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Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Petersen, H., Jakubowicz, I., Enebro, J. & Yarahmadi, N. (2018). Solid-state organo-modification of montmorillonite for manufacturing of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposites. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 24, E146-E153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid-state organo-modification of montmorillonite for manufacturing of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposites
2018 (English)In: Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, ISSN 1083-5601, Vol. 24, p. E146-E153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The preparation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites via direct melt processing is still posing problems mainly because of the lack of availability of suitable commercial organoclays and because of the low thermal stability of PVC. A new type of organic compounds for modifying montmorillonite (MMT), which is suitable for use in plasticized PVC, has been found earlier. The current study shows that it is possible to achieve partially exfoliated PVC nanocomposites with greatly improved mechanical properties using a method of liquid-solid–state intercalation of MMT when using tributyl citrate and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) plasticizers as organic modifiers. It is also shown that liquid mixed metal stabilizers have the ability to intercalate the clay at least when DINP is used. The observation raises questions regarding how this phenomenon can affect the thermal stability of PVC composites. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 24:E146–E153, 2018. © 2017 Society of Plastics Engineers.

Keywords
Chlorine compounds, Clay minerals, Nanocomposites, Plastic products, Solvents, Thermodynamic stability, Diisononyl phthalate, Liquid solids, Melt processing, Mixed-metals, Montmorillonite (MMT), Organic modifier, Plasticized PVC, PVC composites, Polyvinyl chlorides
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34447 (URN)10.1002/vnl.21618 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047858086 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-09 Created: 2018-08-09 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Petersen, H., Jakubowicz, I., Enebro, J. & Yarahmadi, N. (2016). Development of nanocomposites based on organically modified montmorillonite and plasticized PVC with improved barrier properties. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 133(3), Article ID 42876.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of nanocomposites based on organically modified montmorillonite and plasticized PVC with improved barrier properties
2016 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, no 3, article id 42876Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Montmorillonite (MMT) was organically modified with tributyl citrate (TBC). Organoclays (OMMTs) were processed with diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to form polymer nanocomposites. The produced composite materials showed a contradictory change in properties to that expected of a layered silicate nanocomposite, with a decreased E-modulus and increased gas permeability compared with a material without OMMT. It was experimentally shown that the TBC modifier was extracted from the OMMT and was dispersed in the PVC/DINP matrix, whereupon the OMMT collapsed and formed micrometer-sized agglomerates. Further investigation revealed that TBC has a significant effect on the gas permeability and the E-modulus, even at low additions to a DINP-plasticized PVC. A PVC nanocomposite with the TBC acting as both the OM for MMT and as the primary plasticizer was produced. This material showed a significantly increased E-modulus as well as a decrease in gas permeability, confirming that it is possible to develop a nanocomposite based on plasticized PVC, if both the organo-modification of the MMT and the formulation of the matrix are carefully selected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
clay, manufacturing, mechanical properties, plasticizer, poly(vinyl chloride)
National Category
Polymer Technologies Composite Science and Engineering Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-97 (URN)10.1002/app.42876 (DOI)2-s2.0-84945491968 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Jakubowicz, I., Skrifvars, M., Åkesson, D., Boldizar, A., Yarahmadi, N., Enebro, J., . . . Lindgren, M. (2016). Guide för bioplaster: från tillverkning till återvinning. Ronneby: Ronneby kommun, Cefur www.cefur.se
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guide för bioplaster: från tillverkning till återvinning
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2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ronneby: Ronneby kommun, Cefur www.cefur.se, 2016. p. 82
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27778 (URN)978-91-980961-4-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-08 Created: 2017-01-08 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Yarahmadi, N., Jakubowicz, I. & Enebro, J. (2016). Polylactic acid and its blends with petroleum-based resins: Effects of reprocessing and recycling on properties. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 133(36), Article ID 43916.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polylactic acid and its blends with petroleum-based resins: Effects of reprocessing and recycling on properties
2016 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, no 36, article id 43916Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental and economic reasons make the use of bioplastics and biocomposites increasingly coveted in sectors other than packaging. Recycling of all wasted or rejected durable plastics is highly desired and biobased plastics are no exception. Therefore, the investigation of pre- and post-consumer recycling of products made from biobased plastics is of great interest. Polylactic acid (PLA) and its blends have been chosen for this study because it is an excellent representative of mass-produced bioplastics for industrial applications. As part of the "Sustainable Recycling of 'Green' Plastics" project, the current study addresses the durability issues related to the reprocessing and post-consumer recycling of a PLA virgin resin and two commercially available blends of PLA namely one with polycarbonate (PC) and one with polyethylene (PE). The materials were investigated using methods that simulate post-processing and post-consumer recycling. Accelerated ageing was performed at elevated temperature and humidity to simulate the usage period of the materials. The materials were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their mechanical strength was evaluated by tensile and impact testing. The flow properties of the materials were characterized by the melt flow index (MFI). Multiple processing of pure PLA did not affect the impact strength or the glass transition temperature (Tg), but caused crystallization and increase in the MFI, indicating that degradation occurred during processing. DSC thermograms of the blends revealed that the components in the blends were not miscible. Multiple processing of the blends did not significantly affect the elastic modulus of the materials, but affected the elongation at break. The results indicated that multiple processing of the PLA/HDPE blend caused increased dispersion and thus increased elongation at break, while the dominating mechanism in the PLA/PC blend was degradation that caused a decrease in elongation at break. Post-consumer recycling of the PLA/PC blend was simulated and the results clearly showed that ageing corresponding to one year of use caused a significant degradation of PLA. Pure PLA was severely degraded after only one ageing cycle. Although the PLA/PC blend showed some improved mechanical properties and resistance to degradation compared with pure PLA, one ageing cycle still caused a severe degradation of the PLA and even the PC was degraded as indicated by the formation of small amounts of bisphenol A.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
biopolymers and renewable polymers, blends, degradation, properties and characterization, recycling
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-333 (URN)10.1002/app.43916 (DOI)2-s2.0-84973121333 (Scopus ID)
Note

Note; For authors Jakubowicz, I., Enebro, J.; correct department within SP Technical Research Institutes of Sweden is Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces.

Available from: 2016-06-19 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Petersen, H., Jakubowicz, I., Enebro, J. & Yarahmadi, N. (2015). Organic modification of montmorillonite for application in plasticized PVC nanocomposites (ed.). Applied Clay Science, 107, 78-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic modification of montmorillonite for application in plasticized PVC nanocomposites
2015 (English)In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 107, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new type of organic compound for modifying clay minerals suitable for use in plasticized polyvinyl chloride was selected and studied. The theory of Hansen solubility parameters was used to predict the miscibility between potential organomodifiers and polyvinyl chloride. In a series of systematic experiments using four very different solvents (i.e., water, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and chloroform) and three different types of Mt (i.e., Mt-Na+, Mt-PGV and Mt-Ca++), the importance of various parameters to the process of clay mineral intercalation was investigated. The effects of each combination were evaluated employing wide-angle X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. The results of swelling experiments on clay mineral in various solvents correlated well with the results of a theoretical preliminary study using Hansen solubility parameters. The extent of swelling followed the order H2O > EtOH > THF > chloroform. The d-spacing seemed to be little affected by the type of solvent used in the modification, while the type of Mt used was important to the intercalation results. Organomodification of Mt-Na+ increased the d-spacing by nearly 0.7 nm when tributyl citratewas used as a chelating agent. Similar modification of Mt-Ca++ showed an increase of 0.3 nm only. Furthermore, thermogravimetry and DTG curves showed significant structural differences between Mt-Na+ and Mt-Ca++.

Keywords
Plasticized polyvinyl chloride, Nanoclay, Organomodification, Swelling, Hansen solubility parameter
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6785 (URN)10.1016/j.clay.2015.01.006 (DOI)22517 (Local ID)22517 (Archive number)22517 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Jakubowicz, I. & Enebro, J. (2012). Effects of reprocessing of oxobiodegradable and non-degradable polyethylene on the durability of recycled materials (ed.). Polymer degradation and stability, 97(3), 316-321
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of reprocessing of oxobiodegradable and non-degradable polyethylene on the durability of recycled materials
2012 (English)In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 316-321Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6417 (URN)23954 (Local ID)23954 (Archive number)23954 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Enebro, J. (2011). Quantitative aspects in electrospray ionization ion trap and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of malto-oligosaccharides (ed.). Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 25(15), 2201-2208
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative aspects in electrospray ionization ion trap and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of malto-oligosaccharides
2011 (English)In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 2201-2208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6284 (URN)24005 (Local ID)24005 (Archive number)24005 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7724-2329

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