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Sturk, D., Rosell, L., Blomqvist, P. & Ahlberg Tidblad, A. (2019). Analysis of li-ion battery gases vented in an inert atmosphere thermal test chamber. Batteries, 5(3), Article ID 61.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of li-ion battery gases vented in an inert atmosphere thermal test chamber
2019 (English)In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One way to support the development of new safety practices in testing and field failure situations of electric vehicles and their lithium-ion (Li-ion) traction batteries is to conduct studies simulating plausible incident scenarios. This paper focuses on risks and hazards associated with venting of gaseous species formed by thermal decomposition reactions of the electrolyte and electrode materials during thermal runaway of the cell. A test set-up for qualitative and quantitative measurements of both major and minor gas species in the vented emissions from Li-ion batteries is described. The objective of the study is to measure gas emissions in the absence of flames, since gassing can occur without subsequent fire. Test results regarding gas emission rates, total gas emission volumes, and amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and CO2 formed in inert atmosphere when heating lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) dioxide/lithium manganese oxide (LMO) spinel cell stacks are presented and discussed. Important test findings include the large difference in total gas emissions from NMC/LMO cells compared to LFP, 780 L kg−1 battery cells, and 42 L kg−1 battery cells, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the total amount of HF formed for both cell types, suggesting that LFP releases higher concentrations of HF than NMC/LMO cells. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Keywords
Acid gases, Electric vehicles, Firefighting, Gas emission, Hydrogen fluoride (HF), Li-ion batteries, Safety, Thermal runaway, Venting
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40610 (URN)10.3390/batteries5030061 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073362383 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
Khalili, P., Blinzler, B., Kádár, R., Bisschop, R., Försth, M. & Blomqvist, P. (2019). Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite. Materials, 12(7), Article ID 2648.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite
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2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Elium®, Mechanical properties, Polymer-matrix composites, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Glass transition, Graphene, Morphology, Natural fibers, Resins, Scanning electron microscopy, Smoke, Tensile strength, Cone calorimeter, Flame-retarded, Graphene-based composites, Mechanical behaviour, Nano-platelets, Peak heat release rates, Resin infusion, Tensile fracture surfaces, Polymer matrix composites
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39935 (URN)10.3390/ma12172648 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071880886 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Chalmers Tekniska Högskola; Funding text 1: The financial support for this project is provided by Chalmers Area of Advance: Materials Science. The work was performed by the support of All Wood Composites Platform based in Chalmers University of Technology and the fire tests were sponsored by RISE. The authors would like to thank Arian Nasseri for the technical support in the samples' preparation and thank Mina Fazilati and Amir Masoud Pourrahimi for the assistance in performing the SEM and FTIR tests.

Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A., Persson, H., Trella, F., Blomqvist, P., Boström, S. & Bergérus Rensvik, Å. (2018). Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen. Malmö
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med detta projekt har varit att ge ökad kunskap kring olika förekommande brandrisker och råd om hur dessa kan reduceras med olika åtgärder, primärt baserat på praktiska erfarenheter från genomfört säkerhetsarbete samt uppkomna bränder ute i olika anläggningar. Målet är att de samlade kunskaperna och erfarenheterna kan komma till nytta för hela branschen, övriga berörda intressenter och myndigheter och på sikt ligga till grund för t.ex. framtida branschrekommendationer.

Projektet kan delas in metodmässigt i; statistik, workshoppar samt analys av anläggningsspecifik information.

Analysen av insatsstatistik från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) pekar på att det inträffar i storleksordningen 60–70 bränder årligen i avfallsanläggningar och att brandorsaken i de flesta fall är självantändning eller okänd anledning. Tittar man på "brand ej i byggnad" med relevanta bränder för avfallsanläggningar så ser man en svagt ökande trend i antal bränder 2012–2015. 

De vanligaste materialfraktionerna som enligt statistik från MSB är kopplade till bränder i avfallsanläggningar är sopor, kompost, fluff, papper, trädgårdsavfall, däckgranulat, annat, skrot, återvinningscontainrar. Även en del av flisbränderna kan vara relaterade till RT-trä.

Från avfallsindustrins sida ansågs bark, returträ, flisat material och GROT (grenar och toppar) kunna ge problem med självuppvärmning. Även krossning av avfall angavs som ett generellt problem av flera deltagare.

Många incidenter och bränder anses bero på felsorterat eller feldeklarerat avfall och kontrollen av inkommande gods är därför väldigt viktig. Det är också viktigt att kommunicera uppströms i leveranskedjan för att öka chanserna att komma tillrätta med problemen. Många deltagare identifierade batterier (speciellt litiumbatterier) som ett växande problem.

Hanteringen av förorenat släckvatten varierar mycket. Man påpekar att samma krav över hela landet vore bra. Man önskar tydligare riktlinjer för släckvattenanalyser, kunskap om vad vattnet kan innehålla och information om reningsmetoder för släckvatten.

Det påpekas att det finns många standarder och normer att förhålla sig till så det vore därför bra att ha en lägsta nivå av krav som bestäms i samarbete med branschen som man kan förhålla sig till och någon form av vägledning från myndigheterna för göra hanteringen mer lik över riket.

Diskussionerna under workshopparna och tillsammans med projektets referensgrupp har lett fram till 33 rekommendationer uppdelade på olika områden. För varje rekommendation ges i rapporten ytterligare förklaringar. Dessa rekommendationer kan ligga till grund för framtida riktlinjer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: , 2018. p. 89
Series
Avfall Sverige, ISSN 1103-4092 ; 2018:09
Keywords
avfall; lagring; brandsäkerhet; släckvatten; rekommendationer;
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39949 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Blomqvist, P. & Sandinge, A. (2018). Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An experimental evaluation of the most common bench-scale tests methods for fire toxicity was conducted by RISE Fire Research. The background of the work was the on-going discussion in the fire community on the applicability and relevance of these test methods.

The test methods included in the programme were the ISO/TS 19700 steady-state tube furnace (SSTF), the controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter (CACC), and the EN 45545-2 smoke chamber test (SC). In these tests the production of selected toxic gases was quantitatively analysed using FTIR. Tests for the measurement of toxic gas production were made with eleven different materials used as test specimens, both combustible and non-combustible materials. The materials were commercially available insulation products provided by EURIMA, the sponsor of the project. These materials should not be regarded as typical or fully representative of a product category.

The evaluation of the results from the different test methods was divided into combustible test specimens and non-combustible test specimens. That was because the test conditions in the first case are greatly influenced by the combustion behaviour of the test specimen, while in the second case the test conditions are more constant.

A general observation was that there in many cases was correlation between both species composition and level of toxic gas species yields between test methods when the combustion conditions were similar. In cases where yields differed significantly it could in most cases be explained by clear differences in test conditions.

For combustible materials it was concluded that the SSTF offers the best means for conducting tests at pre-decided and controlled flaming combustion conditions. The CACC does not give steady-state flaming combustion and the influence of vitiation was limited in the tests made. The SC generally accumulates a mixture of gases from both flaming and non-flaming combustion periods in a test, and the yields measured do not in those cases represent any specific combustion stage.

For non-combustible materials a general observation was that any of the test methods investigated in principle could be used since the influence on the test conditions from the material itself is limited compared to combustible materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2018. p. 134
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:40
Keywords
fire toxicity, test methods, combustion conditions, insulation materials
National Category
Materials Chemistry Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33941 (URN)978-91-88695-79-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2018-06-15Bibliographically approved
Sandinge, A., Blomqvist, P., Dederichs, A. & Markert, F. (2018). Methods for accelerated ageing of composite materials: a review. In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days: . Paper presented at Nordic Fire & Safety Days, Norway, June 7-8 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for accelerated ageing of composite materials: a review
2018 (English)In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

New materials and designs enter the market every day. They have a great market potential needed for many applications. The future market for development and production of fibre reinforced composite materials (lightweight materials) is very promising, not only within advanced application such as aeronautics, but also in maritime industries, on modern ship vessels and in railway vehicles. As a result of this it is important to know the material properties and fire behaviour in order to ensure a high safety level [1].Materials are tested as “new” and un-aged, which means testing is performed on newly produced products and materials. Very little research has been done regarding fire performance of materials after aging [5].Accelerated ageing can be performed with different aspects and in numerous ways. One type of these can be called weathering and there are mainly four basic types of this ageing used for products and materials. They are: thermal ageing, exposure of high temperature during a selected time; moisture ageing, exposure of water or moisture; UV exposure, and radiation ageing. [5]These types of ageing can be performed in many ways and combinations. For example, thermal ageing can be performed at a selected temperature and time. But it can also be one part of a climate cycling were you have fixed periods with temperature exposure followed by moisture exposure and UV exposure. This cycle can be repeated a numerus of times [7].The degradation of composite materials and change in properties is slow at room temperature. It gets faster with increased temperature. Accelerated ageing is an intentional way to expose materials and products to a proper simulation of long-term usage. Within a few days, weeks or months the damage and degradation of the materials can occur, which normally would be after years in normal climate and after normal usage. Accelerated ageing can cause the material properties to get worse, and an undesirable loss of functionality may be evolved [4].The behavior and material properties of fibre reinforced composites, after exposure of aggressive environmental conditions, shows changes, compared to new materials. After exposure of moisture, the fibres may result in damage and the material structure might be changed. After exposure of moisture and high temperature the durability of the composite is reduced [2].The Arrhenius Rate Law of accelerated ageing can be used to correlate the time in ageing climate. A generalization, supported by the Arrhenius Rate Laws, is that for a reaction in room temperature, the reaction rate doubles every 10°C increase in temperature [6].The objective of this work is to gather the most common methods to perform accelerated ageing, to see the variations between the methods and within the method.

Keywords
ageing, accelerated ageing, composite materials, fire behaviour
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38869 (URN)10.23699/40g3-6g70 (DOI)978-91-88907-57-8 ()
Conference
Nordic Fire & Safety Days, Norway, June 7-8 2018
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Larsson, I., Lönnermark, A., Blomqvist, P., Persson, H. & Bohlén, H. (2017). Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets. Fire and Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets
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2017 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

For the risk for spontaneous combustion in storage of biomass pellets to be assessed, it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating. There are traditional methods that are used to determine self-heating characteristics of fuels, eg, basket heating tests. The results from basket heating tests indirectly give the reactivity from a series of tests at high temperatures. This paper presents a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate at typical bulk storage temperatures. This method can be used to directly compare the reactivity of different batches of biomass pellets. The results could be used, eg, by storage security managers to gain better knowledge of their fuels propensity for self-heating and thereby for safer storage. A large number of tests have been performed to develop the test procedure presented. Different parameters, such as temperature, type of the test sample (powder/crushed or pellets), mass of test sample, and preheating time, have been varied. Furthermore, gas concentrations in the sample ampoule have been measured before and after some tests to study the oxygen consumption and the formation of CO and CO2. Three different types of pellets with different characteristics were tested to assess the variation in behaviour. Based on these tests, a screening test procedure is presented with a test temperature of 60°C, a sample size of 4 g, a 15-minute preheating period at the test temperature, and 24-hour test duration.

Keywords
Isothermal calorimetry, Pellets, Reactivity, Screening test, Self-heating, Wood pellets, Biomass, Calorimeters, Calorimetry, Carbon dioxide, Fuel storage, Fuels, Heating, Isotherms, Network security, Ore pellets, Pelletizing, Preheating, Reactivity (nuclear), Risk assessment, Screening, Spontaneous combustion, Technology transfer, Direct measurement, Gas concentration, Oxygen consumption, Screening tests, Test temperatures, Wood pellet, Testing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31124 (URN)10.1002/fam.2427 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019933108 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Larsson, I., Lönnermark, A., Blomqvist, P. & Persson, H. (2017). Measurement of self‐heatingpotential of biomass pellets with isothermal calorimetry. Fire and Materials, 41(8), 1007-1015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of self‐heatingpotential of biomass pellets with isothermal calorimetry
2017 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1007-1015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to assess the risk for spontaneous combustion of biomass pellets during storage it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating, i.e. to determine the reactivity. 

This article presents the results from isothermal calorimetry tests performed on 31 different biomass pellet batches. The purpose of the tests has been to characterize pellets by measuring the reactivity and investigate how the pellet composition influences the heat release rate and thereby the self-heating potential of pellets. 

The results from the tests clearly indicate that there is a significant difference in reactivity between different types of pellets. The tested high reactive pellet batches reached maximum specific heat release rates (HRRmax) of 0.61-1.06 mW/g while pellet batches with low reactivity showed HRRmax of 0.05-0.18 mW/g. The tested batches were primarily ranked based on HRRmax but an alternative ranking based on specific total heat release rate during the test period was also used for comparison. 

The test results also indicate that pine/spruce mix pellets are significantly more reactive than all other types of pellets tested and that pellets consisting of 100 % pine are more reactive than pellets consisting of 100 % spruce. Pellets produced from wine pruning/grape pomace (winery wastes), straw or eucalyptus are not very reactive compared to pellets consisting of pine/spruce. 

The results also show that the reactivity of the pellets can be reduced by either introducing certain kinds of anti-oxidants into the pellets or by extracting lipids from the raw material of pellets.

Keywords
isothermal calorimetry, biomass pellets, wood pellets, self-heating, reactivity, screening test, isoterm kalorimetri, pellets, biomassa, självuppvärmning, reaktivitet, screeningtest
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31275 (URN)10.1002/fam.2441 (DOI)2-s2.0-85032907190 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 287026
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2017). Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires. Scientific Reports, 7(1), Article ID 10018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires
2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 10018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

National Category
Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32898 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-09784-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85028603271 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2016). Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire. In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016: . Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles (FIVE 2016), October 4-6, 2016, Baltimore, US (pp. 253-256).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire
2016 (English)In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, 2016, p. 253-256Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28301 (URN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles (FIVE 2016), October 4-6, 2016, Baltimore, US
Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-03 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P., Loren, A. & Larsson, F. (2016). Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine toxic gases in fires with lithium-ion batteries. Fire and Materials, 40(8), 999-1015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine toxic gases in fires with lithium-ion batteries
2016 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 999-1015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Batteries, in particular lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are seen as an alternative to fossil fuels in the automotive sector. Li-ion batteries, however, have some safety issues including possible emissions of toxic fluorine-containing compounds during fire and other abuse situations. This paper demonstrates the possibilities to use the Fourier transform infrared technique to assess some of the most important compounds, including hydrogen fluoride and the far less often measured POF3 and PF5. The study is conducted in the cone calorimeter with different solvents used in Li-ion batteries. The measurements show that, in addition to hydrogen fluoride, with a known high toxicity, POF3 is emitted and can be quantified using Fourier transform infrared.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2016
Keywords
FTIR, Li‐ion batteries, fire emissions, electrolyte, HF, POF3, LiPF6
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-431 (URN)10.1002/fam.2359 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-06-23 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6430-6602

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