflow from below, the sample cooled down after external heating, before developing into intense smouldering about 20 h later. In all cases, the intense period lasted for 2 h. Typical temperatures were in the range 300–450 °C, while higher temperatures occurred in the intense period. Draft flow caused fast oxidation spreading, while slow without draft. Indications of oxidation spreading as a distriäbuted reaction were seen. Circulating air motions in the irregular void between individual pellets is discussed as an explanation for the behaviour. Uneven access to oxygen, with possibilities of locally excess air, can explain the peak temperatures observed. © 2019 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Buoyancy, Combustion, Fire, Internal air motion, Poros media, Smolder, Cylinders (shapes), Fires, Air motion, External heating, Fast oxidation, Norwegian spruce, Peak temperatures, Wood pellet, Pelletizing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43389 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116806 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076701167 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 238329; Funding text 1: Analysis of the fuel was provided by the group of Professor Ulrich Krause at the Department of Process Safety and Environmental Engineering at Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany. Funding: The first author conducted the work as an Erasmus exchange student from the Technical University of Madrid, Spain. The third author was funded by the Research Council of Norway , Project No. 238329: Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires (EMRIS).

Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Glansberg, K., Storesund, K. & Ranneklev, S. (2019). Branner i avfallsanlegg.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Branner i avfallsanlegg
2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Fires in waste facilities
Abstract [en]

Waste facilities represent a vital function in society, but fires occur regularly. The aim of this study is to provide a knowledge base on risks associated with fires in waste facilities, and to identify measures that can prevent fire and limit the extent of fire damage and environmental impact.

Information was obtained through meetings with the waste industry, two inspections at waste facilities, a survey, a literature review and a review of the events registered in the fire and rescue services' reporting solution BRIS, as well as communication with other stakeholders. The project included land-based waste management; facilities for the reception and storage of waste (N=661), reception and storage of hazardous waste (N=250), and treatment facilities for hazardous waste (N=38). Waste treatment plants (such as biogas- or incinerator plants) as well as landfills are not included.

High-risk waste types have been found to be general, residual waste, batteries (especially batteries not correctly sorted), electrical and electronic (EE) waste, as well as paper, paperboard and cardboard. General, residual waste stands out as an important focus area for reducing the overall fire risk at Norwegian waste facilities, both based on reported frequency of fire ignition and potential consequences with regard to equipment, downtime, environment and health. Waste categorized as "Hazardous Waste" does

not stand out, and is not ranked in the highest risk category in this study, since many preventive and damage reducing measures have been implemented, and appear to work. Chapter 9 provides details on rating of fire risk.

In the period January 2016 - May 2019, 141 fires were reported in waste facilities in Norway in BRIS. The total number of fires (including small, medium and large fires) is unknown, but is believed to be far higher. Common sources of ignition have been found to be composting (self-ignition), thermal runaway in batteries, heat friction by grinding, human activity and unknown cause.

Regularly occurring fires outdoors, increased use of indoor storage and new types of waste such as lithium batteries lead to a risk that is difficult to manage, which can be a challenge with regard to insurance of waste facilities. Increased use of indoor storage is motivated by consideration for the environment and neighbours, but it may conflict with fire safety, especially because it restricts the access for the fire fighters and because of possible high heat stress on the load-bearing structure of the building housing the waste.

Any major fire, regardless of the type of waste burned, could potentially lead to the release of pollutants into the air, water or soil. All smoke from fires can be harmful to humans and exposure to it must be taken seriously. There is a need for more knowledge and expertise in assessing emissions and environmental consequences in connection with firefighting. The use of extinguishing foam can reduce the consumption of extinguishing water, but the foam itself can contribute to contamination if discharged into water. A more detailed list of chemical content in the foam product data sheet is needed in order to be able to assess environmental concerns during use.

2

© RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Measures have been proposed for the design of more firesafe facilities, for waste management and for limiting the environmental impact during and after a fire. Key measures that should be prioritized are detection and monitoring, limiting the amounts of waste, tidiness, sufficient training, reception control, available and properly dimensioned fire extinguishing equipment, as well as solutions to collect extinguishing water in order to prevent the release of environmental toxins. It has not been possible to verify the effect of individual measures based on available data and statistics. The industry’s own overall assessment has been found to be consistent with experience-based observations found in other studies, and this has been found to be the best available information on effective measures. The responsibility for most of the measures lies with the owner of the facility or the business, and the focus should be on the use of documented technical solutions and the assessment of whether measures are appropriate and practicable at each facility. A fire risk assessment, locally adapted to the respective facility is important, as there are large variations in the types of waste handled, the size and the design of facilities, as well as other local conditions that differ between waste facilities in Norway. The fire service should strive to achieve a close dialogue and cooperation with the waste facilities. The authorities should facilitate better knowledge transfer and learning after fires, between different fire departments. The authorities should also, in collaboration with the industry, develop a national attitude campaign to avoid faulty battery sorting.

Further work should study extinguishing techniques and extinguishing tactics that can limit the amount of water needed and that can be used during large-scale fires. Various detection and extinguishing solutions for use at waste facilities should be surveyed, assessed with regards to suitability and documented in cases where documentation is lacking. This should be made available on an openly accessible platform. There is also a need for further studies on the chemical composition of smoke from different types of waste fires, as well as studies on the extent and spread of fire smoke and environmental impacts from fires on water recipients.

Increased fire safety at waste facilities could facilitate a better dialogue between industry and insurance providers by reducing potential financial losses. Good handling of fire risk in waste facilities will not only affect the plants themselves, but will also limit potential societal costs and consequences for health and the environment.

Publisher
p. 116
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:61
Keywords
Fire safety, fire risks, fire ignition, consequences of fire, prevention, preparedness, waste, waste facilities, storage, treatment, waste fractions, types of waste, environmental impact, toxic emissions, industrial fires, self-ignition, auto-ignition, dangerous waste, industrial fire, battery, Brannsikkerhet, brannrisiko, brannstart, konsekvens av brann, forebygging, beredskap, håndtering, avfall, mottak, mellomlagring, behandling, avfallsfraksjon, miljøpåvirkning, miljøutslipp, industribrann, selvantenning, batteri, farlig avfall, industribrann, batteri
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40766 (URN)978-91-88907-88-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-20 Created: 2019-11-20 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Reitan, N. K., Friquin, K. & Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. (2019). Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av krysslaminert massivtre i bygninger – en litteraturstudie.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av krysslaminert massivtre i bygninger – en litteraturstudie
2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

© RISE Research Institutes of SwedenAbstractFire safety in cross laminated timber buildings; a reviewKey words: Cross laminated timber; CLT; fire safety; exposed CLT; auto-extinction; charring; delamination; detailingThis literature study presents recent research on fire safety in cross laminated timber (CLT) buildings. Results from large fire experiments and other studies in the period 2010 - 2018 are summarized, with focus on the following research questions:• How do constructions consisting of protected or exposed CLT contribute to the fire development in a room?• How can contribution to the fire development from detailing of CLT be avoided?There is an increasing desire to use wooden structures in tall buildings, as a substitute for more traditional construction materials. However, the use of combustible construc-tions in buildings in Norwegian Fire Class 3 (usually five floors or more) is not pre-accepted in the guideline to Regulations on technical requirements for construction works (TEK17), and fire safety must therefore be documented by analysis in such structures. When designing tall and complex timber buildings, it must be taken into account that a fire involving a timber construction may have more severe consequences than in buildings with constructions of steel or concrete, if the fire design of the construction and detail solutions is insufficient. Several studies show that fire exposed CLT, or CLT with insufficient protection, can cause a fire to develop faster, be more intense and last longer than a fire where the only fuel is the furniture and fixtures in the fire room. It is shown that the amount of fire exposed timber in a room may have impact on the extent and duration of a fire, but the knowledge has not yet been sufficient enough to be used in fire modeling, design and analysis.Research on charring rates, delamination and auto-extinction, all of which are factors that can have major impact on fire development and the fire resistance of the construction, takes place in Europe, Australia and North America. Although extensive research has been carried out, it is based on few large fire experiments, and the literature is still pointing to several knowledge gaps. However, the research projects have increased the knowledge of fire in timber buildings, and have contributed to the design of detail solutions, guidelines and development of models for function-based design. Revision of EN 1995-1-2 is under preparation and expected to apply from 2022. A knowledge base for the audit can be found in the network COST Action FP1404 Fire Safety Use of Bio-Based Building Products (COST FP1404) Working Group 2 (WG2). They have published several guidelines relevant for the fire design of CLT, including e.g. calculation methods for the prediction of charring rates and depths, determination of reduced CLT cross-section, design of CLT detailing and a suggested test method for evaluating adhesive performance.Based on the literature review, the following conclusions and recommendations are given for CLT constructions:• The design phase must sufficiently consider protection of the construction and con-tribution of the construction to the fire energy, and to a greater extent include the assessment of detailing and ventilation conditions. It should be considered whether analytic fire engineering design also should be required for buildings in the Norwegian Fire Classes 1 and 2 where more than one CLT wall is exposed.• By protecting all CLT surfaces of the structure with cladding, the construction may retain the stability and the load bearing capacity during the required time of fire resistance.• In buildings with only one exposed CLT wall in each fire cell, it may also be appropriate to use solutions that satisfy the pre-accepted performances, but one must consider whether a somewhat longer and more intense heat radiation and flame exposure on the facade outside window openings will require measures beyond the pre-accepted performances given in the guideline to TEK17.• Rooms where two or more CLT walls in addition to the ceiling are exposed, are configurations that should be avoided.• The risk of delamination can be reduced by using heat-resistant glue.• There is generally a need for relevant documentation for fire-resistant solutions for joints between CLT walls and floors and service penetrations in CLT constructions.• Test methods for testing of joints and penetrations in CLT constructions should be standardized. For example, there exists no standardized test for corner joints. Tests of penetration seals for CLT constructions are scarce, although they can be tested according to EN 1366-3. However, CLT is not a standard supporting construction according to EN 1366-3, and this must be taken into consideration when the test results are evaluated. Joints in glulam constructions should also be tested because they are often used in conjunction with CLT elements.

Publisher
p. 88
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:09
Keywords
Cross laminated timber; CLT; fire safety; exposed CLT; auto-extinction; charring; delamination; detailing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38191 (URN)978-91-88907-36-3 (ISBN)
Note

Prosjektnummer: 20385 Kvalitetssikring: Anne Steen-Hansen Finansiert av: Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap og Direktoratet for byggkvalitet

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Sæter Bøe, A., Glansberg, K., Sesseng, C., Storesund, K., Stolen, R. & Brandt, A. W. (2019). Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet
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2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 90
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:02
Keywords
Energy efficient buildings, fire safety, solar cells, photovoltaic installation, photovoltaic module, battery, battery room, battery system, extinguishing, firefighting, technical solutions, new materials, new construction methods., Energieffektive bygg, brannsikkerhet, solceller, solcelleinstallasjon, solcellemodul, batteri, batterirom, batterisystemer, slokking, brannvesen, energibesparende bygg, tekniske løsninger, nye materialer, nye konstruksjonsmetoder.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38296 (URN)978-91-88907-16-5 (ISBN)
Note

Fire safety in energy efficient buildingsBackgroundThere has been a lot of focus on energy efficient buildings recently, and there is a rapid development of new materials, construction methods and technologies on the market. Improvement of one product property may affect other aspects, for example the fire safety. Norwegian authorities want to get an overview of possible challenges associated with the fire safety of energy efficient buildings.ObjectiveThe main objective of this study has been to survey challenges associated with energy efficient buildings and fire safety, with a special focus on solar cells, batteries and fire extinguishment. The project is divided into different work packages. Sub-goals for each of these have been to:

• Study solar cell technology in the context of the total energy supply chain to uncover fire-related challenges.• Increase the understanding of safety challenges, solutions and regulations related to energy storage of batteries in buildings.• Increase the understanding of challenges associated with fire extinguishment in energy efficient buildings where solar cells and/or batteries are used.• Achieve an overall understanding of the interaction between different solutions in energy efficient buildings, and how these interactions affect the fire safety.

ConclusionsGeneral• The interaction between various new technical and energy efficient solutions could affect fire safety, with regard to ignition, fire development, fire dynamics, evacuation and firefighting efforts.• When it comes to fire safety, questions often arise regarding what should be considered as sufficient and adequate documentation. Here, industry guidelines and exchange of knowledge is important, until relevant regulations are in place.• It is important that fire safety is considered, and that responsibilities and tasks are coordinated when new solutions are implemented.• The industry often feels that regulations are adapted too slowly when new solutions are launched.• Our overall impression is that most professionals in the industry take fire safety seriously. Serious actors, good quality of design and installation are important to ensure a safe development.

Solar cells• No substantial difference has been found in fire engineering challenges for large photovoltaic (PV) installations compared to small ones.• Solar cells mounted on facades should be treated similarly to other facade claddings with cavities behind the cladding, with regard to fire testing and classification.• The European regulations for fire testing of roofing materials are not well suited for testing of roofs with building attached photovoltaics.• According to German statistics, building integrated photovoltaics have a significantly higher fire risk than building attached photovoltaics. However, this has not been thoroughly studied during recent years.• It is primarily the electrical voltage that the solar cells generate that can be problematic for firefighting, including re-ignition hazard, shock hazard due to direct contact with energized components and through extinguishing water.Batteries• It is relatively well known how a fire in a battery may start, and this knowledge is transferable to stationary batteries in buildings.• Lack of knowledge, experience and training within fire brigades with regard to large battery systems in buildings, may contribute to application of unfortunate extinguishing strategies.• It is important that the fire service is informed when large battery systems are installed in buildings, to ensure that an extinguishing strategy exist in case of fire.• In many cases, cooling with water is the best extinguishing method, but this can result in high water consumption as the battery itself supplies oxygen to the fire, and the battery encapsulation may prevent the water from reaching the fire zone.• Regulations for domestic battery systems should be better defined with regard to placement and adequate safety levels. Guidelines for people who are considering installing battery systems in their homes would be beneficial.

Airtight buildings• There is no substantial difference in the fire development in airtight and conventional buildings during the initial phases of the fire. According to fire modelling studies there are more pronounced differences at later stages of the fire.• The differences are mainly an increased pressure build-up and that the fire more rapidly becomes ventilation-controlled in airtight buildings.• There is also an increased risk of backdraft for fires in airtight buildings, which represents an increased risk for the firefighters.

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K. & Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. (2019). Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing
2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The goal of this project has been to establish new knowledge and methods for testing the penetration of hazardous soot and smoke particles into fire clothing. The aim has been to provide the basis for the development of new fire-fighter clothing with better protection against particle penetration. In cooperation with fire services, authorities and protection clothing producers, needs, requirements and recommendations have been investigated. For the documentation and relevant classification of protective clothing, test set-ups in small and larger scale have been developed. The aim has been to be able to achieve representative and repeatable fire- and smoke exposure for accurate measurement of the particle penetration into clothing and trough clothing layers for screening materials and design solutions. With regard to the performance of the clothing, the small-scale tests give indications of the textiles’ ability to block gases and particles from penetrating into the clothing. The large-scale tests give indications to how the design of the clothing as a whole is able to prevent intrusion of gases and particles.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39344 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Hagen, B. C., Steen-Hansen, A., Krause, U. & Frette, V. (2019). Extinguishing Smoldering Fires in Wood Pellets with Water Cooling: An Experimental Study. Fire technology, 25(1), 257-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extinguishing Smoldering Fires in Wood Pellets with Water Cooling: An Experimental Study
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2019 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 257-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smoldering fires in stored or transported solid biofuels are very difficult to extinguish. The current study has explored heat extraction from the combustion zone as a method for extinguishing such flameless fires. Heat extraction from the sample was made feasible using water flowing through a metal pipe located inside the sample. The fuel container was a steel cylinder with insulated side walls, open at the top and heated from below. Wood pellets (1.25 kg, 1.8 l) was used as fuel. Results from small-scale experiments provide proof-of-concept of cooling as a new extinguishing method for smoldering fires. During self-sustained smoldering with heat production in the range 0 W to 60 W, the heat loss to the cooling unit was in the range 5 W to 20 W. There were only marginal differences between non-extinguished and extinguished cases. Up-scaling is discussed, cooling could be feasible for preventing smoldering fires in silos.

Keywords
Fuel storage safety Industrial fire, Biofuels, Smoldering, Extinguishment, Fire suppression
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36373 (URN)10.1007/s10694-018-0789-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056650077 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Byström, A., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Försth, M., Van Hees, P., Kovacs, P. & Runefors, M. (2019). Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet. RISE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE: , 2019. p. 77
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:109
Keywords
brandsäkerhet, brandrisker, solenergi, solpanel, PV, växelriktare, ljusbåge, regelverk, rekommendationer, energieffektiva byggnader, Li-jonbatterier, energilager, räddningstjänst, brandbekämpning
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40752 (URN)978-91-89049-34-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Glansberg, K., Daaland Wormdahl, E. & Stolen, R. (2019). Jet fires and cryogenic spills: How to document extreme industrial incidents. In: Sixth Magdeburg Fire and Explosion Days (MBE2019) conference proceedings, : . Paper presented at Sixth Magdeburg Fire and Explosion Days (MBE2019) conference proceedings, published by Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, 25-26 March 2019, Magdeburg, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Jet fires and cryogenic spills: How to document extreme industrial incidents
2019 (Norwegian)In: Sixth Magdeburg Fire and Explosion Days (MBE2019) conference proceedings, , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In industrial plants, such as oil platforms, refineries or onboard vessels carrying fuel, a rupture event of a pipeline could have dramatic consequences, as was demonstrated both in the Piper Alpha and Deepwater Horizon accidents. If surfaces are exposed to extreme conditions, both extreme cold (cryogenic spills) and extreme heat (jet fires), this can affect exposed surfaces, and can cause a domino effect of severe events.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38245 (URN)
Conference
Sixth Magdeburg Fire and Explosion Days (MBE2019) conference proceedings, published by Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, 25-26 March 2019, Magdeburg, Germany
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0979-2369

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