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Rafiei, S., Singhal, C., Brunnström, K. & Sjöström, M. (2023). Human Interaction in Industrial Tele-Operated Driving: Laboratory Investigation. In: 2023 15th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX): . Paper presented at 15th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX) (pp. 91-94).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Interaction in Industrial Tele-Operated Driving: Laboratory Investigation
2023 (English)In: 2023 15th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), 2023, p. 91-94Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tele-operated driving enables industrial operators to control heavy machinery remotely. By doing so, they could work in improved and safe workplaces. However, some challenges need to be investigated while presenting visual information from on-site scenes for operators sitting at a distance in a remote site. This paper discusses the impact of video quality (spatial resolution), field of view, and latency on users’ depth perception, experience, and performance in a lab-based tele-operated application. We performed user experience evaluation experiments to study these impacts. Overall, the user experience and comfort decrease while the users’ performance error increases with an increase in the glass-to-glass latency. The user comfort reduces, and the user performance error increases with reduced video quality (spatial resolution).

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66330 (URN)10.1109/qomex58391.2023.10178441 (DOI)
Conference
15th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX)
Note

This research has been funded by the Swedish foundation for strategic research (SSF dnr. FID18–0030) and has been supported by Sweden's Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2021–02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2).

Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Göreke, H., Djupsjöbacka, A., Schenkman, B., Andrén, B., Hermann, D. S. & Brunnström, K. (2023). Perceptual Judgments of Simulated Low Temperatures in LCD based Vehicle Displays. In: Digest of Technical Papers - SID International Symposium: . Paper presented at SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 2023. Los Angeles, USA. 21 May 2023 through 26 May 2023 (pp. 595-598). John Wiley and Sons Inc, 54(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptual Judgments of Simulated Low Temperatures in LCD based Vehicle Displays
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2023 (English)In: Digest of Technical Papers - SID International Symposium, John Wiley and Sons Inc , 2023, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 595-598Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A well-known drawback with LCD-displays in cold is a slow pixel response leading to poor picture quality. Low temperatures can constitute a hazard in viewing important displays in cars. Perceptual experiments with 20 test-persons were conducted to find clear and acceptable ranges on screens simulating distortions in low temperatures. The results showed perception over clear and acceptable image quality was impaired beyond -20°C for the LCD-screen in the experiments. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
CMS; Cold screen; LCD displays; LCD screens; Lows-temperatures; Perceptual judgements; Picture quality; Psychophysic; Vehicle display; Video quality; Liquid crystal displays
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68033 (URN)10.1002/sdtp.16628 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175305976 (Scopus ID)
Conference
SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 2023. Los Angeles, USA. 21 May 2023 through 26 May 2023
Note

This research has been supported by the Sweden´s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2020-05129 and 2021-02107) through the project SCREENS and Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2).

Available from: 2023-11-23 Created: 2023-11-23 Last updated: 2023-11-23Bibliographically approved
Brunnström, K., Djupsjöbacka, A., Ozolins, O., Billingham, J., Wistel, K. & Evans, N. (2023). Quality measurement methods for video assisting refereeing systems. Sports Engineering, 26(1), Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality measurement methods for video assisting refereeing systems
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2023 (English)In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Changes in the footballing world’s approach to technology and innovation, along with major advancements in broadcasting contributed to the decision by the International Football Association Board to introduce Video Assistant Referees in 2018. The change meant that under strict protocols referees could use video replays to review decisions in the event of a “clear and obvious error” or a “serious missed incident”. At the time of writing 48-Member Associations have introduced the Video Assistant Referees protocol in at least one of their tournaments and there are many technology providers who work with organisers to implement the Video Assistant Referees systems. To ensure that the use of Video Assistant Referees has a positive effect on the game, Fédération Internationale de Football Association collaborated with the RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to develop objective test methods that could be used to ensure that a system can provide an adequate solution. Each provider must be able to pass requirements that ensure that they can deal with the challenges of processing, coding, decoding, synchronising, and re-formatting of the broadcast feeds. This article will describe the development of the test methods and illustrate some initial results from a test event on Video Assistant Referees system candidates. The methods have shown to be robust and appropriate for their intended purpose and will be developed over the years to ensure the quality of Video Assistant Referees. The developed measurement methods are general and can be applied to other broadcast and video systems as well as to other sports. © 2023, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Keywords
Broadcast, Football, Latency, Measurements, Synchronicity, Video assistant referee (VAR), Video quality, Measurement methods, Quality measurements, Technology providers, Test method, Use of video, Video assistant referee, Sports
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64303 (URN)10.1007/s12283-023-00408-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150219324 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Article; Correspondence Address: Brunnström, K.; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden ABSweden; email: kjell.brunnstrom@ri.se; Funding details: VINNOVA, 2021-02107, C2020/2-2; Funding text 1: Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. This project was funded as a development project together with FIFA during 2018–2020. RISE has received grants from FIFA during the development project. The research was also partly supported by internal funding of RISE.; Funding text 2: We acknowledge the invaluable help and assistance from Börje Andrén, Pär Johansson, Andreas Langell, Benny Norling, and Anders Gavler for the successful completion of the project. This research has been partly supported by the Sweden´s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2021-02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2) and RISE internal funding.; Funding text 3: We acknowledge the invaluable help and assistance from Börje Andrén, Pär Johansson, Andreas Langell, Benny Norling, and Anders Gavler for the successful completion of the project. This research has been partly supported by the Sweden´s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2021-02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2) and RISE internal funding.

Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Singhal, C., Rafiei, S. & Brunnström, K. (2023). Real-time Live-Video Streaming in Delay-Critical Application: Remote-Controlled Moving Platform. In: 2023 IEEE 98th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Fall): . Paper presented at 2023 IEEE 98th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Fall). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time Live-Video Streaming in Delay-Critical Application: Remote-Controlled Moving Platform
2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE 98th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Fall), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent advancement in multimedia and communication network technology have made interactive multimedia and tele-operation applications possible. Teledriving, teleoperation, and video-based remote-controlling require real-time live-video streaming and are delay critical in principle. Supporting such applications over wireless networks for mobile users can pose fundamental challenges in maintaining video quality and service latency requirements. This paper investigates the factors affecting the end-to-end delay in a video-based, remotely controlled moving platform application. It involves the real-time acquisition of environmental information (visually) and the delay-sensitive video streaming to remote operators over wireless networks. This paper presents an innovative experimental testbed developed using a remote-controlled toy truck, off-the-shelf cameras, and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) network. It achieves ultra-low end-to-end latency and helped us in performing the delay, network, and video quality evaluations. Extending the experimental study, we also propose a real-time live-media streaming control (RTSC) algorithm that maximizes the video quality by selecting the best streaming (network, video, and camera) configuration while meeting the delay and network availability constraints. RTSC improves the live-streaming video quality by about 33% while meeting the ultra-low latency (< 200 milliseconds) requirement under constrained network availability conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68534 (URN)10.1109/VTC2023-Fall60731.2023.10333522 (DOI)
Conference
2023 IEEE 98th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Fall)
Note

This research has been funded by the Swedish foundation for strategic research (SSF dnr. FID18-0030) and has been supported by Sweden’s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, 2021-02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2) as well as the VINNOVA project CONTROL (2022-02670).

Available from: 2023-12-13 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Brunnström, K., Djupsjöbacka, A., Billingham, J., Wistel, K., Andrén, B., Ozolins, O. & Evans, N. (2023). Video expert assessment of high quality video for Video Assistant Referee (VAR): A comparative study. Multimedia tools and applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Video expert assessment of high quality video for Video Assistant Referee (VAR): A comparative study
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2023 (English)In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The International Football Association Board decided to introduce Video Assistant Referee (VAR) in 2018. This led to the need to develop methods for quality control of the VAR-systems. This article focuses on the important aspect to evaluate the video quality. Video Quality assessment has matured in the sense that there are standardized, commercial products and established open-source solutions to measure it with objective methods. Previous research has primarily focused on the end-user quality assessment. How to assess the video in the contribution phase of the chain is less studied. The novelties of this study are two-fold: 1) The user study is specifically targeting video experts i.e., to assess the perceived quality of video professionals working with video production. 2) Six video quality models have been independently benchmarked against the user data and evaluated to show which of the models could provide the best predictions of perceived quality. The independent evaluation is important to get unbiased results as shown by the Video Quality Experts Group. An experiment was performed involving 25 video experts in which they rated the perceived quality. The video formats tested were High-Definition TV both progressive and interlaced as well as a quarters size format that was scaled down half the size in both width and height. The videos were encoded with both H.264 and Motion JPEG for the full size but only H.264 for the quarter size. Bitrates ranged from 80 Mbit/s down to 10 Mbit/s. We could see that for H.264 that the quality was overall very good but dropped somewhat for 10 Mbit/s. For Motion JPEG the quality dropped over the whole range. For the interlaced format the degradation that was based on a simple deinterlacing method did receive overall low ratings. For the quarter size three different scaling algorithms were evaluated. Lanczos performed the best and Bilinear the worst. The performance of six different video quality models were evaluated for 1080p and 1080i. The Video Quality Metric for Variable Frame Delay had the best performance for both formats, followed by Video Multimethod Assessment Fusion method and the Video Quality Metric General model. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Digital television; High definition television; Sports; Value engineering; Contribution; Objective video quality; PSNR; SSIM; Subjective video quality; Video assistant referee; Video quality; VIF; VMAF; VQM general; VQM_VFD; Quality control
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-69335 (URN)10.1007/s11042-023-17741-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180664528 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was funded by Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) and Sweden´s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2021-02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2), which is hereby gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Brunnström, K., Djupsjöbacka, A., Billingham, J., Wistel, K., Andrén, B., Ozolins, O. & Evans, N. (2023). Video quality of video professionals for Video Assisted Referee (VAR). Paper presented at IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, HVEI 2023. San Francisco, USA. 15 January 2023 through 19 January 2023. IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, 35(10), Article ID 259.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Video quality of video professionals for Video Assisted Referee (VAR)
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2023 (English)In: IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 2470-1173, Vol. 35, no 10, article id 259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Changes in the footballing world’s approach to technology and innovation contributed to the decision by the International Football Association Board to introduce Video Assistant Referees (VAR). The change meant that under strict protocols referees could use video replays to review decisions in the event of a "clear and obvious error" or a "serious missed incident". This led to the need by Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) to develop methods for quality control of the VAR-systems, which was done in collaboration with RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB. One of the important aspects is the video quality. The novelty of this study is that it has performed a user study specifically targeting video experts i.e., to measure the perceived quality of video professionals working with video production as their main occupation. An experiment was performed involving 25 video experts. In addition, six video quality models have been benchmarked against the user data and evaluated to show which of the models could provide the best predictions of perceived quality for this application. Video Quality Metric for variable frame delay (VQM_VFD) had the best performance for both formats, followed by Video Multimethod Assessment Fusion (VMAF) and VQM General model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2023
Keywords
Sports; Value engineering; Federation internationale de football associations; Perceived quality; Quality modeling; Quality of videos; Research institutes; User data; User study; Video production; Video quality; Video quality metric; Quality control
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66714 (URN)10.2352/EI.2023.35.10.HVEI-259 (DOI)2-s2.0-85169574220 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, HVEI 2023. San Francisco, USA. 15 January 2023 through 19 January 2023
Note

This work was mainly funded by Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) and partly supported by the Sweden´s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2021-02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2) as well as RISE internal funding. 

Available from: 2023-09-20 Created: 2023-09-20 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Rafiei, S., Dima, E., Sjöström, M. & Brunnström, K. (2022). Augmented Remote Operating System for Scaling in smart mining applications: Quality of Experience aspects. In: Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt, Jeffrey Mulligan (Ed.), Proceedings of Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2022: . Paper presented at IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging: Human Vision and Electronic Imagings, HVEI 2022. , 34, Article ID HVEI-166.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Augmented Remote Operating System for Scaling in smart mining applications: Quality of Experience aspects
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2022 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt, Jeffrey Mulligan, 2022, Vol. 34, article id HVEI-166Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Remote operation and Augmented Telepresence are fields of interest for novel industrial applications in e.g., construction and mining. In this study, we report on an ongoing investigation of the Quality of Experience aspects of an Augmented Telepresencesystem for remote operation. The system can achieve view augmentation with selective content removal and Novel Perspective view generation. Two formal subjective studies have been performed with test participants scoring their experience while using the system with different levels of view augmentation. The participants also gave free-form feedback on the system and their experiences. The first experiment focused on the effects of in-view augmentations and interface distributions on wall patterns perception. The second one focused on the effects of augmentations on depth and 3D environment understanding. The participants’ feedback from experiment 1 showed that the majority of participants preferred to use the original cam-era views and the Disocclusion Augmentation view instead of the novel Perspective views. Moreover, the Disocclusion Augmentation, which was shown in combination with other views seemed beneficial. When the views were isolated in experiment 2, the impact of the Disocclusion Augmentation view was found to be lower than the Novel Perspective views.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58561 (URN)10.2352/EI.2022.34.11.HVEI-166 (DOI)85132420611 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IS and T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging: Human Vision and Electronic Imagings, HVEI 2022
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, FID18-0030
Available from: 2022-02-17 Created: 2022-02-17 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
van Kasteren, A., Brunnström, K., Hedlund, J. & Snijders, C. (2022). Quality of experience of 360 video – subjective and eye-tracking assessment of encoding and freezing distortions. Multimedia tools and applications, 81(7), 9771-9802
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of experience of 360 video – subjective and eye-tracking assessment of encoding and freezing distortions
2022 (English)In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 9771-9802Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The research domain on the Quality of Experience (QoE) of 2D video streaming has been well established. However, a new video format is emerging and gaining popularity and availability: VR 360-degree video. The processing and transmission of 360-degree videos brings along new challenges such as large bandwidth requirements and the occurrence of different distortions. The viewing experience is also substantially different from 2D video, it offers more interactive freedom on the viewing angle but can also be more demanding and cause cybersickness. The first goal of this article is to complement earlier research by Tran, et al. (2017) [39] testing the effects of quality degradation, freezing, and content on the QoE of 360-videos. The second goal is to test the contribution of visual attention as an influence factor in the QoE assessment. Data was gathered through subjective tests where participants watched degraded versions of 360-videos through a Head-Mounted Display with integrated eye-tracking sensors. After each video they answered questions regarding their quality perception, experience, perceptual load, and cybersickness. Our results showed that the participants rated the overall QoE rather low, and the ratings decreased with added degradations and freezing events. Cyber sickness was found not to be an issue. The effects of the manipulations on visual attention were minimal. Attention was mainly directed by content, but also by surprising elements. The addition of eye-tracking metrics did not further explain individual differences in subjective ratings. Nevertheless, it was found that looking at moving objects increased the negative effect of freezing events and made participants less sensitive to quality distortions. More research is needed to conclude whether visual attention is an influence factor on the QoE in 360-video.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58556 (URN)10.1007/s11042-022-12065-1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85124729316 (Scopus ID)
Note

This project was funded by an internal funding at RISE and VINNOVA (Sweden’s innovation agency, grantnr 2018–00735).

Available from: 2022-02-15 Created: 2022-02-15 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Gutierrez, J., Perez, P., Orduna, M., Singla, A., Cortes, C., Mazumdar, P., . . . Cesar, P. (2022). Subjective evaluation of visual quality and simulator sickness of short 360 videos: ITU-T Rec. P.919. IEEE transactions on multimedia, 24, 3087-3100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective evaluation of visual quality and simulator sickness of short 360 videos: ITU-T Rec. P.919
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2022 (English)In: IEEE transactions on multimedia, ISSN 1520-9210, E-ISSN 1941-0077, Vol. 24, p. 3087-3100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently an impressive development in immersive technologies, such as Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR) and 360 video, has been witnessed. However, methods for quality assessment have not been keeping up. This paper studies quality assessment of 360 video from the cross-lab tests (involving ten laboratories and more than 300 participants) carried out by the Immersive Media Group (IMG) of the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG). These tests were addressed to assess and validate subjective evaluation methodologies for 360 video. Audiovisual quality, simulator sickness symptoms, and exploration behavior were evaluated with short (from 10 seconds to 30 seconds) 360 sequences. The following factors' influences were also analyzed: assessment methodology, sequence duration, Head-Mounted Display (HMD) device, uniform and non-uniform coding degradations, and simulator sickness assessment methods. The obtained results have demonstrated the validity of Absolute Category Rating (ACR) and Degradation Category Rating (DCR) for subjective tests with 360 videos, the possibility of using 10-second videos (with or without audio) when addressing quality evaluation of coding artifacts, as well as any commercial HMD (satisfying minimum requirements). Also, more efficient methods than the long Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) have been proposed to evaluate related symptoms with 360 videos. These results have been instrumental for the development of the ITU-T Recommendation P.919. Finally, the annotated dataset from the tests is made publicly available for the research community.

Keywords
Quality of experience, Quality assessment, Media, Video recording, Resists, ITU, Encoding
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-55409 (URN)10.1109/TMM.2021.3093717 (DOI)2-s2.0-85112629131 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-07 Created: 2021-07-07 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Eksvärd, S. & Falk, J. (2021). Evaluating Speech-to-Text Systems and AR-glasses: A study to develop a potential assistive device for people with hearing impairments.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Speech-to-Text Systems and AR-glasses: A study to develop a potential assistive device for people with hearing impairments
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Att ha en hörselskada eller att vara döv har flera konsekvenser på individens livskvalité. Det påverkar vardagen i stor utsträckning och gör det svårt att delta i konversationer. Det finns redan flera hjälpmedel för att underlätta vardagen för individer med hörselskador, exempelvis  hörapparater. Dock finns vissa utmaningar och problem med dessa. En möjlig lösning skulle kunna vara att använda Augmented Reality, eller förstärkt verklighet tillsammans med ett tal-till-text-system, där tal skulle kunna konverteras til text som exempelvis presenteras i AR-glasögon. Augmented Reality (AR) är en teknik som möjliggör att förstärka verkligheten genom att  datorgenerande information, till exempel visuella objekt, presenteras ovanpå verkligheten. En variant av en AR-teknologi är AR-glasögon, vilket innebär att datorgenerade objekt presenteras i glasögonen och sedermera förstärker användarens verklighet. Olika varianter av AR och AR-glasögon har studerats länge, men det inte förrän under den senaste tiden som kvalitén blivit tillräckligt bra för att kunna användas i vardagen. Idag finns flera olika AR-glasögon, med olika tekniska, ergonomiska, visuella och optiska egenskaper, där vissa glasögon kan vara mer eller mindre lämpade inom ett visst användningsområde. Glasögonens egenskaper påverkar även användarens upplevelse. Även om tekniken redan finns på marknaden kvarstår vissa problem, exempelvis belysning, bakgrund och att synligheten av de datorgenerade objekten påverkas av förhållanden i omgivningen. Då målet är att presentera text i AR-glasögonen är det viktiga att texten är synlig, läslig1 och läsbar2 under flera olika förhållanden, som varierande belysning och bakgrund. Dessutom bör hänsyn tas till hur texten presenteras, där faktorer som storlek, textfärg, bakgrundsfärg bakom text samt antal rader bör beaktas. Tal-till-text-system är också en teknik som fått genomslag under de senaste åren. Bland annat tack vare de stora framsteg som gjorts inom taligenkänning. På den engelskspråkiga marknaden är tekniken utbredd och det finns flera befintliga system, som Google Cloud Speech API, IBM Watson och Microsoft Azure. På den svenska marknaden finns dock få system och utvärderingar av dessa. Vid utvärderingar av tal-till-text-system bör man ta hänsyn till faktorer som korrekthet, fördröjning och robusthet under olika ljudnivåer, talhastigheter och dialekter. Således bör man utvärdera vilket svenskt tal-till-text-system som är lämpligast att använda för att översätta tal till text med hänsyn till ovannämnda aspekter. I detta examensarbete undersöks hur egenskaperna i två olika AR-glasögon påverkar användarupplevelsen med fokus på komfort, design, samt glasögonens optiska och visuella egenskaper. Vidare undersöks hur belysning och bakgrund påverkar läsligheten och läsbarheten av text, samt hur texten ska presenteras för att resultera i bäst läslighet och läsbarhet. Detta studeras genom användartester, där olika formateringar på texten presenteras under olika belysningar och med olika bakgrund. Detta följs av en kort enkät där deltagarna får besvara frågor gällande textformateringarna. Enkäten innehåller även frågor relaterade till glasögonens egenskaper och hur dessa påverkar användarupplevelsen för att kunna undersöka vilka glasögon som skulle vara mest lämpade för detföreslagna systemet. Avslutande genomförs en marknadsundersökning och litteraturundersökning över befintliga tal-till-text-system på den svenska marknaden. Resultatet från studien visar att belysning och bakgrund påverkar synligheten och sedermera läsligheten av texten som presenteras i glasögonen. Vidare påvisas det att textens formatering, med avseende på textfärg, textbakgrund, antal rader och storlek påverkar läsligheten. Resultatet visar även att AR-glasögonens egenskaper påverkar användarupplevelsen, läsligheten och läsbarheten. Vilka glasögon som är bäst lämpade tycks dock bero på individuella preferenser. Gällande tal-till-text-system, indentifieras fyra stycken som finns tillgängliga på den svenska marknaden. Utifrån utvärderingen av tillgängliga tal-till-text-system rekommenderas Google Cloud Speech API, baserat på tekniska egenskaper, robusthet och tillgänglighet.

Publisher
p. 111
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2021:31
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52579 (URN)10.23699/yedh-qn68 (DOI)978-91-89385-16-0 (ISBN)
Note

Uppsala Univerity.Master Sci Thesis, Teknisk- naturvetenskaplig fakultet, UTH-enheten. 

Available from: 2021-03-09 Created: 2021-03-09 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5060-9402

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