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Blomqvist, P. & Sandinge, A. (2018). Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An experimental evaluation of the most common bench-scale tests methods for fire toxicity was conducted by RISE Fire Research. The background of the work was the on-going discussion in the fire community on the applicability and relevance of these test methods.

The test methods included in the programme were the ISO/TS 19700 steady-state tube furnace (SSTF), the controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter (CACC), and the EN 45545-2 smoke chamber test (SC). In these tests the production of selected toxic gases was quantitatively analysed using FTIR. Tests for the measurement of toxic gas production were made with eleven different materials used as test specimens, both combustible and non-combustible materials. The materials were commercially available insulation products provided by EURIMA, the sponsor of the project. These materials should not be regarded as typical or fully representative of a product category.

The evaluation of the results from the different test methods was divided into combustible test specimens and non-combustible test specimens. That was because the test conditions in the first case are greatly influenced by the combustion behaviour of the test specimen, while in the second case the test conditions are more constant.

A general observation was that there in many cases was correlation between both species composition and level of toxic gas species yields between test methods when the combustion conditions were similar. In cases where yields differed significantly it could in most cases be explained by clear differences in test conditions.

For combustible materials it was concluded that the SSTF offers the best means for conducting tests at pre-decided and controlled flaming combustion conditions. The CACC does not give steady-state flaming combustion and the influence of vitiation was limited in the tests made. The SC generally accumulates a mixture of gases from both flaming and non-flaming combustion periods in a test, and the yields measured do not in those cases represent any specific combustion stage.

For non-combustible materials a general observation was that any of the test methods investigated in principle could be used since the influence on the test conditions from the material itself is limited compared to combustible materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2018. p. 134
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:40
Keywords
fire toxicity, test methods, combustion conditions, insulation materials
National Category
Materials Chemistry Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33941 (URN)978-91-88695-79-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2018-06-15Bibliographically approved
Larsson, I., Lönnermark, A., Blomqvist, P., Persson, H. & Bohlén, H. (2017). Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets. Fire and Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets
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2017 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

For the risk for spontaneous combustion in storage of biomass pellets to be assessed, it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating. There are traditional methods that are used to determine self-heating characteristics of fuels, eg, basket heating tests. The results from basket heating tests indirectly give the reactivity from a series of tests at high temperatures. This paper presents a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate at typical bulk storage temperatures. This method can be used to directly compare the reactivity of different batches of biomass pellets. The results could be used, eg, by storage security managers to gain better knowledge of their fuels propensity for self-heating and thereby for safer storage. A large number of tests have been performed to develop the test procedure presented. Different parameters, such as temperature, type of the test sample (powder/crushed or pellets), mass of test sample, and preheating time, have been varied. Furthermore, gas concentrations in the sample ampoule have been measured before and after some tests to study the oxygen consumption and the formation of CO and CO2. Three different types of pellets with different characteristics were tested to assess the variation in behaviour. Based on these tests, a screening test procedure is presented with a test temperature of 60°C, a sample size of 4 g, a 15-minute preheating period at the test temperature, and 24-hour test duration.

Keywords
Isothermal calorimetry, Pellets, Reactivity, Screening test, Self-heating, Wood pellets, Biomass, Calorimeters, Calorimetry, Carbon dioxide, Fuel storage, Fuels, Heating, Isotherms, Network security, Ore pellets, Pelletizing, Preheating, Reactivity (nuclear), Risk assessment, Screening, Spontaneous combustion, Technology transfer, Direct measurement, Gas concentration, Oxygen consumption, Screening tests, Test temperatures, Wood pellet, Testing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31124 (URN)10.1002/fam.2427 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019933108 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Larsson, I., Lönnermark, A., Blomqvist, P. & Persson, H. (2017). Measurement of self‐heatingpotential of biomass pellets with isothermal calorimetry. Fire and Materials, 41(8), 1007-1015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of self‐heatingpotential of biomass pellets with isothermal calorimetry
2017 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1007-1015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to assess the risk for spontaneous combustion of biomass pellets during storage it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating, i.e. to determine the reactivity. 

This article presents the results from isothermal calorimetry tests performed on 31 different biomass pellet batches. The purpose of the tests has been to characterize pellets by measuring the reactivity and investigate how the pellet composition influences the heat release rate and thereby the self-heating potential of pellets. 

The results from the tests clearly indicate that there is a significant difference in reactivity between different types of pellets. The tested high reactive pellet batches reached maximum specific heat release rates (HRRmax) of 0.61-1.06 mW/g while pellet batches with low reactivity showed HRRmax of 0.05-0.18 mW/g. The tested batches were primarily ranked based on HRRmax but an alternative ranking based on specific total heat release rate during the test period was also used for comparison. 

The test results also indicate that pine/spruce mix pellets are significantly more reactive than all other types of pellets tested and that pellets consisting of 100 % pine are more reactive than pellets consisting of 100 % spruce. Pellets produced from wine pruning/grape pomace (winery wastes), straw or eucalyptus are not very reactive compared to pellets consisting of pine/spruce. 

The results also show that the reactivity of the pellets can be reduced by either introducing certain kinds of anti-oxidants into the pellets or by extracting lipids from the raw material of pellets.

Keywords
isothermal calorimetry, biomass pellets, wood pellets, self-heating, reactivity, screening test, isoterm kalorimetri, pellets, biomassa, självuppvärmning, reaktivitet, screeningtest
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31275 (URN)10.1002/fam.2441 (DOI)2-s2.0-85032907190 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 287026
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2017). Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires. Scientific Reports, 7(1), Article ID 10018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires
2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 10018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

National Category
Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32898 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-09784-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85028603271 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2016). Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire. In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016: . Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2016, Baltimore, USA, 4 - 6 October 2016 (pp. 253-256).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire
2016 (English)In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, 2016, p. 253-256Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28301 (URN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2016, Baltimore, USA, 4 - 6 October 2016
Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-03 Last updated: 2019-01-04Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P., Loren, A. & Larsson, F. (2016). Using FTIR to determine toxic gases in fires with Li-ion batteries. Fire and Materials, 40(8), 999-1015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using FTIR to determine toxic gases in fires with Li-ion batteries
2016 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 999-1015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Batteries, in particular lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are seen as an alternative to fossil fuels in the automotive sector. Li-ion batteries, however, have some safety issues including possible emissions of toxic fluorine-containing compounds during fire and other abuse situations. This paper demonstrates the possibilities to use the Fourier transform infrared technique to assess some of the most important compounds, including hydrogen fluoride and the far less often measured POF3 and PF5. The study is conducted in the cone calorimeter with different solvents used in Li-ion batteries. The measurements show that, in addition to hydrogen fluoride, with a known high toxicity, POF3 is emitted and can be quantified using Fourier transform infrared. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28339 (URN)10.1002/fam.2359 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2018-08-24Bibliographically approved
Rahm, M. & Blomqvist, P. (2015). Fire testing on cork – furan/glass fibre sandwich panel for marine application (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire testing on cork – furan/glass fibre sandwich panel for marine application
2015 (English)Report (Refereed)
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2015:15
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-5247 (URN)20447 (Local ID)978-91-88001-45-0 (ISBN)20447 (Archive number)20447 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Blomqvist, P., Evegren, F., Willstrand, O. & Arvidson, M. (2015). preFLASH - Preliminary study of protection against fire in low flashpoint fuel (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>preFLASH - Preliminary study of protection against fire in low flashpoint fuel
2015 (English)Report (Refereed)
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2015:51
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-5277 (URN)28131 (Local ID)978-91-88001-75-7 (ISBN)28131 (Archive number)28131 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P. & Loren, A. (2014). Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests (ed.). Journal of Power Sources, 271(Dec), 414-420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests
2014 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 271, no Dec, p. 414-420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6635 (URN)18789 (Local ID)18789 (Archive number)18789 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-24Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A. & Blomqvist, P. (2014). Collective good (ed.). Fire Risk Management (Apr), 28-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collective good
2014 (English)In: Fire Risk Management, ISSN 1757-1324, no Apr, p. 28-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anders Lönnermark and Per Blomqvist outline two Swedish research projects aimed at reducing fire risks in the waste and recycling industry.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6710 (URN)23708 (Local ID)23708 (Archive number)23708 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6430-6602

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