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Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Murugan, A., de Huu, M., Bacquart, T., van Wijk, J., Arrhenius, K., te Ronde, I. & Hemfrey, D. (2019). Measurement challenges for hydrogen vehicles. International journal of hydrogen energy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement challenges for hydrogen vehicles
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2019 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Uptake of hydrogen vehicles is an ideal solution for countries that face challenging targets for carbon dioxide reduction. The advantage of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles is that they behave in a very similar way to petrol engines yet they do not emit any carbon containing products during operation. The hydrogen industry currently faces the dilemma that they must meet certain measurement requirements (set by European legislation) but cannot do so due to a lack of available methods and standards. This paper outlines the four biggest measurement challenges that are faced by the hydrogen industry including flow metering, quality assurance, quality control and sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Flow metering, Fuel cell, Hydrogen, ISO 14687, Measurement, Metrology, Quality control, Vehicles, Carbon dioxide, Chemical industry, Flow measurement, Flowmeters, Fuel cells, Pollution control, Quality assurance, Carbon dioxide reduction, Carbon-containing products, European legislation, Hydrogen vehicles, Ideal solutions, Petrol engine
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38502 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.03.190 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064398363 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Fischer, A. & Büker, O. (2019). Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags. Applied Sciences, 9(6), Article ID 1171.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags
2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 1171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and numerous excellent opportunities for use; for example, as vehicle fuel after upgrading (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical for ensuring that the gas can be used technically and safely. An essential part of any procedure aimed at determining the quality is the sampling and transfer to the laboratory. Sampling bags and sorbent tubes are widely used for collecting biogas. In this study, we have combined these two methods, i.e., sampling in a gas bag before subsequent sampling onto tubes in order to demonstrate that this alternative can help eliminate the disadvantages associated with the two methods whilst combining their advantages; with expected longer storage stability as well as easier sampling and transport. The results of the study show that two parameters need to be taken into account when transferring gas from a bag on to an adsorbent; the water content of the gas and the flow rate used during transfer of the gas on to the adsorbent. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Bags, Biogas, Biomethane, Flow rate, Sampling
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38460 (URN)10.3390/app9061171 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063743716 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
Anyangwe Nwaboh, J., Persijn, S., Arrhenius, K., Bohlen, H., Werhahn, O. & Ebert, V. (2018). Metrological quantification of CO in biogas using laser absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Measurement science and technology, 29(9), Article ID 095010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metrological quantification of CO in biogas using laser absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography
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2018 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 29, no 9, article id 095010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas has a vital role in the future market of renewable energy. When upgraded to biomethane, it can be injected into natural gas grids if the level of certain impurities complies with the specifications in EN16723. For some of these impurities, suitable measurement methods are lacking which hampers the quality control of biomethane to be injected into natural gas networks. Here, we report the evaluation of three detection methods suitable for carbon monoxide (CO) in biogas and biomethane applications for which EN16723 specifies an upper limit of 0.1% (1000 µmol/mol). Two of these methods are based on laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and one on gas chromatography (GC). Both LAS spectrometers are employing direct absorption spectroscopy and operating at 4.6µm, probing a single CO absorption line in the fundamental CO band: One – called dTDLAS (direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy)- is based on a new Interband Cascade Laser specially designed for biogas and biomethane applications, while the other is based on Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (QCLAS). The GC is equipped with two packed columns (Hayesep Q and Molecular Sieve 5A) and a thermal conductivity detector. Carbon monoxide amount fraction results in biogas matrices derived using these three measurement methods are compared to amount fraction values of different, gravimetrically prepared reference gas standards of CO in biogas. These were used to validate the measurement capabilities. The measured CO amount fraction results from LAS and GC covered 10 µmol/mol to 30000 µmol/mol (system measurement ranges, LAS: 3 µmol/mol - 1000 µmol/mol, GC: 500 µmol/mol - 30000 µmol/mol) and were in excellent agreement with the gravimetric values of the gas standards. At 400 µmol/mol, the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant relative standard uncertainties of our calibration-free dTDLAS and the gas-calibrated QCLAS systems are estimated to be 1.4 % vs 0.5 %, respectively. The relative standard uncertainty of the GC CO measurements at 5075 µmol/mol is 1.3 %. This work demonstrates that, by means of GC and LAS, relative standard uncertainties of 1.4 % and below can be reached for CO measurements in biogas and that cost-optimized calibration-free approaches not requiring frequent use of gas standards have become available.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34113 (URN)10.1088/1361-6501/aad116 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051718594 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-11 Created: 2018-07-11 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Haloua, F., Bacquart, T., Arrhenius, K., Delobelle, B. & Ent, H. (2018). Metrology for hydrogen energy applications: a project to address normative requirements. Paper presented at 18th International Congress of Metrology (CIM 2017). Measurement science and technology, 29(3), Article ID Special Section on the 18th International Congress of Metrology (CIM 2017).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metrology for hydrogen energy applications: a project to address normative requirements
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2018 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 29, no 3, article id Special Section on the 18th International Congress of Metrology (CIM 2017)Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen represents a clean and storable energy solution that could meet worldwide energy demands and reduce greenhouse gases emission. The joint research project (JRP) ‘Metrology for sustainable hydrogen energy applications’ addresses standardisation needs through pre- and co-normative metrology research in the fast emerging sector of hydrogen fuel that meet the requirements of the European Directive 2014/94/EU by supplementing the revision of two ISO standards that are currently too generic to enable a sustainable implementation of hydrogen. The hydrogen purity dispensed at refueling points should comply with the technical specifications of ISO 14687-2 for fuel cell electric vehicles. The rapid progress of fuel cell technology now requires revising this standard towards less constraining limits for the 13 gaseous impurities. In parallel, optimized validated analytical methods are proposed to reduce the number of analyses. The study aims also at developing and validating traceable methods to assess accurately the hydrogen mass absorbed and stored in metal hydride tanks; this is a research axis for the revision of the ISO 16111 standard to develop this safe storage technique for hydrogen. The probability of hydrogen impurity presence affecting fuel cells and analytical techniques for traceable measurements of hydrogen impurities will be assessed and new data of maximum concentrations of impurities based on degradation studies will be proposed. Novel validated methods for measuring the hydrogen mass absorbed in hydrides tanks AB, AB2 and AB5 types referenced to ISO 16111 will be determined, as the methods currently available do not provide accurate results. The outputs here will have a direct impact on the standardisation works for ISO 16111 and ISO 14687-2 revisions in the relevant working groups of ISO/TC 197 ‘Hydrogen technologies’.

Keywords
fuel cell electric vehicles; analytical methods; hydrogen storage; metal hydrides; ISO standards; hydrogen purity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33368 (URN)10.1088/1361-6501/aa99ac (DOI)2-s2.0-85042548528 (Scopus ID)
Conference
18th International Congress of Metrology (CIM 2017)
Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Hakonen, A., Karlsson, A., Lindman, L., Büker, O. & Arrhenius, K. (2018). Particles in fuel-grade Liquefied Natural Gas. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 55, 350-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particles in fuel-grade Liquefied Natural Gas
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 55, p. 350-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The utilization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the heavy-duty transport sector is a convenient and cost-effective step towards a sustainable future. However, there are questions regarding LNG fuel quality and destructive particles for engines. Basically nothing is known about particles in the commercial LNG being fueled today. The gravimetric and SEM-EDX results here demonstrates that there are precarious metal and silicon dioxide particles in fuel-grade LNG that can clog and erode engine parts. Considering these results further research in the direction of this study, including standardized method development, is highly motivated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2018
Keywords
Fuel, Liquefied natural gas, LNG, Microscopy, Particles, SEM-EDX, Cost effectiveness, Elementary particles, Engines, Fueling, Gas fuel purification, Microscopic examination, Natural gas transportation, Silica, Cost effective, Engine parts, Fuel grade, Heavy duty, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Standardized methods, Transport sectors
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34306 (URN)10.1016/j.jngse.2018.05.005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048716515 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Karlsson, A., Hakonen, A., Ohlson, L., Yaghooby, H. & Büker, O. (2018). Variations of fuel composition during storage at Liquefied Natural Gas refuelling stations. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 49, 317-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variations of fuel composition during storage at Liquefied Natural Gas refuelling stations
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 49, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Biogas (LBG) utilization within the heavy duty transport sector is today a sustainable alternative to the use of oil. However, in spite of the high degree of insulation in the storage tank walls, it is impossible to fully avoid any net heat input from the surroundings. Due to some degree of vaporization this results in variation in gas composition during storage at refuelling stations, potentially leading to engine failures. Within this study, a vaporizer/sampler has been built and tested at a station delivering liquefied biomethane (LBG) and occasionally; such in this case, LNG to heavy and medium duty trucks. The vaporizer/sampler has then been used to study the variation of the LNG composition in the storage tank during a two weeks period. The results clearly underline a correlation between the gas phase and the liquid phase as the concentration changes follow the same trend in both phases. Two opposite effects are assumed to influence the concentration of methane, ethane and propane in the liquid and in the gas phase. On one hand, because of the probable presence of not fully mixed layers in the storage tank and due to vehicles being refuelled, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in methane at the expense of ethane and propane. On the other hand, due to boil-off effect towards the end of the storage period, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in ethane and propane at the expense of methane.

Keywords
Ageing, Composition, LBG, LNG, Refuelling station, Chemical analysis, Ethane, Fuel storage, Gas fuel purification, Gases, Liquefied natural gas, Liquids, Methane, Natural gas, Natural gas transportation, Propane, Tanks (containers), Vaporization, Concentration change, Fuel compositions, Gas compositions, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquid and gas phasis, Transport sectors, Gas fuel storage
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33264 (URN)10.1016/j.jngse.2017.11.014 (DOI)2-s2.0-85035751251 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: EURAMET, European Association of National Metrology Institutes; Funding details: ENG 60 LNG; Funding text: This paper is written under the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project ENG 60 LNG II Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport fuel applications , and the authors would like to acknowledge the funding of this Programme by EURAMET (European Association of National Metrology Institutes) and the European Commission . In addition, the authors are grateful to Fordonsgas AB who made their station available for the tests performed in this study.

Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Földváry, V., Bekö, G., Langer, S., Arrhenius, K. & Petráš, D. (2017). Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia. Building and Environment, 122, 363-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia
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2017 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 122, p. 363-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of the global energy consumption. Most of the multifamily residential buildings built in the 20th century in Central and Eastern Europe do not satisfy the current requirements on energy efficiency. Nationwide measures taken to improve the energy efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally ventilated multifamily residential buildings were examined. One building in each pair was newly renovated, the other was in its original condition. Temperature, relative humidity (RH) and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured in 94 apartments (57%) during one week in the winter. A questionnaire related to perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and airing habits was filled by the occupants. In a companion experiment, the IAQ was investigated in 20 apartments (50%) of a single residential building before and after its renovation. In this experiment, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total and individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were also measured. CO2 concentrations were significantly higher and AERs were lower in the renovated buildings. Formaldehyde concentrations increased after renovation and were positively correlated with CO2 and RH. Energy renovation was associated with lower occupant satisfaction with IAQ. Energy retrofitting efforts should be complemented with improved ventilation in order to avoid adverse effects on IAQ.

Keywords
Air exchange rate, Apartment buildings, Natural ventilation, Occupant perception, Retrofitting, Air, Air quality, Apartment houses, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Energy efficiency, Energy utilization, Finance, Formaldehyde, Housing, Indoor air pollution, Intelligent buildings, Nitrogen compounds, Nitrogen oxides, Ventilation, Volatile organic compounds, Air exchange rates, Central and Eastern Europe, Formaldehyde concentrations, Sick building syndrome symptoms, Volatile organic compound (VOC), Buildings
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30814 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.06.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021204935 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Yaghooby, H., Rosell, L., Büker, O., Culleton, L., Bartlett, S., . . . Beranek, J. (2017). Suitability of vessels and adsorbents for the short-term storage of biogas/biomethane for the determination of impurities – Siloxanes, sulfur compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons, BTEX. Biomass and Bioenergy, 105, 127-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suitability of vessels and adsorbents for the short-term storage of biogas/biomethane for the determination of impurities – Siloxanes, sulfur compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons, BTEX
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2017 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 105, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and various excellent opportunities to use, for example as vehicle fuel (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical to ensure that the gas can technically and safely be used. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determine the quality is the sampling and the transfer to the laboratory. One of the greatest challenges is then to ensure that the composition of the sample collected does not change between the time of sampling and the analysis. The choice of the sampling vessel to be used must be made only after fully assessing its short-term stability. In this paper, the results from short-term stability studies in different vessels (cylinders, bags and sorbents) are presented for siloxanes, BTEX, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds. Storage of dry gas at high pressure (> 6 MPa) appears to be a good alternative however it is currently challenging to find an optimal treatment of the cylinders for all species to be assessed in biogas/biomethane. At lower pressure, adsorption effects on the inner surface of the cylinders have been observed. The use of bags and sorbent tubes also shows limitation. No existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal as to trap all possible impurities and high boiling compounds may adsorbed on the inner surface of the bags walls. Moreover, the presence of water when storing biogas most certainly impacts the storage stability of compounds in most vessels. Using at least two sampling methods for a given compound and comparing results will allow taking into account the eventual effects of water vapour, and adsorption on the inner surface of the vessels.

Keywords
Biogas, Composition, Impurities, Sampling, Vessels
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30797 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.06.025 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021725120 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: EC, European Commission; Funding text: This paper is written under the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project ENG 54: Metrology for biogas, and the authors would like to acknowledge the funding of this Programme by EURAMET (the European Association of National Metrology Institutes) and the European Commission.

Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Nilsson Påledal, S., Arrhenius, K., Moestedt, J., Engelbrektsson, J. & Stensen, K. (2016). Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG). Chemosphere, 145, 424-430
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG)
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2016 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 145, p. 424-430Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty.Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Amine scrubber, Compressed biogas, Inhibition, Process water, VOCs, Water scrubber
National Category
Water Engineering Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-92 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.083 (DOI)2-s2.0-84960153333 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Brown, A. S. & van der Veen, A. M. H. (2016). Suitability of different containers for the sampling and storage of biogas and biomethane for the determination of the trace-level impurities - A review. Analytica Chimica Acta, 902, 22-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suitability of different containers for the sampling and storage of biogas and biomethane for the determination of the trace-level impurities - A review
2016 (English)In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 902, p. 22-32Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The traceable and accurate measurement of biogas impurities is essential in order to robustly assess compliance with the specifications for biomethane being developed by CEN/TC408. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determinate the content of impurities is the sampling and the transfer of the sample to the laboratory. Key issues are the suitability of the sample container and minimising the losses of impurities during the sampling and analysis process. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art in biogas sampling with the focus on trace impurities. Most of the vessel suitability studies reviewed focused on raw biogas. Many parameters need to be studied when assessing the suitability of vessels for sampling and storage, among them, permeation through the walls, leaks through the valves or physical leaks, sorption losses and adsorption effects to the vessel walls, chemical reactions and the expected initial concentration level. The majority of these studies looked at siloxanes, for which sampling bags, canisters, impingers and sorbents have been reported to be fit-for-purpose in most cases, albeit with some limitations. We conclude that the optimum method requires a combination of different vessels to cover the wide range of impurities commonly found in biogas, which have a wide range of boiling points, polarities, water solubilities, and reactivities. The effects from all the parts of the sampling line must be considered and precautions must be undertaken to minimize these effects. More practical suitability tests, preferably using traceable reference gas mixtures, are needed to understand the influence of the containers and the sampling line on sample properties and to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
biogas, biomethane, containers, impurities, sampling, siloxanes, suitability, VOCs
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-76 (URN)10.1016/j.aca.2015.10.039 (DOI)2-s2.0-84957049927 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4037-3106

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