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Publications (10 of 46) Show all publications
Henriksson, J., Borg, M. & Englund, C. (2018). Automotive Safety and Machine Learning: Initial Results from a Study on How to Adapt the ISO 26262 Safety Standard. In: : . Paper presented at 1st Software Engineering for AI in Autonomous Systems (pp. 47-49).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automotive Safety and Machine Learning: Initial Results from a Study on How to Adapt the ISO 26262 Safety Standard
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Machine learning (ML) applications generate a continuous stream of success stories from various domains. ML enables many novel applications, also in safety-critical contexts. However, the functional safety standards such as ISO 26262 did not evolve to cover ML. We conduct an exploratory study on which parts of ISO 26262 represent the most critical gaps between safety engineering and ML development. While this paper only reports the first steps toward a larger research endeavor, we report three adaptations that are critically needed to allow ISO 26262 compliant engineering, and related suggestions on how to evolve the standard.

National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34195 (URN)10.1145/3194085.3194090 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051137851 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-5739-5 (ISBN)
Conference
1st Software Engineering for AI in Autonomous Systems
Available from: 2018-07-13 Created: 2018-07-13 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Ploeg, J., Semsar-Kazerooni, E., Morales Medina, A., de Jongh, J. F., van de Sluis, J., Voronov, A., . . . van de Wouw, N. (2018). Cooperative Automated Maneuvering at the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 19(4), 1213-1226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Automated Maneuvering at the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1213-1226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cooperative adaptive cruise control and platooning are well- known applications in the field of cooperative automated driving. However, extension toward maneuvering is desired to accommodate common highway maneuvers, such as merging, and to enable urban applications. To this end, a layered control architecture is adopted. In this architecture, the tactical layer hosts the interaction protocols, describing the wireless information exchange to initiate the vehicle maneuvers, supported by a novel wireless message set, whereas the operational layer involves the vehicle controllers to realize the desired maneuvers. This hierarchical approach was the basis for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC), which was held in May 2016 in The Netherlands. The GCDC provided the opportunity for participating teams to cooperatively execute a highway lane-reduction scenario and an urban intersection-crossing scenario. The GCDC was set up as a competition and, hence, also involving assessment of the teams' individual performance in a cooperative setting. As a result, the hierarchical architecture proved to be a viable approach, whereas the GCDC appeared to be an effective instrument to advance the field of cooperative automated driving.

Keywords
Merging, Road transportation, Protocols, Wireless communication, Automation, Trajectory, Safety, adaptive control, cooperative communication, mobile robots, motion control, multi-robot systems, protocols, road safety, road traffic control, road vehicles, traffic engineering computing, vehicular ad hoc networks, velocity control, Cooperative driving, interaction protocol, controller design, vehicle platoons, wireless communications
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33814 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2017.2765669 (DOI)2-s2.0-85035089916 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2019-01-02Bibliographically approved
Chen, L. & Englund, C. (2018). Every Second Counts: Integrating Edge Computing and Service Oriented Architecture for Automatic Emergency Management. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 2018, Article ID 7592926.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Every Second Counts: Integrating Edge Computing and Service Oriented Architecture for Automatic Emergency Management
2018 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 2018, article id 7592926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emergency management has long been recognized as a social challenge due to the criticality of the response time. In emergency situations such as severe traffic accidents, minimizing the response time, which requires close collaborations between all stakeholders involved and distributed intelligence support, leads to greater survival chance of the injured. However, the current response system is far from efficient, despite the rapid development of information and communication technologies. This paper presents an automated collaboration framework for emergency management that coordinates all stakeholders within the emergency response system and fully automates the rescue process. Applying the concept of multiaccess edge computing architecture, as well as choreography of the service oriented architecture, the system allows seamless coordination between multiple organizations in a distributed way through standard web services. A service choreography is designed to globally model the emergency management process from the time an accident occurs until the rescue is finished. The choreography can be synthesized to generate detailed specification on peer-to-peer interaction logic, and then the specification can be enacted and deployed on cloud infrastructures.

Keywords
Accidents, Architecture, Civil defense, Computation theory, Computer architecture, Disasters, Distributed computer systems, Edge computing, Emergency services, Information services, Response time (computer systems), Risk management, Specifications, Web services, Collaboration framework, Computing architecture, Distributed intelligence, Emergency response systems, Information and Communication Technologies, Multiple organizations, Peer-to-peer interaction, Service choreographies, Service oriented architecture (SOA)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33461 (URN)10.1155/2018/7592926 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042465118 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: H2020-644178; Funding text: T his work is supported by the EU H2020 Project CHOReV-OLUTION Automated Synthesis of Dynamic and Secured Choreographies for the Future Internet with Project no. H2020-644178.

Available from: 2018-03-09 Created: 2018-03-09 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Sprei, F., Habibi, S., Englund, C., Pettersson, S., Voronov, A. & Wedlin, J. (2018). Free-floating car-sharing electrification and mode displacement: Travel time and usage patterns from 12 cities in Europe and the United States. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Free-floating car-sharing electrification and mode displacement: Travel time and usage patterns from 12 cities in Europe and the United States
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2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Free-floating car-sharing (FFCS) allows users to book a vehicle through their phone, use it and return it anywhere within a designated area in the city. FFCS has the potential to contribute to a transition to low-carbon mobility if the vehicles are electric, and if the usage does not displace active travel or public transport use. The aim of this paper is to study what travel time and usage patterns of the vehicles among the early adopters of the service reveal about these two issues. We base our analysis on a dataset containing rentals from 2014 to 2017, for 12 cities in Europe and the United States. For seven of these cities, we have collected travel times for equivalent trips with walking, biking, public transport and private car. FFCS services are mainly used for shorter trips with a median rental time of 27 min and actual driving time closer to 15 min. When comparing FFCS with other transport modes, we find that rental times are generally shorter than the equivalent walking time but longer than cycling. For public transport, the picture is mixed: for some trips there is no major time gain from taking FFCS, for others it could be up to 30 min. For electric FFCS vehicles rental time is shorter and the number of rentals per car and day are slightly fewer compared to conventional vehicles. Still, evidence from cities with an only electric fleet show that these services can be electrified and reach high levels of utilization.

Keywords
Alternative trips, Electric vehicles, Free-floating car-sharing, Shared mobility, Travel time, Usage patterns, Vehicles, Floating car, Low carbon, Mode-displacements, Public transport, Time gain, Transport modes
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36926 (URN)10.1016/j.trd.2018.12.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058802098 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-28 Created: 2018-12-28 Last updated: 2018-12-28Bibliographically approved
Ploeg, J., Englund, C., Nijmeijer, H., Semsar-Kazerooni, E., Shladover, S. E., Voronov, A. & Van de Wouw, N. (2018). Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 19(4), 1208-1212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1208-1212Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cooperative driving is based on wireless communications between vehicles and between vehicles and roadside infrastructure, aiming for increased traffic flow and traffic safety, while decreasing fuel consumption and emissions. To support and accelerate the introduction of cooperative vehicles in everyday traffic, in 2011, nine international teams joined the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC). The challenge was to perform platooning, in which vehicles drive in road trains with short intervehicle distances. The results were reported in a Special Issue of IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, published in September 2012 [item 1 in the Appendix].

Keywords
Wireless communication, Cooperative systems, Automation, Systems architecture, Safety, Control systems
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33816 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2018.2815103 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045020434 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Rosenstatter, T. & Englund, C. (2018). Modelling the Level of Trust in a Cooperative Automated Vehicle Control System. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 19(4), 1267-1247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the Level of Trust in a Cooperative Automated Vehicle Control System
2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1267-1247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicle-to-vehicle communication is a key technology for achieving increased perception for automated vehicles, where the communication enables virtual sensing by means of sensors in other vehicles. In addition, this technology also allows detection and recognition of objects that are out-of-sight. This paper presents a trust system that allows a cooperative and automated vehicle to make more reliable and safe decisions. The system evaluates the current situation and generates a trust index indicating the level of trust in the environment, the ego vehicle, and the surrounding vehicles. This research goes beyond secure communication and concerns the verification of the received data on a system level. The results show that the proposed method is capable of correctly identifying various traffic situations and how the trust index is used while manoeuvring in a platoon merge scenario.

Keywords
autonomous driving, Control systems, cooperative driving, Decision making, GCDC 2016, Kalman filters, Radar, reliability., Sensor systems, trust, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, Vehicular ad hoc networks, Ad hoc networks, Automation, Control system synthesis, Cooperative communication, Mobile telecommunication systems, Object detection, Reliability, Vehicles, Vehicle to vehicle communications
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32433 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2017.2749962 (DOI)2-s2.0-85030752579 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Detournay, J., Englund, C., Frimodig, V., Jansson, O. U., Larsson, T., . . . Shahanoor, G. (2018). Team Halmstad Approach to Cooperative Driving in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 19(4), 1248-1261
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Team Halmstad Approach to Cooperative Driving in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1248-1261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper is an experience report of team Halmstad from the participation in a competition organised by the i-GAME project, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016. The competition was held in Helmond, The Netherlands, during the last weekend of May 2016. We give an overview of our car's control and communication system that was developed for the competition following the requirements and specifications of the i-GAME project. In particular, we describe our implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control, our solution to the communication and logging requirements, as well as the high level decision making support. For the actual competition we did not manage to completely reach all of the goals set out by the organizers as well as ourselves. However, this did not prevent us from outperforming the competition. Moreover, the competition allowed us to collect data for further evaluation of our solutions to cooperative driving. Thus, we discuss what we believe were the strong points of our system, and discuss post-competition evaluation of the developments that were not fully integrated into our system during competition time.

Keywords
autonomous driving, cooperative adaptive cruise control, cooperative driving, GCDC 2016, IEEE 802.11p, platooning
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33309 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2017.2752359 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041535321 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved
Chen, L. & Englund, C. (2017). Choreographing Services for Smart Cities: Smart Traffic Demonstration. In: : . Paper presented at Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2017 IEEE 85th.4-7 June 2017. Sydney, NSW, Australia. , Article ID 8108625.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choreographing Services for Smart Cities: Smart Traffic Demonstration
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the fifth generation (5G) communication technologies on the horizon, the society is rapidly transformed into a fully connected world. The Future Internet (FI) is foreseeable to consist of an infinite number of software components and things that coordinate with each other to enable different applications. Transport systems, as one of the most important systems in future smart cities, will embrace the connectivity, together with the fast development of cooperative and automated vehicles to enable smart traffic. To facilitate this transformation, a service choreography composition platform is under development to enable fast innovation and prototyping of choreography-based Internet of Things (IoT) applications by automatically synthesizing choreographies. Based on the method, a smart traffic application is developed and demonstrated.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33104 (URN)10.1109/VTCSpring.2017.8108625 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040562694 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2017 IEEE 85th.4-7 June 2017. Sydney, NSW, Australia
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Sprei, F., Englund, C., Habibi, S., Pettersson, S., Voronov, A., Wedlin, J. & Engdahl, H. (2017). Comparing electric vehicles and fossil driven vehicles in free-floating car sharing services. In: : . Paper presented at 5th European Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Congress, 14-16 March, 2017, Geneva, Switzerland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing electric vehicles and fossil driven vehicles in free-floating car sharing services
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, free-floating car sharing (FFCS) services have been offered as a more flexible option compared to traditional car sharing. FFCS allows users to pick up and return cars anywhere within a specified area of a city. These can be either electric or fossil driven vehicles. We analyze the difference in usage of these two types of vehicles. The analysis is based on a dataset consisting of vehicle availability data sampled between 2014 and 2016 for 9 cities with EVs in the FFCS fleet. We find that there is no statistical difference in how EVs and fossil driven FFCS vehicles are used. When it comes to charging of EVs two main strategies are identified: widespread “slow charging” versus tailored fast-charging.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33103 (URN)
Conference
5th European Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Congress, 14-16 March, 2017, Geneva, Switzerland
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Habibi, S., Sprei, F., Englund, C., Pettersson, S., Voronov, A., Wedlin, J. & Engdahl, H. (2017). Comparison of free-floating car sharing services incities. In: : . Paper presented at ECEEE 2017 Summer study. eceee 2017 Summer Study on energy efficiency Consumption, efficiency and limits ISSN: 2001-7960 (online)/1653-7025 (print) ISBN: 978-91-983878-1-0 (online)/978-91-983878-0-3 (print). , Article ID 4-109-17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of free-floating car sharing services incities
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered by many organizations as a moreflexible option compared to traditional car sharing. FFCS allows users to pick up and return cars anywherewithin a specified area of a city. FFCS can provide a high degree of utilization of vehicles and less usage ofinfrastructure in the form of parking lots and roads and thus has the potential to increase the efficiency of thetransport sector. However, there is also a concern that these compete with other efficient modes of transport suchas biking and public transport. The aim of this paper is to better understand how, when and where the vehiclesare utilized through logged data of the vehicles movements. We have access to data collected on FFCS servicesin 22 cities in Europe and North America which allows us to compare the usage pattern in different cities andexamine whether or not there are similar trends. In this paper, we use the collected data to compare the differentcities based on utilization rate, length of trip and time of day that the trip is made. We find that the vehicleutilization rates differ between cities with Madrid and Hamburg having some of the highest utilization levels forthe FFCS vehicles. The result form a first step of a better understanding on how these services are being usedand can provide valuable input to local policy makers as well as future studies such as simulation models.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33077 (URN)
Conference
ECEEE 2017 Summer study. eceee 2017 Summer Study on energy efficiency Consumption, efficiency and limits ISSN: 2001-7960 (online)/1653-7025 (print) ISBN: 978-91-983878-1-0 (online)/978-91-983878-0-3 (print)
Note

Funding for this study is provided from the Swedish Energy Agency, Chalmers Area of Advance Transport andChalmers Area of Advance Energy.

Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1043-8773

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