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Ylmen, P., Mjörnell, K., Berlin, J. & Arfvidsson, J. (2021). Approach to manage parameter and choice uncertainty in life cycle optimisation of building design: Case study of optimal insulation thickness. Building and Environment, 191, Article ID 107544.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approach to manage parameter and choice uncertainty in life cycle optimisation of building design: Case study of optimal insulation thickness
2021 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 191, article id 107544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to mitigate global warming, it is important to decrease the climate impact from the building stock, which accounts for 39% of the GHG emissions in Europe. An extensive portion of these emissions are generated from the heating of buildings, but emissions also occur from the production of building materials. It is therefore important to find building design solutions that consider both production and operation and maintenance in order to minimise the climate impact of a building during its entire lifetime. At the same time, the production of buildings has to be cost-efficient. In the design of buildings, both climate impact and cost must be evaluated in order to make well-supported decisions. The overall aim of this study was to develop a procedure to facilitate using life cycle studies as decision support for building design. The presented approach will provide a structured means to manage choice and parameter uncertainty when life cycle studies are used as decision support in order to optimise building design. There are many uncertainties in the design phase of buildings, and the approach is demonstrated here in a case study of insulation thickness in the building envelope. The results can be used to support decisions on where to effectively make improvements when subjective choices and parameter uncertainties are considered in the study. The suggested approach will lessen the problem of false certainty in the conclusions drawn, and at the same time provide strong decision support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Building, LCA, LCC, Life cycle, Optimise, Uncertainty, Decision support systems, Global warming, Greenhouse gases, Solar buildings, Building envelopes, Building stocks, Decision supports, Design of buildings, Heating of buildings, Insulation thickness, Operation and maintenance, Parameter uncertainty, Architectural design
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52004 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.107544 (DOI)2-s2.0-85099468028 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text 1: We would like to thank the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish construction industry's organisation for research and development (SBUF) for funding of the research project.

Available from: 2021-01-26 Created: 2021-01-26 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Ylmen, P., Berlin, J., Mjörnell, K. & Arfvidsson, J. (2020). Managing Choice Uncertainties in Life-CycleAssessment as a Decision-Support Tool for BuildingDesign: A Case Study on Building Framework. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, 12, Article ID 5130.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Choice Uncertainties in Life-CycleAssessment as a Decision-Support Tool for BuildingDesign: A Case Study on Building Framework
2020 (English)In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 12, article id 5130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To establish a circular economy in society, it is crucial to incorporate life-cycle studies, such as life-cycle assessment (LCA), in the design process of products in order to mitigate the well-recognized problem of the design paradox. The aim of the study was to provide means in a structured way to highlight choice uncertainty present in LCA when used as decision support, as well as to mitigate subjective interpretations of the numerical results leading to arbitrary decisions. The study focused on choices available when defining the goal and scope of a life-cycle assessment. The suggested approach is intended to be used in the early design phases of complex products with high levels of uncertainty in the product life-cycle. To demonstrate and evaluate the approach, a life-cycle assessment was conducted of two design options for a specific building. In the case study two types of building frameworks were compared from an environmental perspective by calculating the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, stratospheric ozonedepletion potential and photochemical oxidants creation potential. In the study, a procedure named the Decision Choices Procedure (DCP) was developed to improve LCA as an effective tool for decision support concerning design alternatives when less information is available. The advantagesand drawbacks of the proposed approach are discussed to spur further improvements in the use of LCA as a decision-support tool.

Keywords
uncertainties; choice; design; LCA; life-cycle; building; method; decision choice procedure
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45137 (URN)10.3390/su12125130 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-06-24 Created: 2020-06-24 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Røyne, F., Hackl, R., Ringström, E. & Berlin, J. (2018). Environmental Evaluation of Industry Cluster Strategies with a Life Cycle Perspective: Replacing Fossil Feedstock with Forest-Based Feedstock and Increasing Thermal Energy Integration. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 22(4), 694-705
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Evaluation of Industry Cluster Strategies with a Life Cycle Perspective: Replacing Fossil Feedstock with Forest-Based Feedstock and Increasing Thermal Energy Integration
2018 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 694-705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Symbiotic linkages in industry clusters in the form of interconnected materials, energy and information flows, and close proximity provide unique opportunities to develop efficient environmental strategies. The purpose of our study is to examine the practical potential of applying a life cycle approach in strategy evaluations, as the environmental impact caused by industrial symbiosis systems outside the company gates has been scarcely addressed. This is done by evaluating two strategies for an industry cluster in Sweden: (1) to replace a share of the fossil feedstock used in the industry cluster with forest-based feedstock and (2) to improve energy efficiency through thermal energy integration. The environmental impact reduction potential of the strategies is evaluated using life cycle assessment. The ratio between investment cost and reduced global warming potential is used as an indicator to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the strategies. Results demonstrate the importance of applying a life cycle perspective as the assessment outcome depends heavily on whether only on-site consequences are assessed or if upstream and downstream processes are also included. 20% of the greenhouse gas emission reduction of the energy integration strategy occurs off-site, whereas the forest strategy has the largest reduction potential off-site, >80%.

Keywords
Biobased materials, Chemical manufacturing, Global warming potential (GWP), Heat integration, Industrial symbiosis (IS), Life cycle assessment (LCA)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31178 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12620 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055018771 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Peñaloza, D., Erlandsson, M., Berlin, J., Wålinder, M. & Falk, A. (2018). Future scenarios for climate mitigation of new construction in Sweden: Effects of different technological pathways. Journal of Cleaner Production, 187, 1025-1035
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future scenarios for climate mitigation of new construction in Sweden: Effects of different technological pathways
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 187, p. 1025-1035Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A variety of climate mitigation strategies is available to mitigate climate impacts of buildings. Several studies evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies have been performed at the building stock level, but do not consider the technological change in building material manufacturing. The objective of this study is to evaluate the climate mitigation effects of increasing the use of biobased materials in the construction of new residential dwellings in Sweden under future scenarios related to technological change. A model to estimate the climate impact from Swedish new dwellings has been proposed combining official statistics and life cycle assessment data of seven different dwelling typologies. Eight future scenarios for increased use of harvested wood products are explored under different pathways for changes in the market share of typologies and in energy generation. The results show that an increased use of harvested wood products results in lower climate impacts in all scenarios evaluated, but reductions decrease if the use of low-impact concrete expands more rapidly or under optimistic energy scenarios. Results are highly sensitive to the choice of climate impact metric. The Swedish construction sector can only reach maximum climate change mitigation scenarios if the low-impact building typologies are implemented together and rapidly.

Keywords
Biobased materials, Bioeconomy, Building stock, Climate scenarios, Life cycle assessment, Low-carbon buildings, Climate models, Competition, Concrete products, Construction industry, Housing, Life cycle, Wood products, Bio-based materials, Building stocks, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Climate change
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33959 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.285 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047457062 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: EnWoBio 2014-172, Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas

Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2020-01-30Bibliographically approved
Brunklaus, B., Rex, E., Carlsson, E. & Berlin, J. (2018). The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques. Journal of Cleaner Production, 202, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, the current dominant valorization of food waste is the production of biogas. However, as current production has low profitability, other options are sought to find more valuable uses of food waste, e.g. as the feedstock for bio-based chemicals. One example is the use of food waste in the production of bio-based succinic acid. In this paper, a LCA study is presented in order to highlight whether biogas production or the production of succinic acid has the lowest environmental impact as valorization option for mixed food waste, and if mixed food waste could be an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. The LCA study shows that the environmental results depend on the perspective. From a valorization perspective, food waste has the lowest environmental impact the biogas production. From a feedstock perspective, mixed food waste is an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. Although many uncertainties exist because production processes are still being developed, it can be concluded that mixed food waste seems to be a promising feedstock for bio-based chemicals from an environmental point of view, and is of interest to be included in future assessments of bio-based chemicals for the emerging bio-economy. © 2018

Keywords
Bio-based economy, Biogas, Food waste, LCA, Succinic acid, Chemical contamination, Chemicals, Feedstocks, Life cycle, Bio-based, Bio-based chemicals, Biogas production, Current production, Environmental assessment, Production process, Succinic acids, Environmental impact
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36421 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.240 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053075794 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR; Funding details: Chalmers Tekniska Högskola

Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Røyne, F. & Berlin, J. (2018). The importance of including service life in the climate impact comparison of bioplastics and fossil-based plastics. Göteborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of including service life in the climate impact comparison of bioplastics and fossil-based plastics
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bioplastics are gaining attention as a means of reducing fossil resource dependence. Most bioplastics differ from fossil-based plastics in molecular structure, and therefore in terms of properties and durability. Still, the life cycle environmental performance of bioplastics has attracted limited attention in research. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and identify key considerations in the environmental evaluation of bioplastics and bioplastic products under development.

The climate impact of the life cycle of an engine component storage box currently made of the fossil-based plastic acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is compared to a hypothetical case study, based on laboratory observations, of the same box produced from a blend of polycarbonate and the bioplastic polylactic acid (PC/PLA) and a box made of biopolyamide (PA1010). The comparison is conducted with a cradle-to-grave attributional life cycle assessment. The functional unit of the study is five years of service life, which reflects the required function of the storage box.

Whereas the climate impact of the production of the different plastic materials differ only slightly, the PC/PLA engine component storage box was found to have a significantly higher climate impact that the ABS and PA1010 boxes when the whole life cycle is taken into account. The dominant contributor to climate impact is premature material deterioration due to humidity and heat during service life, which prevents the product from fulfilling the required function. Two other influential aspects are the possibility of material reuse and the share of fossil or biogenic carbon in the product. Production of plastic materials and boxes, and transport distances, are of less importance.

Results demonstrate the high significance of including service life and potential material deterioration when bioplastics and fossil-based plastics are compared. Our findings underline the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and taking into account the intended application and function of bioplastics as part of their development and environmental assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: , 2018. p. 20
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:23
Keywords
Life cycle assessment, LCA, Polylactic acid (PLA), Biopolyamide (PA1010), Corn, Castor oil
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33493 (URN)978-91-88695-58-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-03-19 Created: 2018-03-19 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Brunklaus, B., Rex, E., Berlin, J., Røyne, F., Ulmanen, J. & Aid, G. (2018). The value of transdisciplinary perspectives duringtransition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for converting mixed food wasteinto bio-based chemicals. In: Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton (Ed.), Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products andPolicies: From Science to Innovation (pp. 327-335). Spinger
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of transdisciplinary perspectives duringtransition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for converting mixed food wasteinto bio-based chemicals
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2018 (English)In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products andPolicies: From Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, Spinger , 2018, p. 327-335Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within the current political and industrial transition to a bio-based

economy, food waste can be an alternative resource for biobased chemicals. This

chapter describes a case study that evaluates the prospect for Swedish production of

biobased chemicals such as succinic acid from food waste. The evaluation is

addressed from multiple systems perspectives. From a technical and resource

system perspective, the results of the case study show that production seems possible.

However, from a social system perspective succinic acid production currently

lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for realizing

development in Sweden. From an environmental and life cycle perspective, the

scoping of the analysis is decisive for the results. The study shows that multiple

perspectives complement each other when seeking a nuanced evaluation of technical

innovation and give insights for the intended value chain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Spinger, 2018
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37592 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-66981-6 (DOI)978-3-319-66980-9 (ISBN)978-3-319-66981-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Brunklaus, B., Stahl, S., Lorentzon, K. & Berlin, J. (2017). Socio-economic analysis based on a life cycle perspective: The comparison of existing and emerging production process for trimethyl phosphite. In: : . Paper presented at 23th SETAC EUROPE LCA Case studies symposium LCA for Decision Support 27-28 november 2017 in Barcelona/Spain. , Article ID Abstract ID 21.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socio-economic analysis based on a life cycle perspective: The comparison of existing and emerging production process for trimethyl phosphite
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences Natural Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37619 (URN)
Conference
23th SETAC EUROPE LCA Case studies symposium LCA for Decision Support 27-28 november 2017 in Barcelona/Spain
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
Ylmen, P., Berlin, J., Mjörnell, K. & Arfvidsson, J. (2017). The importance of including secondary effects when defining the system boundary with life cycle perspective: Case study for design of an external wall. Journal of Cleaner Production, 143, 1105-1113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of including secondary effects when defining the system boundary with life cycle perspective: Case study for design of an external wall
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 143, p. 1105-1113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis are suitable tools in trying to minimize environmental impact and cost. To get reliable results it is crucial to set up correct system boundaries for the investigation, but it is often difficult to understand a complex products system because of the cascade effects of consequences that can be induced even by small changes. In this paper the effects and consequences evaluation (ECE) method is introduced to systematically identify and organize the effects and consequences for a design change of parts of a complex system. The method is applied in a case study of external wall insulation for a new building to investigate the importance of correct system boundaries. Using the methodical approach in identifying all significant consequences showed that unexpected unit processes can be important when deciding on the relevant system boundary. We also conclude that such processes can have a significant impact on the final results by calculating the change in global warming potential and life cycle cost for the processes affected by the design option.

Keywords
Building, External wall, Global warming, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle cost assessment, System boundary, Buildings, Cost benefit analysis, Costs, Ecodesign, Environmental impact, Structural design, Walls (structural partitions), External wall insulations, External walls, Global warming potential, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Life cycle cost analysis, Life cycle perspectives, Lifecycle costs, Life cycle
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31047 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85008169591 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 2013-003176, Energimyndigheten; Funding text: We would like to thank the Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry (SBUF) (12809) and the Swedish Energy Agency (2013-003176) for funding this study, as well as Skanska Sverige AB for providing information on and insights into the building production process.

Available from: 2017-09-01 Created: 2017-09-01 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Ylmen, P., Mjörnell, K., Berlin, J. & Arfvidsson, J. (2017). The influence of secondary effects on global warming and cost optimization of insulation in the building envelope. Building and Environment, 118, 174-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of secondary effects on global warming and cost optimization of insulation in the building envelope
2017 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 118, p. 174-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The relative environmental impact from the building construction phase is increasing compared to the operation phase for new buildings. Therefore, it is important to consider the complete environmental life cycle of energy improvement measures. Many advanced optimization methods have been developed in recent years to assess building life cycle impact. However, these previous studies have not fully addressed the secondary effects, in other words, indirect effects outside the actual design option. This may lead to conclusions of optimization studies based on misleading calculation results. The main purpose this study was to highlight the relevance of including secondary effects in optimization of building design with respect to global warming potential and cost. This was done by conducting a parameter study of the building envelope insulation thickness with regard to global warming potential and life cycle costs, while considering secondary effects induced by the different design options. Findings from this study show that secondary effects influence the system boundary, algorithm architecture, results and the final conclusions of optimal building design. Omitting secondary effects can thus lead to incorrect decision on optimal solutions with regard to global warming potential and life cycle cost. Therefore, it is therefore important to take them into consideration when performing optimization studies of building design options.

Keywords
Building envelope, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle cost, Optimization, Secondary effects, Architectural design, Buildings, Costs, Environmental impact, Global warming, Life cycle, Solar buildings, Algorithm architectures, Building construction, Building envelopes, Environmental life cycle, Global warming potential, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Lifecycle costs, Structural design
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29309 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.03.019 (DOI)2-s2.0-85016298996 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8826-6254

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