Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 39) Show all publications
Burden, H., Stenberg, S., Bodea, G., van Ette, F., Lazo, C. & Ailisto, H. (2023). A Comparison of AI Policies and Programmes in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden – Case Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparison of AI Policies and Programmes in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden – Case Sweden
Show others...
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In 2018 the Swedish Government released its strategy on AI, the national approach for artificial intelligence. The strategy focuses on three main areas – education, research and innovation – with the ambition that Sweden would be the best country in the world regarding applying AI. Two key areas were mentioned – the competitiveness of Swedish enterprises on a global market and the strengthening of the public sector.

Since then, the domestic discourse has changed, as Social-democratic lead governments have been replaced by a Conservative-Liberal government, the launch of ChatGPT, as well as the introduction of EUs Digital Decade with new targets for digitalisation and a proposed regulation of AI. We have therefore conducted a first evaluation of the strategy and the state of AI in Sweden. Based on official reports and interviews we recommend that the Swedish strategy on AI should …

… acknowledge the EU and accommodate for the upcoming regulations and resources within the Digital Decade,

… embrace the pluralism of Swedish governance and facilitate collaboration among authorities and different levels of administration,

... ensure the competence and the mandate of the public sector accordingly,

... be adaptable to changes in both the domestic and international discourse,

… investigate long-term funding solutions of strategic AI initiatives, and finally,

… define sustainable and ethical AI in order to facilitate responsible usage and development of AI as well as facilitate procurement.

This will require prioritisation of targets and initiatives as well as a way of assessing progress which is suitable for the Swedish context.

Publisher
p. 51
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:65
Keywords
Policy development, Artificial Intelligence, Strategy, Digitalisation, Crosscountry comparison, European Union, Digital Decade
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65514 (URN)978-91-89821-20-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-14 Created: 2023-06-14 Last updated: 2023-06-16Bibliographically approved
Bram, S., Burgén, J. & Burden, H. (2023). Evakuering av kustnära fartyg i en automatiserad framtid.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evakuering av kustnära fartyg i en automatiserad framtid
2023 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Den kustnära färjetrafiken är en tacksam miljö för att testa nya automationslösningar. Här finns många fartyg som trafikerar relativt lugna vatten och där bemanningen redan idag är begränsad till en eller två personer. Men förändringar i teknik och bemanning kommer också kräva nya perspektiv i säkerhetsarbetet. I projektet SPECTRUM har besättningens roll vid en nödevakuering undersökts och jämförts med olika automationsscenarier för kustnära färjetrafik. Resultatet pekar ut områden där fortsatt forskning och utveckling är nödvändig för att säkerställa att en evakuering av ett fartyg kan genomföras med så goda förutsättningar som möjligt - om bemanningen reduceras, yrkesroller förändras eller om besättningen ersätts med automationslösningar.

Publisher
p. 3
Keywords
Sjöfart, automatisering, evakuering, utrymning, human factors
National Category
Robotics Marine Engineering Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67750 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2021/54263
Available from: 2023-11-14 Created: 2023-11-14 Last updated: 2023-11-14Bibliographically approved
Burden, H. & Stenberg, S. (2023). Implications of the AI Act in relation to mobility. Transportation Research Procedia, 72, 1832-1839
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications of the AI Act in relation to mobility
2023 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 72, p. 1832-1839Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ambition of the European Union is to lead the way in digitalization. A cornerstone in fulfilling the ambition is the proposed AI Act. Our ambition with this contribution is to create awareness of how regulating Artificial Intelligence (AI) will affect mobility within the EU. The chosen definition of AI is broad enough to cover most software and the regulated topics will affect areas such as road traffic and public transport, safety components in machines but not vehicles. Such systems deemed to pose a high risk will need to be certified and CE-marked. It will also have an impact on the relationship between provider and user of AI systems, with a clear ambition to open the black box of business to enable compliancy with GDPR and handling of anomalies. At the same time, the AI Act opens up for using personal data for other purposes than originally stated during collection.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71266 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2023.11.660 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-01-24 Created: 2024-01-24 Last updated: 2024-01-24Bibliographically approved
Burden, H., Stenberg, S. & Olsson, M. (2023). Proposed EU Regulations’ Impact on Data Utilisation– A Multi-Case Study within Public Transport.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proposed EU Regulations’ Impact on Data Utilisation– A Multi-Case Study within Public Transport
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Motivation: In a broad sense data sharing onboard public transport vehicles is governed by two different business models – interoperable and free of charge access for some data versus data that is restricted to specific uses by commercial contracts and existing legislation. Under the Digital Decade the EU has proposed new legislation with the ambition to promote a single digital market. The question then arises – how will the upcoming regulations affect existing business models for data utilisation?

Method: We have investigated two different cases where existing technology meets upcoming EU legislation. The questions have been framed through dialogue with actors in the industry, to cover topics and questions that are both concrete and current. Using the policy lab methodology, we have investigated the possibility to re-use surveillance film from public transport vehicles for passenger counting. The analysis compares GDPR and the Swedish camera surveillance act with the proposed AI Act, to see what new possibilities or obstacles arise. We have also explored the changes that the Data Act may impose on different actors’ access to data derived from the batteries installed in an electric bus.

Results: The AI Act will not change the business models within the eco-system but facilitate access to more personal data (including personal data where GDPR otherwise would be a barrier), useful for training automated passenger counting. Those responsible for placing the system on the market will still need to ensure that they are compliant with GDPR in terms of processing personal data. In terms of the Data Act the outcome is more disruptive as the owner and user of a vehicle is entitled to all data representing their usage, free of charge, and this will impair existing business models for data access. It is also possible for multiple actors to be users, for instance if the vehicle is owned by a public transport authority and leased by an operator.

Discussion: Our analysis shows that while the impact of the Data Act can resonate with the ambitions behind the regulation in terms of making more data interoperable and available free of charge, it can also have the opposite effect. The latter is specifically the case where altruistic data sharing already is in place and the Data Act imposes standard contracts for and role-based restrictions towards utilisation. Both the AI Act and the Data Act are complex and often difficult to assess. In relation to the Data Act, the recitals were helpful for interpreting the application of articles and definitions. For understanding the relationship between the AI Act and GDPR we combined the legal analysis with prototyping the impacts and relied on sharing insights with other actors. This highlights the need for multiple ways of performing the data collection and analysis as well as the suitability of policy labs as a research method

Publisher
p. 33
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:47
Keywords
Digital Decade, Data Act, Artificial Intelligence Act, ITxPT, Policy, Policy lab, Regulation, Regulatory development
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64372 (URN)978-91-89757-97-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-04-24 Created: 2023-04-24 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K., Burden, H., Carlgren, L., Lundahl, J., Schnurr, M., Sobiech, C., . . . Thidevall, N. (2023). RISE Policylabb – de första fem åren.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RISE Policylabb – de första fem åren
Show others...
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this report, we have compiled our learnings and experiences of working with Policy Lab. Policy Labs have come about as an answer to the question "Can you work with policy and regulatory development in a better way than today?". Our answer to the question is a yes. Our hope with the report is that others will become interested and start their own Policy Lab. Abroad, there are many Policy Labs, but in Sweden there are only a few, which is why we believe there is room for more. There is not a given way to work with Policy Labs once and for all, but each Policy Lab is unique based on its context. Sweden's innovation agency Vinnova defines Policy Labs as follows: "Policy Labs can be explained as a group of actors with different competencies who want to develop a regulatory framework. In the Policy Lab, they use a set of user-centric methods and competencies to test, experiment, and learn in policy development."1 In our Policy Lab, we have worked in various research projects to: 1. analyse challenges/problems that arise between innovations, technology, market, and regulations, 2. develop one or more workable solutions and 3. interact with relevant actors to determine the next steps. What distinguishes our Policy Lab is that we never “own” the issue or solution. We must therefore always work with other actors who can take the results further. Our goal is to enable and skill people. This means that for us it is important to work concretely with real problems and needs owners and preferably test different solutions. We focus on the here and now perspective and not on what the future will look like in 10 years. It is about taking the next step forward towards the future, not creating the best rule, but instead creating the next rule. We also work consistently agile and use design as a method for problem solving. This means that the way we organize our work in the Policy Lab is circular and not linear. When it comes to using design as a method for problem solving, we use the concepts of "design thinking" and "double diamond". For us, it is also important that the members of the Policy Lab have different backgrounds and skills depending on what is needed in the individual project....

Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:20
Keywords
Policy Lab, policy development, phase problem, innovation, regulatory sandbox, design thinking, double diamond
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64091 (URN)978-91-89757-63-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-02-27 Created: 2023-02-27 Last updated: 2024-01-05Bibliographically approved
Burden, H. & Stenberg, S. (2023). Sustainable AI and Disruptive Policy – AI Regulatory Sandboxes.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable AI and Disruptive Policy – AI Regulatory Sandboxes
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid pace of digitalization and the new opportunities for value creation has raised a concern that regulation is lagging behind and becoming an obstacle. A number of tools have been proposed in order to facilitate innovation that is aligned with existing or upcoming policies.

A specific case of both facilitating and regulating innovation is the EU’s proposed regulation of AI systems. The act not only poses legal requirements on providers and users of AI systems but also includes measures for facilitating innovation – the concept of regulatory sandboxes is defined with specific purposes together with legal exempts.

At the time of releasing our paper, the trilogue has reached a political agreement. This means the proposed AI Act will be, even though we do not yet have the final wording. By mapping the negotiation mandates of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union against Swedish experiences of facilitating innovation and regulatory compliance in relation to AI, we still suggest launching pilots for regulatory sandboxes without delay.

Based on our own experiences from conducting policy labs and those reported on by others from their regulatory trials, we conclude that it takes time to grow confidence in defining a research agenda with other stakeholders and then strike the balance between facilitation and surveillance of innovation. Something that will require institutional learning and capacity building.

The mandate to foster and facilitate regulatory compliance as well as innovation, given to the public sector through the AI Act’s regulatory sandboxes, is disruptive. It changes the role and responsibilities for some national authorities, requiring the acquisition of new competences and resources, as well as for the private sector. When they team up with a competent authority the mandate to act becomes larger, as does the responsibility with regards to which kinds of innovation to drive.

Conducting trials in the current window of opportunity, between now and when the AI Act is in force, will create experiences that policy makers and stakeholders can draw on when creating the detailed guidelines for organising regulatory sandboxes. Adopting an incremental and iterative process enables a transition from learning the basics of selecting a case and finding relevant partners to detailing how to process data and sharing responsibilities and rewards.

Publisher
p. 22
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:107
Keywords
Policy labs, Regulatory development, AI Act, Safety case, Public sector, Innovation, Research
National Category
Software Engineering Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71548 (URN)978-91-89821-87-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

This publication is partly financed by the Swedish Innovation Agency, grant number 2021-03639. 

Available from: 2024-02-06 Created: 2024-02-06 Last updated: 2024-02-09Bibliographically approved
Burden, H., Stenberg, S., Carlgren, L. & Sjöblom, T. (2023). The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships. Transportation Research Procedia, 72, 1840-1847
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships
2023 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1457, Vol. 72, p. 1840-1847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships, or smart ships, explored three use cases for developing policy in practice. The policies regard smart ships on national waters: one short-term written policy identifying the next shared step for two authorities to position remote navigational assistance as a new service, giving the maritime ecosystem one official position to relate to; one informal policy relying on a mutual trust, where information sharing between an operator of small, unmanned ships and the supervisory authority enables critical competence building; and one evolving policy on the process of certifying autonomous or remote operated functions using non-standardized technology. In conclusion, despite shipping being explicitly regulated internationally we found that there is substantial leeway for national policies regarding smart ships on national waters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71528 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2023.11.661 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182933579 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors would like to thank the representatives of the participating parties for their dedication and openness during the policy lab. The work had not been possible without funding from Swedish Transportation Administrationsresearch portfolio.

Available from: 2024-01-30 Created: 2024-01-30 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Burden, H. & Amanuel, M. D. (2022). Förarlösa tjänster i Västra Skaraborg - En förstudie inom SMaRT-projektet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förarlösa tjänster i Västra Skaraborg - En förstudie inom SMaRT-projektet
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Inom projektet SMaRT har RISE utfört en förstudie för att analysera möjligheterna till förarlösa tjänster inom Västra Skaraborg. Målet för de svenska deltagarna i SMaRTprojektet var att undersöka hur besökare kan ta sig till attraktiva besöksplatser utan egen bil. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt när en möjlig lösning skulle kunna vara förarlösa tjänster. Arbetet utfördes i nära samarbete med representanter från de berörda kommunerna. Vi har identifierat en potentiell rutt i Vara tätort där man förutom själva tjänsten även skulle kunna få synergieffekter mellan tjänsten och kommunala mål för trafiken i tätorten. En mer generell slutsats är att förarlösa tjänster i sig inte nödvändigtvis är värt investeringen, utan man bör se hur tjänsten passar in i ett större systemperspektiv för att bedöma dess lämplighet. Vi har också inom arbetet identifierat en rad platser där det finns enklare och mer omedelbara insatser om man vill nå allmänna mål kring smart besöksnäring och konkretare mål för den unika platsen. I många fall pågår redan ett sådant arbete och vi rekommenderar att fortsätta på det spåret hellre än att klämma in en förarlös tjänst. Ett exempel är hur många av de platser vi besökt är omtalade för naturupplevelsen samtidigt som det finns ett ökande behov av parkeringsplatser för att tillgodose alla besökare. Här kan man planera annorlunda för framtiden så att första parkett inte ges till de som fikar i den egna bilen utan till de som cyklat, tågluffat eller åkt tillsammans med andra. Och då också tillhandahålla de mobilitetsalternativen.

Publisher
p. 14
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:114
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60302 (URN)978-91-89711-92-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Burden, H., Stenberg, S., Carlgren, L. & Sjöblom, T. (2022). Policylabb Smarta Fartyg.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policylabb Smarta Fartyg
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Swedish Shipping Policy Lab

Smart ships, or Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships as they are also known, have a great potential to advance shipping and sustainable development through optimisation of operations and maintenance. In situations that pose a risk to humans or where humans tend to lose their concentration, smart ships can also contribute to increased safety onboard and for the environment. In short, smart ships are suitable for operations that are dirty, dull and dangerous. The Swedish Shipping Policy Lab was an initiative to support on-going projects within smart shipping with policy-developing activities with the ambition to strengthen Swedish competitiveness. The project has actively strived for a systematic approach to how shipowners, technology developers and authorities among others can foster policy development and innovation in relation to smart ships. As an outcome the project has identified three policies related to the investigated cases (see Appendix G for more details): 1. Navigational assistance from land – A shared statement by the Swedish Maritime Administration and the Swedish Transport Agency on the role of navigational assistance from land and the need to further investigate the service before it can be regulated in more detail. 2. The Ljusterö Ferry – Certification of ferries is commonly done in relation to an established and consistent set of technical requirements. For smart ships such as the new road ferries procured for the Ljusterö-connection it is reasonable to complement traditional certification with a safety case to ensure that the ship is seaworthy. 3. Smart maritime drones – Ships less than five meters long that do not carry passengers are excluded from national rules regulating the supervision performed by the Swedish Transport Agency. As long as there is no explicit need to inspect a specific ship, the probability of a supervision is low. If an inspection were to incur, it is necessary to show how the smart ship and its operation complies to applicable regulation in terms of laws and collision avoidance. Despite the maritime sector having a long tradition of international governance there are still no international instruments explicitly for smart ships. A conclusion from the policy lab is that while such work is ongoing, there is room for the flag states and their authorities to develop and operate smart ships in accordance with national policies. Or, to paraphrase, smart ships seem suitable for operations that are dirty, dull, dangerous and domestic.

Publisher
p. 61
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:94
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61117 (URN)978-91-89711-34-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-10-31 Created: 2022-10-31 Last updated: 2023-10-25Bibliographically approved
Burden, H. & Stenberg, S. (2022). Regulating Trust – An Ongoing Analysis of the AI Act.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulating Trust – An Ongoing Analysis of the AI Act
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The initial proposal for an EU act regulating Artificial Intelligence, commonly referred to as the AI Act, has undergone substantial modifications under the Slovenian, French and Czech presidencies since it’s proposal by the Commission in spring 2021. As the content and details change over time it has become necessary to analyse to what extent the act will build trust towards AI as technology. In this position paper the ambition is to highlight one aspect of the act – the relation to trust – based on the version drafted for the general approach by the Council. Now, even reducing the analysis to one aspect is a complex task and the chosen points are the ones we have seen gaining most interest with the stakeholders we have interacted with. There are other points that could have been included but we have chosen to leave them out so as to not obscure the overall picture by all the details. The text does not follow a traditional structure of Introduction – Method – Results. Rather it represents nuggets we have dug out while exploring the proposed regulation, here analysed in relation to the notion of trust. We also assume that the reader has a basic understanding of the initial proposal. For those interested in a more detailed account of our method we recommend our contribution on agile principles for analysing upcoming regulations. Before we get going, we want to make it clear that while we are indebted to numerous representatives from commercial enterprises, public administrators spanning across EU departments to Swedish municipalities as well as researchers from different institutions, we are solely responsible for the claims and the analysis presented in this contribution.

Publisher
p. 13
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:138
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61344 (URN)978-91-89757-27-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-12-06 Created: 2022-12-06 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1811-0123

Search in DiVA

Show all publications