Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Arrhenius, K., Morris, A., Hookham, M., Moore, N., Modugno, P. & Bacquart, T. (2024). An inter-laboratory comparison between 13 international laboratories for eight components relevant for hydrogen fuel quality assessment. Measurement, 230, Article ID 114553.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An inter-laboratory comparison between 13 international laboratories for eight components relevant for hydrogen fuel quality assessment
Show others...
2024 (English)In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 230, article id 114553Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The quality of the hydrogen delivered by refuelling stations is critical for end-users and society. The purity of the hydrogen dispensed at hydrogen refuelling points should comply with the technical specifications included in the ISO 14687:2019 and EN 17124:2022 standards. Once laboratories have set up methods, they need to verify their performances, for example through participation in interlaboratory comparisons. Due to the challenge associated with the production of stable reference materials and transport of these which are produced in hydrogen at high pressure (>10 bar), interlaboratory comparisons have been organized in different steps, with increasing extent. This study describes an inter-laboratory comparison exercise for hydrogen fuel involving a large number of participants (13 laboratories), completed in less than a year and included eight key contaminants of hydrogen fuel at level close to the ISO14687 threshold. These compounds were selected based on their high probability of occurrence or because they have been found in hydrogen fuel samples. For the results of the intercomparison, it appeared that fully complying with ISO 21087:2019 is still challenging for many participants and highlighted the importance of organising these types of exercises. Many laboratories performed corrective actions based on their results, which in turn significantly improved their performances. © 2024 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2024
Keywords
High pressure engineering; Laboratories; Calibrants; Eight component; FCEV; Gas calibrant; Hydrogen fuel qualities; Hydrogen quality; Interlaboratory comparison; Performance; Quality assessment; Traceable validation; Hydrogen fuels
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72783 (URN)10.1016/j.measurement.2024.114553 (DOI)2-s2.0-85188742118 (Scopus ID)
Note

The Joint Research Project «Metrology for hydrogen vehicles 2» is supported the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). The EMPIR initiative is co-funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the EMPIR Participating States.

Available from: 2024-05-15 Created: 2024-05-15 Last updated: 2024-05-15Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Francini, L., Fischer, A., Büker, O. & Arques, L. (2023). Comparison of optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for the measurement of the main components and impurities in biogas, landfill gas, biomethane and carbon dioxide streams. Measurement science and technology, 34(9), Article ID 095011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for the measurement of the main components and impurities in biogas, landfill gas, biomethane and carbon dioxide streams
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 34, no 9, article id 095011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we evaluated the performances of a custom-built optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFCEAS) instrument for the determination of the composition of energy gases, focusing on methane and carbon dioxide as main components, and carbon monoxide as impurities, in comparison with the well-established, validated, and traceable gas chromatographic method. A total of 115 real sample gases collected in biogas plants or landfills were analyzed using with both techniques over a period of 12 months. The comparison of the techniques showed that the virtual model which allows the measurement, needs to be optimized using real samples of varied compositions. The OFCEAS measurement technique was found to be capable of measuring both the main components and a trace component in different matrices; to within a 2% measurement uncertainty (higher than the gas chromatograph/thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD) method). The OFCEAS method exhibits a very fast response, does not require daily calibration, and can be implemented online. The agreements between the OFCEAS technique and the GC/TCD method show that the drift of the OFCEAS instruments remains acceptable in the long term as long as no change is made to the virtual model. Matrix effects were observed, and those need to be taken into consideration when analyzing different types of samples. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2023
Keywords
biogas, biomethane, OFCEAS, performance assessment, Absorption spectroscopy, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Chromatographic analysis, Gas chromatography, Gas plants, Gases, Light absorption, Optical feedback, Uncertainty analysis, Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, Feedback cavity, Gas chromatographs, Impurities in, Optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, Real samples, Thermal conductivity detectors, Virtual models
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65565 (URN)10.1088/1361-6501/acd94a (DOI)2-s2.0-85162116942 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: K. Arrhenius; Research Institutes of Sweden AB (RISE), Frans Perssons väg, Göteborg, 412 76, Sweden. The Joint Research Project «Metrology for decarbonizing the gas grid» is supported the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). The EMPIR initiative is co-funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the EMPIR Participating States

Available from: 2023-06-29 Created: 2023-06-29 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Culleton, L., Nwaboh, J. & Li, J. (2023). Need for a protocol for performance evaluation of the gas analyzers used in biomethane conformity assessment. Accreditation and Quality Assurance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Need for a protocol for performance evaluation of the gas analyzers used in biomethane conformity assessment
2023 (English)In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Biomethane may contain trace components that can have adverse effects on gas vehicles performances and on the pipelines when injected in the gas grid. Biomethane quality assurance against specifications is therefore crucial for the integrity of the end-users’ appliances. Analytical methods used to assess biomethane conformity assessment must be validated properly and possibly, new methods specifically for biomethane should be developed. This paper provides an overview of the biomethane quality assurance infrastructure and the challenges faced with focus on sampling, analysis methods, reference gas mixtures, and performance evaluation. Currently, requirements for analytical method validation and fit-for-purpose assessments do not exist for biomethane. The industry is in urgent need of a protocol to evaluate the fit-for-purpose of methods in a harmonized manner. Reference gas mixtures to check the accuracy of the instrument and to determine the traceability of the measurement are also urgently required. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68792 (URN)10.1007/s00769-023-01562-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85179354174 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon Europe, 21NRM04 BiometCAP
Note

The project has received funding from the European Partnership on Metrology, co-financed by European Union Horizon Europe Research and Innovation Program and from the Participating States.

Funder name: European Partnership on Metrology, Funder ID: 10.13039/100019599, Grant number: 21NRM04 BiometCAP.

Available from: 2024-01-10 Created: 2024-01-10 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Culleton, L., Di Meane, E., Ward, M., Ferracci, V., Persijn, S., Holmqvist, A., . . . Brewer, P. (2022). Characterization of Fourier Transform Infrared, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy, and Optical Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy Instruments for the Analysis of Ammonia in Biogas and Biomethane. Analytical Chemistry, 94(44), 15207-15214
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Fourier Transform Infrared, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy, and Optical Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy Instruments for the Analysis of Ammonia in Biogas and Biomethane
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 94, no 44, p. 15207-15214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Novel traceable analytical methods and reference gas standards were developed for the detection of trace-level ammonia in biogas and biomethane. This work focused on an ammonia amount fraction at an upper limit level of 10 mg m-3(corresponding to approximately 14 μmol mol-1) specified in EN 16723-1:2016. The application of spectroscopic analytical methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy, was investigated. These techniques all exhibited the necessary ammonia sensitivity at the required 14 μmol mol-1amount fraction. A 29-month stability study of reference gas mixtures of 10 μmol mol-1ammonia in methane and synthetic biogas is also reported. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2022
Keywords
Absorption spectroscopy, Band structure, Biogas, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Light measurement, Optical feedback, Analytical method, Biomethane, Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, Cavity ring down spectroscopies, Feedback cavity, Fourier transform infrared, Gas standards, Limit levels, Trace level, Upper limits, Ammonia
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61226 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.2c01951 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141498580 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding text 1: This project (ENG54) has received funding from the EMRP program co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.

Available from: 2022-12-02 Created: 2022-12-02 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Bacquart, T., Schröter, K., Carré, M., Gozlan, B., Beurey, C. & Blondeel, C. (2022). Detection of contaminants in hydrogen fuel for fuel cell electrical vehicles with sensors—available technology, testing protocols and implementation challenges. Processes, 10(1), Article ID 20.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of contaminants in hydrogen fuel for fuel cell electrical vehicles with sensors—available technology, testing protocols and implementation challenges
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Europe’s low-carbon energy policy favors a greater use of fuel cells and technologies based on hydrogen used as a fuel. Hydrogen delivered at the hydrogen refueling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards. Currently, the quality control process is performed by offline analysis of the hydrogen fuel. It is, however, beneficial to continuously monitor at least some of the contaminants onsite using chemical sensors. For hydrogen quality control with regard to contaminants, high sensitivity, integration parameters, and low cost are the most important requirements. In this study, we have reviewed the existing sensor technologies to detect contaminants in hydrogen, then discussed the implementation of sensors at a hydrogen refueling stations, described the state-of-art in protocols to perform assessment of these sensor technologies, and, finally, identified the gaps and needs in these areas. It was clear that sensors are not yet commercially available for all gaseous contaminants mentioned in ISO14687:2019. The development of standardized testing protocols is required to go hand in hand with the development of chemical sensors for this application following a similar approach to the one undertaken for air sensors. © 2021 by the authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
FCEV, Hydrogen quality, Sensors, Testing protocols
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57899 (URN)10.3390/pr10010020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85121795739 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was co-funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) Participating States, grant number «19ENG04—Metrology for hydrogen vehicles 2».

Available from: 2022-01-10 Created: 2022-01-10 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Bacquart, T., de Huu, M., Arrhenius, K., Aarhaug, T. A., Viitakangas, J. & Murugan, A. (2022). METROLOGY FOR HYDROGEN VEHICLE 2: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROGRESSES. In: Proceedings of WHEC 2022 - 23rd World Hydrogen Energy Conference: Bridging Continents by H2. Paper presented at 23rd World Hydrogen Energy Conference: Bridging Continents by H2, WHEC 2022, 26 June 2022 through 30 June 2022 (pp. 1223-1225). International Association for Hydrogen Energy, IAHE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>METROLOGY FOR HYDROGEN VEHICLE 2: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROGRESSES
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of WHEC 2022 - 23rd World Hydrogen Energy Conference: Bridging Continents by H2, International Association for Hydrogen Energy, IAHE , 2022, p. 1223-1225Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative power supply for electric drive trains and could represent 32 % of fuel demand by 2050. To deploy fuel cell electrical vehicles, there is current regulatory barriers (ISO 14687, OIML recommendations) that requires accurate measurements. The European funded project MetroHyVe has provided solutions and improvements in the four measurements challenges (flow metering, quality control, quality assurance and sampling). New challenges arised due to increase of hydrogen economy, therefore a new European project MetroHyVe 2 started in 2020 and its objectives will provide perspectives for the hydrogen economy to solve all regulatory barriers (ISO 14687, ISO 19880-8, ISO 19880-1, ISO 21087, OIML R139-1) and new measurement challenges (flow metering, quality control, sampling and fuel cell stack testing). The presentation will provide a comprehensive overview of the project achievements. The achievements around primary standard for flow metering (light and heavy duty), worldwide inter-laboratory comparison for hydrogen fuel quality, hydrogen sampling intercomparison and fuel cell stack testing recommendations will be highlighted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Hydrogen Energy, IAHE, 2022
Keywords
flow metering, Hydrogen fuel quality, ISO 14687, metrology, regulations, Electric power systems, Flow measurement, Flowmeters, Quality assurance, Quality control, Fuel cell stack, Hydrogen economy, Hydrogen fuel cells, Hydrogen fuel qualities, Hydrogen vehicles, Regulation, Regulatory barriers, Stack testing, Fuel cells
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64005 (URN)2-s2.0-85147197231 (Scopus ID)9786250008430 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd World Hydrogen Energy Conference: Bridging Continents by H2, WHEC 2022, 26 June 2022 through 30 June 2022
Note

 Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding details: Horizon 2020; Funding text 1: The Joint Research Project «Metrology for hydrogen vehicles 2» is supported the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research. The EMPIR initiative is co-funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the EMPIR Participating States.; Funding text 2: Climate change, air quality and reliance on imported fuels from non-renewable sources require immediate deployment of alternatives such as hydrogen to meet the 2050 Europe carbon neutral targets (net-zero emission from transport) [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative power supply for electric drive trains and could represent 32 % of fuel demand by 2050 [2]. According to 78% of automotive executives polled, FCEVs are “the real breakthrough for e-mobility” [3]. To achieve mass implementation of hydrogen in transport, there is current regulatory barriers. European Directive 2014/94/EU [4] and OIML recommendations [5] must be met by all European hydrogen refuelling stations (HRS) and therefore requires accurate measurement and metrology support. European project MetroHyVe was the first metrological project funded by European metrology program for innovation and research (EMPIR) with focus on solving measurement challenges for fuel cell electrical vehicles. These measurement challenges are linked to the regulatory barriers and international standards (hydrogen quality: ISO 14687, hydrogen quality control: ISO 19880-8, flow metering: OIML R139-1, analytical methods: ISO 21087) ([5; 6; 7; 8; 9]. At the end of the project in 2020, it was evident that new measurement challenges arise in relation with the rapid growth of the hydrogen economy. Therefore, a new European project MetroHyVe 2 was funded by EMPIR around four measurement challenges: -Flow metering: to develop and harmonise a metrological framework for testing hydrogen meters used to measure the mass of hydrogen dispensed from HRS using secondary standards for light-duty vehicles and primary or secondary standards for heavy duty FCEV). -Hydrogen quality control (development quality control tool for analytical laboratory (reference materials and inter-laboratory comparison for all contaminants regulated in ISO 14687 and development of metrological guidelines for sensor and analyser at HRS over long period). -Sampling (harmonization of hydrogen sampling methods at HRSs in Europe and worldwide with ASTM and Japan). -Impact of contaminant on Fuel cell stack (reproducibility study with FC stack and inter-comparison evaluation, which will eventually result in a standardisation of automotive FC stack testing). The presentation will highlight the achievement in the four measurement challenges: flow metering, quality control, sampling and Impact of contaminant on Fuel cell stack.

Available from: 2023-02-22 Created: 2023-02-22 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Francini, L. & Büker, O. (2022). Sampling methods for renewable gases and related gases: challenges and current limitations. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 414, 6285-6294
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sampling methods for renewable gases and related gases: challenges and current limitations
2022 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 414, p. 6285-6294Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Renewable gases, hydrogen and biomethane can be used for the same applications as natural gas: to heat homes, power vehicles and generate electricity. They have the potential to contribute to the decarbonisation of the gas grid. Hydrogen blending with existing natural gas pipelines is also proposed as a means to increase the performance of renewable energy systems. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies can be an answer to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Due to production methods, these gases typically contain species in trace amounts that can negatively impact the equipment they come into contact with or pipelines when injected into the gas grid. It is therefore necessary to ensure proper (and stable) gas quality that meets the requirements set out in the relevant standards. The gas quality standards require the collection and transport of a representative gas sample from the point of use to the analytical laboratory; i.e., no compounds may be added to or removed from the gas during sampling and transport. To obtain a representative sample, many challenges must be overcome. The biggest challenge is material compatibility and managing adsorption risks in the sampling systems (sampling line and sampling vessels). However, other challenges arise from the need for flow measurement with non-pure gases or from the nature of the matrix. Currently, there are no conclusive results of short-term stability measurements carried out under gas purity conditions (suitable pressure, matrix, appropriate concentrations, simultaneous presence of several species). © 2022, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022
Keywords
Material compatibility, Renewable gases, Sampling, Blending, Gas emissions, Greenhouse gases, Laboratories, Renewable energy resources, Biomethane, Current limitation, Gas quality, Heat homes, matrix, Power generate, Power vehicles, Renewable gas, Sampling method, Natural gas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59088 (URN)10.1007/s00216-022-03949-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-85124264251 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding text 1: Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. The Joint Research Project (JRP) 20IND10 «Metrology for decarbonising the gas grid» (Decarb) is supported by the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). The EMPIR initiative is co-funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the EMPIR Participating States.

Available from: 2022-04-14 Created: 2022-04-14 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K. & Büker, O. (2021). Comparison of different models to calculate the viscosity of biogas and biomethane in order to accurately measure flow rates for conformity assessment. Scientific Reports, 11(1), Article ID 1660.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of different models to calculate the viscosity of biogas and biomethane in order to accurately measure flow rates for conformity assessment
2021 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study presents an optimised method to correct flow rates measured with a LFE flowmeter pre-set on methane while used for gas mixtures of unknown composition at the time of the measurement. The method requires the correction of the flow rate using a factor based on the viscosity of the gas mixtures once the composition is accurately known. The method has several different possible applications inclusive for the sampling of biogas and biomethane onto sorbent tubes for conformity assessment for the determination of siloxanes, terpenes and VOC in general. Five models for the calculation of the viscosity of the gas mixtures were compared and the models were used for ten binary mixtures and four multi-component mixtures. The results of the evaluation of the different models showed that the correction method using the viscosity of the mixtures calculated with the model of Reichenberg and Carr showed the smallest biases for binary mixtures. For multi-component mixtures, the best results were obtained when using the models of Lucas and Carr. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Research, 2021
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52392 (URN)10.1038/s41598-021-81052-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85100114177 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: VINNOVA, 2019-05028

Available from: 2021-02-18 Created: 2021-02-18 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Beurey, C., Gozlan, B., Carré, M., Bacquart, T., Morris, A., Moore, N., . . . Murugan, A. (2021). Review and Survey of Methods for Analysis of Impurities in Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Vehicles According to ISO 14687:2019. Frontiers in Energy Research, 8, Article ID 615149.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review and Survey of Methods for Analysis of Impurities in Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Vehicles According to ISO 14687:2019
Show others...
2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 8, article id 615149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gaseous hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles must meet quality standards such as ISO 14687:2019 which contains maximal control thresholds for several impurities which could damage the fuel cells or the infrastructure. A review of analytical techniques for impurities analysis has already been carried out by Murugan et al. in 2014. Similarly, this document intends to review the sampling of hydrogen and the available analytical methods, together with a survey of laboratories performing the analysis of hydrogen about the techniques being used. Most impurities are addressed, however some of them are challenging, especially the halogenated compounds since only some halogenated compounds are covered, not all of them. The analysis of impurities following ISO 14687:2019 remains expensive and complex, enhancing the need for further research in this area. Novel and promising analyzers have been developed which need to be validated according to ISO 21087:2019 requirements.  © 2021 Beurey, Gozlan, Carré, Bacquart, Morris, Moore, Arrhenius, Meuzelaar, Persijn, Rojo and Murugan.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
fuel cell, hydrogen, hydrogen quality, impurities analysis, ISO 14687, sampling, Fuel cells, Halogenation, Surveys, Analytical method, Gaseous hydrogen, Halogenated compounds, Hydrogen for fuel cells, Impurities in, Quality standard, Quality control
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52875 (URN)10.3389/fenrg.2020.615149 (DOI)2-s2.0-85102389082 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: European Association of National Metrology Institutes, EURAMET

Available from: 2021-04-23 Created: 2021-04-23 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Aarhaug, T., Bacquart, T., Morris, A., Bartlett, S., Wagner, L., . . . Rizand, M. (2021). Strategies for the sampling of hydrogen at refuelling stations for purity assessment. International journal of hydrogen energy, 46(70), 34839
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategies for the sampling of hydrogen at refuelling stations for purity assessment
Show others...
2021 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 46, no 70, p. 34839-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen delivered at hydrogen refuelling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards which require specialized sampling device and personnel to operate it. Currently, different strategies are implemented in different parts of the world and these strategies have already been used to perform 100s of hydrogen fuel sampling in USA, EU and Japan. However, these strategies have never been compared on a large systematic study. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare the different strategies for sampling hydrogen at the nozzle and summarize the key aspects of all the existing hydrogen fuel sampling including discussion on material compatibility with the impurities that must be assessed. This review highlights the fact it is currently difficult to evaluate the impact or the difference these strategies would have on the hydrogen fuel quality assessment. Therefore, comparative sampling studies are required to evaluate the equivalence between the different sampling strategies. This is the first step to support the standardization of hydrogen fuel sampling and to identify future research and development area for hydrogen fuel sampling. © 2021 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Fuel quality assessment, Hydrogen, Refuelling stations, Sampling device, Hydrogen fuels, Quality control, Hydrogen fuel qualities, Hydrogen refueling stations, Material compatibility, Purity assessment, Quality assessment, Refueling station, Sampling devices, Sampling strategies, Systematic study
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56714 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.08.043 (DOI)2-s2.0-85114246613 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020; Funding text 1: The Joint Research Project «Metrology for hydrogen vehicles 2» is supported the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research . The EMPIR initiative is co-funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the EMPIR Participating States.

Available from: 2021-10-04 Created: 2021-10-04 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4037-3106

Search in DiVA

Show all publications