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Arrhenius, K., Fischer, A., Büker, O., Adrien, H., El Masri, A., Lestremau, F. & Robinson, T. (2020). Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent. RSC Advances, 10(20), 11907-11917
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent
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2020 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, no 20, p. 11907-11917Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020
Keywords
Gas chromatography, Vehicles, Accurate quantifications, Analytical method, Compressor oil, Detection and quantification limit, Measurement methods, Measurement uncertainty, Oil contents, Uncertainty analysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44716 (URN)10.1039/d0ra01399d (DOI)2-s2.0-85082745947 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-27 Created: 2020-04-27 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Bohlen, H., Büker, O., de Krom, I., Heikens, D. & van Wijk, J. (2020). Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds. Applied Sciences, 10(1), Article ID 120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds
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2020 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2020
Keywords
Fuel cells, Hydrogen, Hydrogen quality, Hydrogen vehicle, Sorbent, Thermal desorption
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43948 (URN)10.3390/app10010120 (DOI)2-s2.0-85079132423 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Fischer, A. & Büker, O. (2019). Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags. Applied Sciences, 9(6), Article ID 1171.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags
2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 1171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and numerous excellent opportunities for use; for example, as vehicle fuel after upgrading (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical for ensuring that the gas can be used technically and safely. An essential part of any procedure aimed at determining the quality is the sampling and transfer to the laboratory. Sampling bags and sorbent tubes are widely used for collecting biogas. In this study, we have combined these two methods, i.e., sampling in a gas bag before subsequent sampling onto tubes in order to demonstrate that this alternative can help eliminate the disadvantages associated with the two methods whilst combining their advantages; with expected longer storage stability as well as easier sampling and transport. The results of the study show that two parameters need to be taken into account when transferring gas from a bag on to an adsorbent; the water content of the gas and the flow rate used during transfer of the gas on to the adsorbent. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Bags, Biogas, Biomethane, Flow rate, Sampling
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38460 (URN)10.3390/app9061171 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063743716 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
Hakonen, A., Karlsson, A., Lindman, L., Büker, O. & Arrhenius, K. (2018). Particles in fuel-grade Liquefied Natural Gas. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 55, 350-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particles in fuel-grade Liquefied Natural Gas
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 55, p. 350-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The utilization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the heavy-duty transport sector is a convenient and cost-effective step towards a sustainable future. However, there are questions regarding LNG fuel quality and destructive particles for engines. Basically nothing is known about particles in the commercial LNG being fueled today. The gravimetric and SEM-EDX results here demonstrates that there are precarious metal and silicon dioxide particles in fuel-grade LNG that can clog and erode engine parts. Considering these results further research in the direction of this study, including standardized method development, is highly motivated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2018
Keywords
Fuel, Liquefied natural gas, LNG, Microscopy, Particles, SEM-EDX, Cost effectiveness, Elementary particles, Engines, Fueling, Gas fuel purification, Microscopic examination, Natural gas transportation, Silica, Cost effective, Engine parts, Fuel grade, Heavy duty, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Standardized methods, Transport sectors
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34306 (URN)10.1016/j.jngse.2018.05.005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048716515 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
De Huu, M. A., Büker, O., Christensen, R., Macdonald, M., Maury, R. C., Schrade, M., . . . Stadelmann, P. (2018). The European Research Project on Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles - MetroHyVe. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Paper presented at 22nd World Congress of the International Measurement Confederation, IMEKO 2018, 3 September 2018 through 6 September 2018. Institute of Physics Publishing, 1065(9), Article ID 092017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The European Research Project on Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles - MetroHyVe
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2018, Vol. 1065, no 9, article id 092017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A large hydrogen infrastructure is currently in development across Europe. However, the industry faces the dilemma that they are required to meet certain measurement requirements set by European legislation that cannot currently be followed due to the lack of available methods and standards. The EMPIR Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles project will be the first large scale project of its kind that will tackle the four measurement challenges that currently prevent the industry from meeting requirements set by International Standards such as flow metering, quality control, quality assurance and sampling. This paper presents a brief overview of the specific objectives of the project and focuses on the flow metering work package and the presentation of its planned tasks, which comprise laboratory and measurements in the field. Laboratory work will assess the use of substitute fluids to hydrogen to provide a safer and more cost effective method for the type approval of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS). To be able to link laboratory work to field testing, mobile primary standards will be developed and the design of a field testing primary standard will be addressed. The aim is to inform what the European national metrology institutes are currently developing in the field of hydrogen flow metering and quality control of HRS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing, 2018
Keywords
Cost effectiveness, Flow measurement, Flowmeters, Hydrogen, Quality assurance, Cost-effective methods, European legislation, European research project, Hydrogen infrastructure, Hydrogen refuelling stations, International standards, Large-scale projects, National metrology institutes, Quality control
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37277 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1065/9/092017 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057471175 (Scopus ID)
Conference
22nd World Congress of the International Measurement Confederation, IMEKO 2018, 3 September 2018 through 6 September 2018
Note

Conference code: 142236; Export Date: 18 January 2019; Conference Paper

Available from: 2019-01-21 Created: 2019-01-21 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Karlsson, A., Hakonen, A., Ohlson, L., Yaghooby, H. & Büker, O. (2018). Variations of fuel composition during storage at Liquefied Natural Gas refuelling stations. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 49, 317-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variations of fuel composition during storage at Liquefied Natural Gas refuelling stations
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 49, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Biogas (LBG) utilization within the heavy duty transport sector is today a sustainable alternative to the use of oil. However, in spite of the high degree of insulation in the storage tank walls, it is impossible to fully avoid any net heat input from the surroundings. Due to some degree of vaporization this results in variation in gas composition during storage at refuelling stations, potentially leading to engine failures. Within this study, a vaporizer/sampler has been built and tested at a station delivering liquefied biomethane (LBG) and occasionally; such in this case, LNG to heavy and medium duty trucks. The vaporizer/sampler has then been used to study the variation of the LNG composition in the storage tank during a two weeks period. The results clearly underline a correlation between the gas phase and the liquid phase as the concentration changes follow the same trend in both phases. Two opposite effects are assumed to influence the concentration of methane, ethane and propane in the liquid and in the gas phase. On one hand, because of the probable presence of not fully mixed layers in the storage tank and due to vehicles being refuelled, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in methane at the expense of ethane and propane. On the other hand, due to boil-off effect towards the end of the storage period, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in ethane and propane at the expense of methane.

Keywords
Ageing, Composition, LBG, LNG, Refuelling station, Chemical analysis, Ethane, Fuel storage, Gas fuel purification, Gases, Liquefied natural gas, Liquids, Methane, Natural gas, Natural gas transportation, Propane, Tanks (containers), Vaporization, Concentration change, Fuel compositions, Gas compositions, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquid and gas phasis, Transport sectors, Gas fuel storage
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33264 (URN)10.1016/j.jngse.2017.11.014 (DOI)2-s2.0-85035751251 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: EURAMET, European Association of National Metrology Institutes; Funding details: ENG 60 LNG; Funding text: This paper is written under the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project ENG 60 LNG II Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport fuel applications , and the authors would like to acknowledge the funding of this Programme by EURAMET (European Association of National Metrology Institutes) and the European Commission . In addition, the authors are grateful to Fordonsgas AB who made their station available for the tests performed in this study.

Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Yaghooby, H., Rosell, L., Büker, O., Culleton, L., Bartlett, S., . . . Beranek, J. (2017). Suitability of vessels and adsorbents for the short-term storage of biogas/biomethane for the determination of impurities – Siloxanes, sulfur compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons, BTEX. Biomass and Bioenergy, 105, 127-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suitability of vessels and adsorbents for the short-term storage of biogas/biomethane for the determination of impurities – Siloxanes, sulfur compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons, BTEX
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2017 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 105, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and various excellent opportunities to use, for example as vehicle fuel (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical to ensure that the gas can technically and safely be used. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determine the quality is the sampling and the transfer to the laboratory. One of the greatest challenges is then to ensure that the composition of the sample collected does not change between the time of sampling and the analysis. The choice of the sampling vessel to be used must be made only after fully assessing its short-term stability. In this paper, the results from short-term stability studies in different vessels (cylinders, bags and sorbents) are presented for siloxanes, BTEX, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds. Storage of dry gas at high pressure (> 6 MPa) appears to be a good alternative however it is currently challenging to find an optimal treatment of the cylinders for all species to be assessed in biogas/biomethane. At lower pressure, adsorption effects on the inner surface of the cylinders have been observed. The use of bags and sorbent tubes also shows limitation. No existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal as to trap all possible impurities and high boiling compounds may adsorbed on the inner surface of the bags walls. Moreover, the presence of water when storing biogas most certainly impacts the storage stability of compounds in most vessels. Using at least two sampling methods for a given compound and comparing results will allow taking into account the eventual effects of water vapour, and adsorption on the inner surface of the vessels.

Keywords
Biogas, Composition, Impurities, Sampling, Vessels
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30797 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.06.025 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021725120 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: EC, European Commission; Funding text: This paper is written under the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project ENG 54: Metrology for biogas, and the authors would like to acknowledge the funding of this Programme by EURAMET (the European Association of National Metrology Institutes) and the European Commission.

Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Büker, O. & Lau, P. (2014). An ultra high-pressure test rig for measurements of small flow rates with different viscosities (ed.). Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 40, 82-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An ultra high-pressure test rig for measurements of small flow rates with different viscosities
2014 (English)In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 40, p. 82-90Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6661 (URN)19219 (Local ID)19219 (Archive number)19219 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Büker, O., Lederer, T., Tawackolian, K. & Hogendoorn, J. (2014). Investigation of a 10-path Ultrasonic Flow Meter for Accurate Feedwater Measurement. (ed.). Measurement Science and Technology, 25(7), 75304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of a 10-path Ultrasonic Flow Meter for Accurate Feedwater Measurement.
2014 (English)In: Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 75304-Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6602 (URN)14704 (Local ID)14704 (Archive number)14704 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Tawackolian, K., Büker, O., Hogendoorn, J. & Lederer, T. (2014). Investigation of a ten-path ultrasonic flow meter for accurate feedwater measurements (ed.). Measurement science and technology, 25(7), 75304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of a ten-path ultrasonic flow meter for accurate feedwater measurements
2014 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 75304-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The flow instruments used in thermal power plants cannot be calibrated directly for the actual process conditions, since no traceable calibration facility with known uncertainty is available. Asystematic investigation of the relevant influence parameters is therefore needed. It was found in earlier investigations that the dominant influences on the measurement uncertainty are the flowvelocity profile and the temperature. In the present work, we report on our experimental study of the temperature and Reynolds number dependence of a new ten-path ultrasonic flow meterprototype. An improved measuring program is developed that allows for a systematic characterization. Special emphasis was placed on producing and validating well defined velocity profiles on aprecision calibration flow rig. It was also for the first time intended and validated to generate fully developed Reynolds-similar velocity profiles for different temperatures so that the two main influence parameters, namely temperature and Reynolds number, can be clearly characterized separately. Since such ideal measurement conditions are not found in practical applications, the approach is also tested for a disturbed flow condition. A well defined disturbance is generated with a new flow disturber.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6674 (URN)10.1088/0957-0233/25/7/075304 (DOI)2-s2.0-84902438521 (Scopus ID)23653 (Local ID)23653 (Archive number)23653 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5118-0150

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