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With, G. D., Michalik, B., Hoffmann, B. & Döse, M. (2018). Development of a European harmonised standard to determine the natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials. Construction and Building Materials, 171, 913-918
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a European harmonised standard to determine the natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials
2018 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 171, p. 913-918Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2013 the European Commission has published its latest basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom). The council directive regulates radiation exposure from building materials through the presence of radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in these materials. Pivotal to successful regulation is the availability of a harmonised test method for the determination of the radionuclide concentrations as these nuclides form the basis for dose assessment and compliance. In 2017 a Technical Specification (CEN, 2017) on the determination of the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in construction products was published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The purpose of this work is to give an outline of the proposed method, with the protocols for sampling, measurement and data processing as well as a summary of the robustness testing and the expert comments that have been received following the final consultation. 

Keywords
Building materials, Harmonisation, Natural radioactivity, Test method, Data handling, Ionizing radiation, Radiation protection, Activity concentration, Construction products, European committee for standardizations, Radionuclide concentration, Technical specifications, Radioactivity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33877 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.153 (DOI)2-s2.0-85044567124 (Scopus ID)
Note

Technical note Special Issue Use of NORM-containing products in construction

Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Döse, M. (2016). Ionizing Radiation in Concrete and Concrete Buildings: Empirical Assessments. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionizing Radiation in Concrete and Concrete Buildings: Empirical Assessments
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the major issues with radiation from the natural isotopes 40K, 226Ra (238U) and 232Th and their decay products is the forthcoming legislation from the European Commission in relation to its Basic Safety Directive (2014). The European legislation is mandatory and could not be overthrown by national legislation. Hence, even though the BSS is still a directive it is foreseen as becoming a regulation in due time.

The reference value of the natural isotopes, from a radiation point of view, set for building materials is 1 mSv per year (EC, 2014). Earlier recommendations (The Radiation Protection Authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 2000) within the Nordic countries set an upper limit at 2 mSv per year of radiation from building materials.

The main objective within the frame of the thesis was to investigate gamma radiation in relation to Swedish aggregates and their use as final construction products and the applicability and use of a model (EC, 1999) for building materials to calculate the effective dose within a pre-defined room. Part of the thesis also investigates different methodologies that can be used to assess the radiation in a construction material made up of several constituents (building materials) and aims to show that for some purposes as for the construction industries (precast concrete), that a hand-held spectrometer can be used with good accuracy, even though the object is limited in thickness and size. Secondly, the author proposes a simplified way of assessing the radiation in a construction material by use of correlation coefficient of a specified recipe by use of a hand-held spectrometer. Moreover, an understanding of the different building materials´ contribution to the finalized construction product, e.g. concrete is demonstrated, and how to achieve a good control of the radiation levels in the concrete building.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. p. 89
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27782 (URN)978-91-7729-143-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-09-30, Sal B2, Brinellvägen 23, entréplan, 10:05 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Döse, M., Silfwerbrand, J., Jelinek, C., Trägårdh, J. & Isaksson, M. (2016). Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 155-156, 105-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 155-156, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of 4 0K, 226Ra and 232Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ~16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
aggregates, building materials, concrete, construction product, dose model, I-index, radioactivity
National Category
Construction Management Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-383 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.02.012 (DOI)2-s2.0-84960957052 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Döse, M. & Silfwerbrand, J. (2014). Evaluation of the I-index by use of a portable hand-held spectrometer and laboratory methods: a risk assessment of Swedish concrete by use of different crushed aggregates (ed.). Mineralproduksjon (5), A35-A52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the I-index by use of a portable hand-held spectrometer and laboratory methods: a risk assessment of Swedish concrete by use of different crushed aggregates
2014 (English)In: Mineralproduksjon, ISSN 1893-1057, E-ISSN 1893-1170, no 5, p. A35-A52Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The recommended levels of ionizing radiation from construction materials in effective dose is set to a maximum of 1 mSv/year, EC (1996, 1999, 2013), ICRP (2007), IAEA (2011). By using a theoretical model proposed by the European Union (1999), this is equivalent to I-index 1. By using of concrete slabs with dimensions of 1.5 m × 1.5 m × 0.15 m, an empirical approach is suggested for the calculation of the I-index of naturally occurring ionizing radiation from construction materials. Measurements of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and the total gamma radiation were conducted and the I-index values were calculated for each concrete mix. A good linear relationship could be established between measurements performed by the Swedish Cement and Research Institute (CBI) and the laboratory results acquired from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) and Centre de Recherches Pétrographique et Géochimiques/ Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRPG/CNRS). The results indicate that 60 % of the investigated construction materials are in agreement with the stipulated levels set out by the EC (1999, 2013). The cause for the higher levels of ionizing radiation is often elevated concentrations of all the radioactive elements measured. Regarding the concrete samples yielding values of I-index > 1, 232Th makes the largest contribution.

National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2687 (URN)4709 (Local ID)4709 (Archive number)4709 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Döse, M. (2014). Radongas i byggnadsmaterial (ed.). CBI-nytt (1), 10-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radongas i byggnadsmaterial
2014 (Swedish)In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2628 (URN)4717 (Local ID)4717 (Archive number)4717 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Schouenborg, B. & Döse, M. (2011). Manual för CE-märkning av natursten (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manual för CE-märkning av natursten
2011 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Publisher
p. 1-42
Series
MinBaS rapport ; 4.6.a
Keywords
stenprodukter, CE-märkning
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-3019 (URN)
Note

5138 "MinBaS II, Mineral•Ballast•Sten Område 4 Applikationsutveckling - stenindustrin Delområde 4.6.a Slutrapport"

Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Åkesson, U. & Döse, M. (2010). Olika stenmaterials inverkan på partikelmängd från dubbdäckslitage (ed.). CBI-nytt (1), 2-3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Olika stenmaterials inverkan på partikelmängd från dubbdäckslitage
2010 (Swedish)In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2656 (URN)2246 (Local ID)2246 (Archive number)2246 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6559-029x

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