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Fjellgaard Mikalsen, RagniORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0979-2369
Publications (10 of 62) Show all publications
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Fjærestad, J. S., Fredagsvik, N., Nergård, A. & Lie, A. (2024). Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander
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2024 (Norwegian)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [no]

I denne FRIC studien er den forebyggende effekten av Bjørnis for brannsikkerheten i norske husstander studert. Hovedkonklusjonen er at Bjørnis har ført til en tydelig og dokumenterbar forbedring av brannsikkerheten i norske hjem. Studien er utført som en del av prosjekt 4.3 Brannsikkerhetstiltak for boliger i FRIC, i samarbeid med Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis. Det er også et webinar på norsk og engelsk som presenterer studien, opptak av webinaret vil bli publisert her: https://fric.no/publikasjoner.

| In this FRIC study, the effect of the fire mascot Bjørnis on the fire safety in Norwegian households is studied. The main conclusion is that Bjørnis has led to a clear and documentable improvement of the fire safety in Norwegian homes. This study is a part of project 4.3 Fire safety measures for dwellings in FRIC, in collaboration with the Bjørnis Foundation. There is also a webinar in Norwegian and English presenting the study, the webinar recording will be published at: https://fric.no/en/publications.

Series
FRIC studie D4.3-2024.01
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-70102 (URN)
Available from: 2024-01-18 Created: 2024-01-18 Last updated: 2024-01-19Bibliographically approved
Skilbred, E. S. & Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. (2023). Brann til jul.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brann til jul
2023 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fire for Christmas The topic of this study is the fire safety related to use of candles in Christmas decorations and is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK).

Photos of decorations with candles placed near combustible materials are flourishing in social media, especially around Christmas time. This project studies the fire hazards related to such decorations and groups of tealights. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the fire hazard of different types of Christmas decorations, as well as small-scale experiments with measurement of temperature development in groups of tealights. The experiments were documented with images and video, infrared (IR) camera, and temperature measurements. Some photos are shown in this report, while other image and video material are presented in social media. By showing examples of what can go wrong, and showing simple measures people can take, we hope to increase the awareness of how to avoid fire for Christmas.

The results from the study are summarized in the following four points to remember, and eight measures people can do at home.

Remember this to avoid fire for Christmas: • Not everything you see in commercials and social media is safe. • Many candles placed close together can be a fire hazard. • Unforeseen things can happen, a cat can walk by and make the candle tip over, a child can pull the tablecloth, or there can be a draft from a window. • Not all candle holders are stable.

What can you do to avoid fire for Christmas: • Think about fire safety when decorating for Christmas, do not copy uncritically from others. • Avoid lighting candles near combustible materials. This includes advent decorations and Christmas trees. • Replace candles with LEDs. • Replace combustible decorations with for example stone, glass, or ceramics. • Do not leave burning candles unattended. • Remember to test and change batteries in smoke detectors. • Follow the safety instructions written on the candle packaging. • Keep minimum 10 cm (or the producers recommended distance) between tealights. • Choose stable candle holders.

Publisher
p. 32
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:75
Keywords
Fire, fire safety, Christmas, holidays, tea candle, candle, table top decorations, fire hazard, hanging decorations, temperature measurement., Brann, brannsikkerhet, jul, høytid, telys, kronelys, borddekorasjoner, brannfarlig, hengende dekorasjoner, temperaturmåling.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68449 (URN)978-91-89821-39-2 (ISBN)
Note

Finansiert av: Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap og Direktoratet for Byggkvalitet

Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-11 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Fjærestad, J. S., Vold, M. & Fjellanger, I. J. (2023). Communication of fire safety.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication of fire safety
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[no]
Kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet
Abstract [en]

This report is made by Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). The purpose is to find the best ways to communicate knowledge about fire and fire safety to different target groups and to learn from those working with communication of fire safety in Norway today. These include local fire services, organizations like the Norwegian Fire Protection Association (Norsk Brannvernforening), insurance companies and local, regional and national authorities. The study poses three main questions. Information is collected through a survey which 40 Norwegian fire services answered, through dialogue with relevant stakeholdersin meetings and in a webinar, and through the authors’ own experiences in their own organizations.

Publisher
p. 53
Series
FRIC Report ; D4.3-2023.14
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65664 (URN)978-91-89821-46-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved
Olsø, B. G., Stølen, R., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Bunkholt, N. S., Friquin, K. L. & Hjertnes, J. (2023). Factors Affecting the Fire Safety Design of Photovoltaic Installations Under Performance-Based Regulations in Norway. Fire technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors Affecting the Fire Safety Design of Photovoltaic Installations Under Performance-Based Regulations in Norway
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2023 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The impact of Photovoltaic (PV) installations on the fire safety of buildings must be considered in all building projects where such energy systems are established. The holistic fire safety of the building largely depends on how the fire safety of the PV installation is considered by the different actors during the design and construction process. Research has therefore been undertaken to study how performance-based regulations in combination with the lack of national guidelines affect the overall fire safety considerations for PV installations in Norway. Four factors were found to govern to which extent PV installations are emphasised in the fire safety design phase: (1) whether the building was first of its kind as a pioneering building, (2) whether the building was built before or after the publication of the 2018 revision of the norm NEK 400, (3) The level of knowledge and experience of the fire safety consultant, which in turn affects the use of performance-based engineering tools and the level of detailing in the design and construction phases, and (4) The degree of integration in the building. The main goal of the study is to give an insight and a contribution to the development of in-depth knowledge on how fire safety design for PV installations on buildings is handled in Norway, which may also be relevant to other countries with similar performance-based regulations.

National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64846 (URN)10.1007/s10694-023-01420-9 (DOI)
Note

https://fric.no/forside

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Boddaert, S., Bonomo, P., Eder, G., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Ishii, H., Kim, J.-T., . . . Zang, Y. (2023). Fire safety of BIPV: International mapping of accredited and R&D facilities in the context of codes and standards 2023. International Energy Agency (IEA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safety of BIPV: International mapping of accredited and R&D facilities in the context of codes and standards 2023
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of Task 15 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to create an enabling framework to accelerate the penetration of BIPV products in the global market of renewables, resulting in an equal playing field for BIPV products, BAPV products and regular building envelope components, respecting mandatory issues, aesthetic issues, reliability issues, and financial issues.

Subtask E of Task 15 is focused on pre-normative international research on BIPV characterisation methods and activity E.3 is dedicated to fire safety of BIPV modules and installations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Energy Agency (IEA), 2023
Series
IEA-PVPS ; T15-15:2023
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65661 (URN)978-3-907281-39-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-07-12 Created: 2023-07-12 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved
Jernæs, N. K. & Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. (2023). In the Heat of the Moment: Testing Fire-Protective Covers for Mitigating Damage to Large Historic Inventories. Studies in Conservation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In the Heat of the Moment: Testing Fire-Protective Covers for Mitigating Damage to Large Historic Inventories
2023 (English)In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Since the 1990s, the Norwegian management for cultural heritage has increased its focus on finding effective solutions for protecting Norway?s wooden cultural heritage from fire damage. The medieval churches in general, including the wooden stave churches, with their interiors and inventories, are of special interest. However, the usefulness of protecting valuable interiors and inventories when fighting fire has been questioned. An experiment was carried out to find manageable solutions for protecting large inventories by using fire covers in case of fire. An experiment using seven commercially available products was conducted by fire fighters to investigate whether these products could protect historic interiors from water and fire. The preliminary results show that it is possible to find manageable, large format covers for the protection of large, immovable historic inventories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67743 (URN)10.1080/00393630.2023.2275098 (DOI)
Note

As this work is truly a result of collaboration across disciplines and institutions, the authors are thankful for all inputs along the way. This study has involved close collaboration with the Norwegian Association for Church Employers and Hanne Moltubakk Kempton (Norwegian Association for Church Employers, KA). The authors thank the executives at the Østre Agder fire service: Preben Knarvik, Jan Olav Lundberg, and Petter Vinje Svendsen; the Bergen fire service: Christian Hammersland, Haakon Rasmussen, Øyvind Fagermo, Sveinung Sivertsen, and Erik Angermann; and the Oslo fire- and rescue service: Øyvind Greging and Øivind Mehammer. Ole Anders Holmvaag, Morten Daffinrud, and Anne Steen-Hansen at RISE Fire Research are gratefully acknowledged for input to instructions and helpful discussions. The reference group members who have contributed with valuable input along the way are appreciated: Hanne Moltubakk Kempton (KA), Geir Jensen, Anne Bjørke (Bergen fire service), Susanna Björklöf (Oslo fire and rescue service), Henrik Smith (Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage, NO: Riksantikvaren) and Erika Hedhammar (Swedish Directorate for Cultural Heritage, SE: Riksantikvarieämbetet). For proofreading of the article, the authors are grateful for the feedback from Hanne Moltubakk Kempton (KA).

Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Fjærestad, J. S., Vold, M. & Fjellanger, I. J. (2023). Kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet
2023 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Communication of fire safety
Abstract [no]

Denne rapporten er utarbeidet av brannforsknings- og innovasjonssenteret Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). Målsettingen er å finne ut hvordan man best kan kommunisere kunnskap om brann og brannsikkerhet til ulike målgrupper, og å lære av de som driver med kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet i Norge i dag. Dette inkluderer lokalt brannvesen, organisasjoner slik som Norsk Brannvernforening, forsikringsselskaper, samt lokale, regionale og nasjonale myndigheter. Tre hovedspørsmål er belyst. Informasjon er samlet inn gjennom en spørreundersøkelse som 40 norske brannvesen besvarte, gjennom dialog med relevante aktører i møter og på et webinar, samt fra forfatternes egne erfaringer med arbeid på temaet i sine organisasjoner.

Series
FRIC rapport ; 4.3-2023.08
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65663 (URN)978-91-89757-66-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2023-08-07Bibliographically approved
Reitan, N. K., Fjærestad, J. S., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Skilbred, E. S., Meraner, C. & Aamodt, E. (2023). RISE Fire Research sitt høst-webinar [RISE Fire Research’s autumn webinar]: 17 november 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RISE Fire Research sitt høst-webinar [RISE Fire Research’s autumn webinar]: 17 november 2023
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2023 (Norwegian)Other (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67880 (URN)
Note

RISE Fire Research sitt høst-webinar ble arrangert 17 november, kl 9-11. Her finner du opptak fra webinaret.

Du kan lære om nye forskningsfunn innen blant annet: batteribrann og rømningsveier, brannfarlig julepynt, dødsbranner i Norge, samt brannsikkerhet ved oppføring eller rehabilitering av bygg. Forskningen er finansiert av Direktoratet for samfunnsikkerhet og beredskap (DSB) og Direktoratet for byggkvalitet (DiBK).

Viktige tidspunkt i videofila: 

00:00:00 Velkommen ved CEO – Nina Kristine Reitan, adm.dir. RISE Fire Research

00:02:57 Kunnskapsbehov innen brannfaget – Johan Marius Ly, avd.dir. Brann og redning, Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB)

00:05:37 Kort info om semi-automatiske parkeringsanlegg (publisert rapport) – Nina Kristine Reitan

00:06:45 Kort info om veileder om silobrann (publisert rapport) – Nina Kristine Reitan

00:07:42 Kort info om feiing av ildsteder (pågående prosjekt) – Nina Kristine Reitan

00:09:07 Rømning ved brann i litium-ion batteri i elsparkesykkel (publisert rapport) - Janne Siren Fjærestad og Ragni Fjellgaard Mikalsen

00:39:39 Brann til jul (pågående prosjekt)– Ellen Synnøve Skilbred

01:04:42 Brannsikkerhet ved oppføring og rehabilitering av bygg (pågående prosjekt)– Janne Siren Fjærestad og Christoph Meraner

01:34:55 Analyse av dødsbranner i Norge i perioden 2015-2020 (pågående prosjekt)– Edvard Aamodt og Ellen Synnøve Skilbred

01:58:24 Oppsummering og avslutning – Nina Kristine Reitan

Available from: 2023-11-20 Created: 2023-11-20 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Fjærestad, J. S., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. & Meraner, C. (2023). Rømning ved brann i litium-ion batteri i elsparkesykkel.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rømning ved brann i litium-ion batteri i elsparkesykkel
2023 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fire evacuation during lithium-ion battery fires in electric scooters

This study deals with escape in the event of a lithium-ion battery fire. The study is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK). The main objective is to evaluate the consequences of a thermal runaway in an electric scooter in an enclosed space in terms of the spread of gas and smoke from the battery and the potential to prevent escape via escape routes. The scenarios examined are representative of public buildings, schools, office buildings, and other buildings that require many people to escape via large open spaces (e.g., classrooms, open-plan offices) and corridors (escape routes). In addition to the experimental study, information about incidents involving fires in electric scooters in Bergen in recent years has been collected, and the Bergen Fire Service’s experiences from these incidents are presented. A total of 6 large-scale experiments were carried out with a fire in an electric scooter, 3 of the experiments were carried out in a 55 m2 large room corresponding to a classroom, and 3 of the experiments were carried out in a 15 m long corridor (38 m2 ). The ceiling height in the building was around 3 m. The concentrations of the gases CO2, CO, O2, HCl, HF, HCN, SO2, CH2O, NO and NO2 were measured in the experiments. The measurements are used to establish an experimental basis for evaluating whether and when critical gas values (according to ISO 13571:2012 "Lifethreatening components of fire") are achieved and thus lead to reduced ability to escape. The temperature change caused by the fire was measured at different heights in the room. In addition, video documentation is used to assess how the spread of smoke affects escape in a situation where there is a fire in an electric scooter in an escape route. The study has shown that a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery leads to a rapid fire development where the battery essentially bursts into flames, with jet fires and potential ejections of burning battery cells far away from where the fire started. The duration of this fire behavior with jet fires and flying debris was between 3 and 7 minutes. In the fire experiments, the emitted energy was not high enough to raise the room temperature to a critical level. Near the fire, however, there is a hazard of fire spread to other combustible materials in the room due to the behavior of the fire and high temperature of the jet flame. Ejection of burning battery cells poses a hazard of fire spread even to areas far away from the start location. Fires in an electric scooter battery or similar lithium-ion batteries can cause a rapid spread of smoke to the entire room. In the conducted experiments, the fire room was no longer smoke-free at the height of 1.9 m already after 1-2 minutes. Due to this rapid spread of smoke, visibility in the room will be affected after a short time and make escape more difficult. In the corridor, the smoke spread was relatively evenly distributed in height, while the smoke in the large room ("classroom") spread in a layer under the roof. Both forms of dispersion are thus possible, depending on the room and ventilation configuration. The gas measurements in the fire experiments detected both asphyxiant and irritant gases. Due to the battery size, which affects how much gas is formed, in relation to room size and ventilation conditions, the calculated FEC, i.e., the critical concentration of irritant gases, was below the selected limit value of 0.1 in all experiments. Although the FEC value was below 0.1 in all the experiments, people in the fire room would have begun to feel an effect from some of the toxic gases. However, this effect would not have been disabling. The FED, that is, the critical dose for asphyxiant gases, was only obtained after 23 to 30 minutes. It is important to remember that the concentration of toxic gases in a room due to a fire in a lithium-ion battery depends on the ratio of battery size, room size, and ventilation conditions. This means the limit values could have been exceeded for a larger battery or in a smaller room. The most important recommendation from this study is: Avoid storing and charging electric scooters and similar in living areas and escape routes. Chapter 7 also presents 8 tips and recommendations for the population, as well as 1 for the building owner and 1 for the fire service.

Publisher
p. 79
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:32
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64169 (URN)978-91-89757-78-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-03-07 Created: 2023-03-07 Last updated: 2023-06-29Bibliographically approved
Persson, H. (2023). Silo fire guideline 13 measures and 4 warnings.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silo fire guideline 13 measures and 4 warnings
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This is a guideline about silo fires, based on the handbook “Silo Fires”. The guideline summarizes 13 measures and decisions needed in connection with a suspected or confirmed silo fire and 4 warnings on what to avoid.

Publisher
p. 23
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:68
Keywords
Silo fire, smouldering, smoldering, flames, extinguishing, measure, warning, explosion, hazard, pellets, biomass, storage, safety.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67753 (URN)978-91-89821-24-8 (ISBN)
Note

Project number: 20612-8. Funded by: The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC) 

Available from: 2023-11-14 Created: 2023-11-14 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0979-2369

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