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Turhan, E., Erkan, Ö., Hayirli, C., Istrate, D., Németh, T., Power, O., . . . Corminboeuf, D. (2023). EURAMET.EM-S44 comparison for ultra-low DC current sources. Metrologia, 60(1A), Article ID 01002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EURAMET.EM-S44 comparison for ultra-low DC current sources
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2023 (English)In: Metrologia, Vol. 60, no 1A, article id 01002Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Comparison for ultra-low DC current sources between LNE (France), BFKH (Hungary), NSAI NML (Ireland), IPQ (Portugal), RISE (Sweden), METAS (Switzerland) and TÜBİTAK UME (Turkey). To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database https://www.bipm.org/kcdb/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66235 (URN)10.1088/0026-1394/60/1a/01002 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-09-07 Created: 2023-09-07 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Mašláň, S., He, H., Bergsten, T., Seitz, S. & Heins, T. P. (2023). Interlaboratory comparison of battery impedance analyzers calibration. Measurement, 218, Article ID 113176.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interlaboratory comparison of battery impedance analyzers calibration
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2023 (English)In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 218, article id 113176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper reports a results of series of interlaboratory comparisons of low impedance measurements at frequencies relevant for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of commercial lithium-ion cells. Two comparisons are presented. The first, bilateral comparison has focused on low impedance standards calibration in a full complex plane using digital sampling setups. The second comparison has focused on calibration and use of commercial 4-terminal battery EIS meters. Both comparisons have covered the impedance range from 50μ℧ to 100m℧ across the full complex plane in a frequency range from 0.01Hz up to 5kHz. Finally, the paper summarizes practices identified as critical for achieving measurement compatibility among various labs. © 2023 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Battery, Comparison, Electrochemistry, Impedance, Impedance spectrum, Li-ion battery, Calibration, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Battery impedance, Complex planes, Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopies, Impedance analyzer, Interlaboratory comparison, Low impedance, Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65953 (URN)10.1016/j.measurement.2023.113176 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163161321 (Scopus ID)
Note

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK) and Institute for Applied Materials - Electrochemical Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany contributed to the experiments reported in EIS meters comparison in Section 4. Authors would also like to thank to Torsten Funck from PTB for designing and constructing the impedance simulators used in the comparison. The comparison was carried out in scope of the EMPIR project LiBforSecUse (17IND10). The project received funding from the EMPIR programme, Germany co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. Preparation of this publication was partly funded by Institutional Subsidy for Long-Term Conceptual Development of a Research Organization granted to the Czech Metrology Institute by the Ministry of Industry and Trade.

Available from: 2023-08-24 Created: 2023-08-24 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
Shetty, N., Bergsten, T., Eklund, G., Avila, S. L., Kubatkin, S., Cedergren, K. & He, H. (2023). Long-term stability of molecular doped epigraphene quantum Hall standards: single elements and large arrays (R K/236 ≈ 109 Ω). Metrologia, 60(5), Article ID 055009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term stability of molecular doped epigraphene quantum Hall standards: single elements and large arrays (R K/236 ≈ 109 Ω)
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2023 (English)In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 60, no 5, article id 055009Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work we investigate the long-term stability of epitaxial graphene (epigraphene) quantum Hall resistance standards, including single devices and an array device composed of 236 elements providing (R K/236 ≈ 109 Ω) , with R K the von Klitzing constant. All devices utilize the established technique of chemical doping via molecular dopants to achieve homogenous doping and control over carrier density. However, optimal storage conditions and the long-term stability of molecular dopants for metrological applications have not been widely studied. In this work we aim to identify simple storage techniques that use readily available and cost-effective materials which provide long-term stability for devices without the need for advanced laboratory equipment. The devices are stored in glass bottles with four different environments: ambient, oxygen absorber, silica gel desiccant, and oxygen absorber/desiccant mixture. We have tracked the carrier densities, mobilities, and quantization accuracies of eight different epigraphene quantum Hall chips for over two years. We observe the highest stability (i.e. lowest change in carrier density) for samples stored in oxygen absorber/desiccant mixture, with a relative change in carrier density below 0.01% per day and no discernable degradation of quantization accuracy at the part-per-billion level. This storage technique yields a comparable stability to the currently established best storage method of inert nitrogen atmosphere, but it is much easier to realize in practice. It is possible to further optimize the mixture of oxygen absorber/desiccant for even greater stability performance in the future. We foresee that this technique can allow for simple and stable long-term storage of polymer-encapsulated molecular doped epigraphene quantum Hall standards, removing another barrier for their wide-spread use in practical metrology. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2023
Keywords
Carrier concentration; Cost effectiveness; Oxygen; Quantum Hall effect; Quantum theory; Silica gel; Stability; Storage (materials); Element array; Epitaxial graphene; Long term stability; Oxygen absorbers; Quantization accuracy; Quantum hall; Resistance; Simple++; Single element; Storage technique; Graphene
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67655 (URN)10.1088/1681-7575/acf3ec (DOI)2-s2.0-85173065852 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was jointly supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) (Nos. GMT14-0077, RMA15-0024 and FFL21-0129), Chalmers Area of Advance Nano, 2D TECH VINNOVA competence Center (Ref. 2019-00068), VINNOVA (Ref. 2020-04311 and 2021-04177), Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant QUESTech No. 766025, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (2019.0140), and the Swedish Research Council VR (Contract Nos. 2021-05252 and 2018-04962). 

Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
He, H., Cedergren, K., Shetty, N., Lara-Avila, S., Kubatkin, S., Bergsten, T. & Eklund, G. (2022). Accurate graphene quantum Hall arrays for the new International System of Units. Nature Communications, 13(1), Article ID 6933.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accurate graphene quantum Hall arrays for the new International System of Units
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2022 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 6933Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Graphene quantum Hall effect (QHE) resistance standards have the potential to provide superior realizations of three key units in the new International System of Units (SI): the ohm, the ampere, and the kilogram (Kibble Balance). However, these prospects require different resistance values than practically achievable in single graphene devices (~12.9 kΩ), and they need bias currents two orders of magnitude higher than typical breakdown currents IC ~ 100 μA. Here we present experiments on quantization accuracy of a 236-element quantum Hall array (QHA), demonstrating RK/236 ≈ 109 Ω with 0.2 part-per-billion (nΩ/Ω) accuracy with IC ≥ 5 mA (~1 nΩ/Ω accuracy for IC = 8.5 mA), using epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (epigraphene). The array accuracy, comparable to the most precise universality tests of QHE, together with the scalability and reliability of this approach, pave the road for wider use of graphene in the new SI and beyond. © 2022, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Research, 2022
Keywords
graphene, silicon carbide, Article, controlled study, intermethod comparison, international standard unit, measurement accuracy, quantization, quantum chemistry
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61363 (URN)10.1038/s41467-022-34680-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141995185 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, GMT14-0077, RMA15-0024; Funding details: VINNOVA; Funding text 1: This work was jointly supported by VINNOVA (Ref. 2020-04311 H.H. and 2021-04177 H.H.), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) (Nos. GMT14-0077 S.K. and RMA15-0024 S.K.), 2D TECH VINNOVA competence Center (Ref. 2019-00068 S.L.), and Chalmers Excellence Initiative Nano S.L. This work was performed in part at Myfab Chalmers.; Funding text 2: This work was jointly supported by VINNOVA (Ref. 2020-04311 H.H. and 2021-04177 H.H.), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) (Nos. GMT14-0077 S.K. and RMA15-0024 S.K.), 2D TECH VINNOVA competence Center (Ref. 2019-00068 S.L.), and Chalmers Excellence Initiative Nano S.L. This work was performed in part at Myfab Chalmers.

Available from: 2022-12-08 Created: 2022-12-08 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
Mašláň, S., He, H., Bergsten, T., Seitz, S. & Heins, T. P. (2022). Interlaboratory Comparison of Low Impedance for Impedance Spectroscopy. In: 25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022: . Paper presented at 25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022, 12 September 2022 through 14 September 2022 (pp. 227-232). International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interlaboratory Comparison of Low Impedance for Impedance Spectroscopy
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2022 (English)In: 25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022, International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) , 2022, p. 227-232Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper reports an interlaboratory comparison of low impedance measurements at frequencies relevant for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of commercial lithium-ion cells. The comparisons cover an impedance range from 50 μΩ to 100 mΩ across the full complex plane in a frequency range 0.01 Hz up to 5 kHz. A first comparison covered calibration of low impedance standards by reference digital sampling impedance setups in 4-terminal and 4 terminal-pair connections. A second comparison used commercial 4-terminal EIS meters to measure the low impedance standards characterised in the first comparison.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO), 2022
Keywords
Analog to digital conversion, Electric variables measurement, Lithium-ion batteries, Complex planes, Digital sampling, Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopies, Frequency ranges, Impedance measurement, Impedance spectroscopy, Impedance standards, Interlaboratory comparison, Lithium-ion cells, Low impedance, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62603 (URN)2-s2.0-85145879514 (Scopus ID)9781713862833 (ISBN)
Conference
25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022, 12 September 2022 through 14 September 2022
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding details: National Physical Laboratory, NPL; Funding text 1: The National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK) and Institute for Applied Materials - Electrochemical Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany contributed to experiments reported in EIS meters comparison in section iv. The comparison was carried out in scope of the EMPIR project LiBforSecUse (17IND10). The project received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.; Funding text 2: VI. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK) and Institute for Applied Materials - Electrochemical Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany contributed to experiments reported in EIS meters comparison in section iv. The comparison was carried out in scope of the EMPIR project LiBforSecUse (17IND10). The project received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.

Available from: 2023-01-24 Created: 2023-01-24 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
Mašláň, S., He, H., Bergsten, T., Seitz, S. & Heins, T. P. (2022). Interlaboratory Comparison of Low Impedance for Impedance Spectroscopy. In: 25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022Pages 227 - 232: . Paper presented at 25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022. Brescia. 12 September 2022 through 14 September 2022 (pp. 227-232). International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interlaboratory Comparison of Low Impedance for Impedance Spectroscopy
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2022 (English)In: 25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022Pages 227 - 232, International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) , 2022, p. 227-232Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper reports an interlaboratory comparison of low impedance measurements at frequencies relevant for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of commercial lithium-ion cells. The comparisons cover an impedance range from 50 ΌΩ to 100 mΩ across the full complex plane in a frequency range 0.01 Hz up to 5 kHz. A first comparison covered calibration of low impedance standards by reference digital sampling impedance setups in 4-terminal and 4 terminal-pair connections. A second comparison used commercial 4-terminal EIS meters to measure the low impedance standards characterised in the first comparison. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO), 2022
Keywords
Analog to digital conversion; Electric variables measurement; Lithium-ion batteries, Complex planes; Digital sampling; Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopies; Frequency ranges; Impedance measurement; Impedance spectroscopy; Impedance standards; Interlaboratory comparison; Lithium-ion cells; Low impedance, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68168 (URN)2-s2.0-85145879514 (Scopus ID)
Conference
25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022. Brescia. 12 September 2022 through 14 September 2022
Note

 The project received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.

Available from: 2023-12-05 Created: 2023-12-05 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Callegaro, L., D'Elia, V., Marzano, M., Tran, N., Ortolano, M., Kučera, J., . . . Chae, D. H. (2020). The EMPIR Project GIQS: Graphene Impedance Quantum Standard. In: 2020 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM): . Paper presented at 2020 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) (pp. 1-2).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The EMPIR Project GIQS: Graphene Impedance Quantum Standard
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2020 (English)In: 2020 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), 2020, p. 1-2Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

GIQS: Graphene Impedance Quantum Standard is a Joint Research Project of the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). The project objective is to combine novel digital impedance measurement bridges with graphene-based ac quantum Hall resistance standards in a simplified cryogenic environment, to achieve simple, user-friendly quantum impedance standards suitable for primary realisation of impedance units in national metrology institutes, calibration centers, and the industry.

Keywords
Bridge circuits, Impedance, Standards, Graphene, Metrology, Resistance, Impedance measurement, measurement uncertainty, calibration
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-49102 (URN)10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191743 (DOI)
Conference
2020 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM)
Available from: 2020-10-15 Created: 2020-10-15 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Mašláň, S., Šíra, M., Skalická, T. & Bergsten, T. (2019). Four Terminal Pair Digital Sampling Impedance Bridge up to 1 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 68(6), 1860-1869
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four Terminal Pair Digital Sampling Impedance Bridge up to 1 MHz
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 1860-1869Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a new four terminal pair digital sampling impedance bridge designed for frequency range up to 1MHz and small impedances, such as shunts. The bridge is capable of comparing impedance standards of arbitrary ratios in a full complex plane from approximately 100 kΩ down to 50mΩ, limited by maximum achievable current 3 A. To keep low uncertainties a new multiplexer was designed and a very simple and fully automated linearity correction method based on the pair of calculable resistors was developed and validated. The paper describes the design and details of the bridge topology, basic uncertainty budget and first results of the validation. The expanded uncertainty of impedance module is about 50 μΩ/Ω at 1MHz for impedance ratios up to 1:16 and voltage drops above 10mV and the expanded uncertainty of a phase angle was about 360 μrad/MHz. Expanded uncertainty for frequency 100 kHz about 10 μΩ/Ω was reached. Typical expanded uncertainty for low impedance ratios below 1:1.1 is only 35 μΩ/Ω. Set of measurement of impedance standards of known values and a small international comparison of ac-dc and phase angle errors of current shunts were carried out to validate the bridge capabilities in wide range of impedances. The validation measurements showed the deviations of the bridge are below 35 μΩ/Ω and below 350 μrad at 1 MHz.

Keywords
Bridge circuits, Impedance, Topology, Uncertainty, Standards, Calibration, Multiplexing, impedance measurement, phase comparators, sampling methods, shunts (electrical)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38293 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2019.2908649 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065909419 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Zucca, M., Bottauscio, O., Harmon, S., Guilizzoni, R., Schilling, F., Schmidt, M., . . . Liorni, I. (2019). Metrology for Inductive Charging of Electric Vehicles (MICEV). In: 2019 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive (AEIT AUTOMOTIVE): . Paper presented at 2019 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive (AEIT AUTOMOTIVE) (pp. 1-6).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metrology for Inductive Charging of Electric Vehicles (MICEV)
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2019 (English)In: 2019 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive (AEIT AUTOMOTIVE), 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The European Union funded project MICEV aims at improving the traceability of electrical and magnetic measurement at charging stations and to better assess the safety of this technology with respect to human exposure. The paper describes some limits of the instrumentation used for electrical measurements in the charging stations, and briefly presents two new calibration facilities for magnetic field meters and electric power meters. Modeling approaches for the efficiency and human exposure assessment are proposed. In the latter case, electromagnetic computational codes have been combined with dosimetric computational codes making use of highly detailed human anatomical phantoms in order to establish human exposure modeling real charging stations. Detailed results are presented for light vehicles where, according to our calculations, the concern towards human exposure is limited. Currently, the project has reached half way point (about 18 months) and will end in August 2020.

Keywords
biological effects of fields, calibration, dosimetry, electric vehicle charging, health hazards, magnetic field measurement, phantoms, power meters, inductive charging, electric vehicles, European Union, electrical measurement, magnetic measurement, charging stations, human exposure, magnetic field meters, electric power meters, electromagnetic computational codes, dosimetric computational codes, MICEV, human anatomical phantoms, calibration facilities, Energy efficiency, Magnetic fields, Metrology, Safety
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42589 (URN)10.23919/EETA.2019.8804498 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071590136 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2019 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive (AEIT AUTOMOTIVE)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
He, H., Lara-Avila, S., Kim, K., Fletcher, N., Rozhko, S., Bergsten, T., . . . Kubatkin, S. (2019). Polymer-encapsulated molecular doped epigraphene for quantum resistance metrology. Metrologia, 56(4), Article ID 045004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polymer-encapsulated molecular doped epigraphene for quantum resistance metrology
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2019 (English)In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 56, no 4, article id 045004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the aspirations of quantum metrology is to deliver primary standards directly to end-users thereby significantly shortening the traceability chains and enabling more accurate products. Epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (epigraphene) is known to be a viable candidate for a primary realisation of a quantum Hall resistance standard, surpassing conventional semiconductor two-dimensional electron gases, such as those based on GaAs, in terms of performance at higher temperatures and lower magnetic fields. The bottleneck in the realisation of a turn-key quantum resistance standard requiring minimum user intervention has so far been the need to fine-tune the carrier density in this material to fit the constraints imposed by a simple cryo-magnetic system. Previously demonstrated methods, such as via photo-chemistry or corona discharge, require application prior to every cool-down as well as specialist knowledge and equipment. To this end we perform metrological evaluation of epigraphene with carrier density tuned by a recently reported permanent molecular doping technique. Measurements at two National Metrology Institutes confirm accurate resistance quantisation below 5n-1. Furthermore, samples show no significant drift in carrier concentration and performance on multiple thermal cycles over three years. This development paves the way for dissemination of primary resistance standards based on epigraphene

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing, 2019
Keywords
grapheme, measurement standards, molecular doping, quantum Hall effect, Carrier concentration, Electric corona, Gallium arsenide, Graphene, III-V semiconductors, Semiconducting gallium arsenide, Semiconductor doping, Silicon carbide, Two dimensional electron gas, Epitaxial graphene, National metrology institutes, Quantum Hall resistance, Quantum resistance, Resistance standards
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39831 (URN)10.1088/1681-7575/ab2807 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070555097 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-10-01 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2330-9898

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