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Carlson, E.-S., Kumm, M., Zakirov, A. & Dederichs, A. (2019). Evacuation tests with elevated platforms in railway tunnels. Fire safety journal, 108, Article ID 102840.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evacuation tests with elevated platforms in railway tunnels
2019 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 108, article id 102840Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the purpose to increase the knowledge on human behaviour when evacuating along elevated platforms, an experiment was carried out at the subway station of Skarpnäck, Stockholm, in October 2016. The overall project objective was to develop basic data for guidelines regarding fire safety design concerning evacuation along elevated platforms. The experiment was designed as a group experiment divided into five different scenarios. In total, 111 persons of mixed gender and age participated. The results from the experiment show that the flow rate along the elevated platform decreased as the walkway was getting narrower. It could also be seen that along the first half of the walkway, where a train was located on the rail track next to the elevated platform, the flow rate was higher and the width of the walkway was used to a lager extent compared to the second half of the walkway where the platform was open to the track area. One of three wheelchair users who participated in the experiment expressed discomfort caused by the height and the width of the walkway and nearly half of the participants experienced problems with passing others walking slower than themselves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Behavioral research, Fires, Subway stations, A-train, Fire safety designs, Human behaviours, Project objectives, Rail tracks, Railway tunnels, Stockholm, Wheelchair users, Railroads
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39920 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2019.102840 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071578399 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Trafikverket; Funding text 1: The project was initiated and financed by the Swedish Transport Administration . The study was a cooperation between RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and Brandskyddslaget . RISE was responsible for planning, performing and evaluating the experiment. This work has been carried out as a grant research project and no agreements existed that could have influenced the project results. The Swedish Transport Administration – being both the initiator of the project as well as one of the end users – has however participated in early experiment discussions.; Funding text 2: This study was a part of the project “Elevated platforms in railway tunnels”. The project was a cooperation between RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and Brandskyddslaget. The authors would like to thank The Swedish Transport Administration for initiating and financing this project and thereby making it possible to increase the knowledge within this research area. The experiment was performed with support from MTR Nordic AB (MTR), Stockholm Public Transport (SL) and Stockholm Greater Fire Brigade (SSBF). The authors would like to thank these organisations that made the full-scale tests possible to perform. Karl Fridolf, former colleague to the authors, was the initiator of the project, performed the literature study and performed a pilot experiment that formed a base for the full-scale tests. Karl Fridolf should therefore be especially thanked for his contribution. Many others have also helped during the preparation or performance of the full-scale tests and special thanks should be directed to fire engineer Per Rohlén who, as always, provided the authors with valuable photos and thoughts. Appendix A

Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Carlson, E.-S. & Zakirov, A. (2018). Utrymning uppåt i lutande tunnel.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utrymning uppåt i lutande tunnel
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It’s getting more and more common to

build infrastructures underground, which results in more people using underground facilities in their everyday life. The evacuation routes from this environment often involve long, ascending tunnels. In order to evaluate the evacuation time for these facilities, knowledge about people’s movement in this kind of environment is required. Today the knowledge within this area is limited, why new research within this field is needed.

The current study included two essential parts; 1) initial literature review where the state of the art within the current research field was mapped and 2) an experiment. The purpose of the experiment was to study people

’s walking speed and behaviour during ascending evacuation in inclined tunnels. The aim of the study was to develop data that can be used as basis for guidelines regarding fire safety design in major infrastructure projects and risk and safety assessment of underground facilities.

The experiment was carried out at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in March 2018. In total 32 persons participated and they were asked to individually walk upwards 907 m in a tunnel with an inclination of 14 %. When walking in the tunnel, the participants

’ walking speed, vertical walking speed, pulse and rating of perceived exertion were documented. In addition to the individual tests in the tunnel, the experiment included reference tests and a survey.

When comparing the walking speeds collected in the current experiment with the walking speeds from previous experiments where people were asked to walk upwards long stairs, it can be seen that the walking speeds in the current experiment are higher. When comparing the vertical walking speeds, the result is reversed. A possible explanation for this is that climbing the stairs requires a larger vertical movement compared to moving in the tunnel where the movement is more horizontal.

In the current experiment, 59 % of the participants used an identifiable strategy when moving upwards in the tunnel. The strategies have been categorized as follows:

1) Adjust the walking speed to a pace the participant believe he/she can keep for a longer distance.

2) Focus on breathing.

3) Keep a lower walking speed in the beginning.

4) Concentrate on the surroundings to avoid thinking about how tired he/she is.

5) Focus on the goal.

In general, when walking up the tunnel the walking speed was more or less the same during the whole climb, but the participants experienced a considerable increased perceived exertion. This can be the result of Strategy 1 presented above.

The results of the current experiment show a tendency for walking speed to decrease with increased fatigue. A comparison between the rating of perceived exertion and the normalized walking speed indicates that the walking speed and fatigue stabilized during the movement in the tunnel.

Publisher
p. 134
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:64
Keywords
evacuation, ascending evacuation, physical exertion, walking speed, vertical walking speed
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36666 (URN)978-91-88907-07-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Carlson, E.-S., Kumm, M., Dederich, A. & Zakirov, A. (2017). Upphöjda gångbanor i spårtunnlar.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upphöjda gångbanor i spårtunnlar
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I tunnlar för spårbunden trafik har allt fler upphöjda gångbanor projekterats de senaste åren. Dessa gångbanor är belägna lägst i jämnhöjd med överkanten på rälsen och som högst i jämnhöjd med tågets utgångar, med en sträckning längs med spårtunneln, och är avsedda att användas vid utrymning. Upphöjda gångbanor har framhållits som en personsäkerhetshöjande åtgärd, men dess egentliga påverkan på säkerhetsnivån är baserade på mycket begränsade erfarenheter och osäkert beräkningsunderlag.

Syftet med utfört utrymningsförsök har varit att studera människors beteende och förflyttning vid utrymning på upphöjda gångbanor.

Det övergripande projektmålet har varit att utveckla förslag till riktlinjer (beslutsunderlag) angående hur olika faktorer som påverkar utrymningsförloppet på upphöjda gångbanor ska hanteras vid brandteknisk projektering. Målet med de utförda försöken som presenteras i denna rapport var att generera ett kvantitativt och kvalitativt resultat, som stöd och underlag till dessa riktlinjer.

Arbetet har begränsats till att behandla flöde av personer, nyttjande av gångbanebredden, människors förutsättningar att passera långsamgående samt möjlighet till utrymning för rullstolsburna. Rapporten har dessutom kompletterats med observationer som gjorts då insamlat videomaterial bearbetats i samband med analysen.

Utrymningsförsöket genomfördes på Skarpnäcks tunnelbanestation, Stockholm. Då stationen inte har några befintliga upphöjda gångbanor byggdes en gångbana med hjälp av skärmväggar intill perrongkanten. Totalt 111 försökspersoner deltog, varav tre var rullstolsburna.

Försöket var indelat i fem delförsök. I delförsök 1, 3 och 5 förflyttade sig hela försöksgruppen från ena änden av gångbanan till den andra. Bredden varierades mellan 1,20 m, 1,05 m respektive 0,90 m. I delförsök 2 och 4 delades försöksgruppen upp i två delar. Hälften förflyttade sig, likt tidigare delförsök, längs med gångbanan och hälften startade i det tåg som fanns parkerat intill gångbanan och anslöt sedan till flödet på gångbanan. Bredden varierades mellan 1,20 m respektive 1,05 m. Referensförsök utfördes i en korridor, som också den byggdes upp med skärmväggar på perrongen. När del- och referensförsöken var avslutade ombads försökspersonerna att delta i en enkätstudie, vilket de flesta valde att göra.

Resultaten från försöket visar att personflödet sjönk med minskad bredd på gångbanan. Detta gällde för samtliga punkter där flödet mättes, inklusive flödet ut ur tåget. I resultaten framgår också att gångbanans bredd nyttjades i större utsträckning på den del av gångbanan där ett tåg stod parkerat intill gångbanan än på den del där det var öppet ut mot spårområdet.

I enkätundersökningen framgår att nästan hälften av försökspersonerna upplevde att det var problem att passera långsamgående personer. Vissa passerade, men med svårigheter, och andra ville passera, men fick inte möjlighet till det.

En av de tre rullstolsburna som deltog i försöket upplevde obehag orsakat av gångbanans höjd och bredd, vilket resulterade i att personen endast deltog i delförsök 1 och 2.

Abstract [en]

In recent years an increasing amount of elevated platforms in railway tunnels has been designed. The platforms are positioned at the same level as the body of the train or above the rail top in purpose to facilitate off-platform evacuation. The purpose of using elevating platforms has been to increase personal safety, but knowledge on their actual impact on the evacuation is based on very limited experience.

The purpose of the performed tests was to study human behavior when evacuating along an elevated platform for different scenarios and the overall project objective was to develop guidelines for fire safety design concerning evacuation along elevated platforms. The tests presented in this report aimed to deliver both quantitative and qualitative results as basis for those guidelines.

The analysis includes flow rate of people, the effect of the width of the elevated walkway, people’s ability to pass others who are walking with lower speed and the possibility for people using wheelchairs to evacuate. The report also includes observations made when processing the video material during the analysis.

Several large scale experiments were carried out at the subway station at Skarpnäck in Stockholm. Since the existing station platform is wider than is normally the case for elevated tunnel walkway platforms, a temporary walkway was built by using screen walls placed next to the platform edge. There were a total of 111 participants, including three wheelchair users.

Five evacuation experiments were conducted. In the 1st, 3rd and 5th experiment all the participants walked from one end of the walkway to the other end. The width of the walkway varied between 1.20 m, 1.05 m and 0.90 m. In the 2nd and 4th run the participants were divided into two groups. One group walked, as in the previous experiments, from one end of the walkway to the other, and the second group started in the train that was parked next to the walkway and joined the flow on the walkway as the first group passed the train doors. The width of the walkway in the experiments was 1.2 m and 1.05 m respectively. Reference tests were carried out prior to the main tests in a corridor, which was also built with screen walls on the platform. After the test was completed a survey was conducted to identify parameters that could have affected the decisions and behaviour during the tests.

The results from the tests show that the flow along the elevated walkway decreased as the walkway was getting narrower. This was true for all the areas where the flow was measured, including the flow out of the train. It is also shown that the entire width of the walkway is used to a larger extent when a train was parked next to the walkway compared to when one side was open to the rail tracks.

In the survey it appears that almost 50 % of the participants felt that it was a problem passing others who were walking slower then themselves. Some of them passed others, but with difficulties and some wanted to pass, but never got the opportunity to do so.

Of the three wheelchair users participating in the test, one user experienced discomfort caused by the height and limited width of the elevated walkway. As a consequence the person only took part in experiments 1 and 2.

Publisher
p. 65
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2017:11
Keywords
elevated walkway, evacuation, track tunnel, railway tunnel, upphöjd gångbana, förhöjd gångbana, utrymning, spårtunnel, järnvägstunnel
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30344 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9493-0521

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