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Amaral, A., Gillot, S., Garrido-Baserba, M., Filali, A., Karpinska, A., Plósz, B., . . . Rosso, D. (2019). Modelling gas-liquid mass transfer in wastewater treatment: when current knowledge needs to encounter engineering practice and vice versa. Water Science and Technology, 80(4), 607-619
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling gas-liquid mass transfer in wastewater treatment: when current knowledge needs to encounter engineering practice and vice versa
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2019 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 607-619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gas-liquid mass transfer in wastewater treatment processes has received considerable attention over the last decades from both academia and industry. Indeed, improvements in modelling gas-liquid mass transfer can bring huge benefits in terms of reaction rates, plant energy expenditure, acid-base equilibria and greenhouse gas emissions. Despite these efforts, there is still no universally valid correlation between the design and operating parameters of a wastewater treatment plant and the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients. That is why the current practice for oxygen mass transfer modelling is to apply overly simplified models, which come with multiple assumptions that are not valid for most applications. To deal with these complexities, correction factors were introduced over time. The most uncertain of them is the α-factor. To build fundamental gas-liquid mass transfer knowledge more advanced modelling paradigms have been applied more recently. Yet these come with a high level of complexity making them impractical for rapid process design and optimisation in an industrial setting. However, the knowledge gained from these more advanced models can help in improving the way the α-factor and thus gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient should be applied. That is why the presented work aims at clarifying the current state-of-the-art in gas-liquid mass transfer modelling of oxygen and other gases, but also to direct academic research efforts towards the needs of the industrial practitioners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NLM (Medline), 2019
Keywords
oxygen, gas, theoretical model, uncertainty, waste water, Gases, Models, Theoretical
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40889 (URN)10.2166/wst.2019.253 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074272029 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Kazadi Mbamba, C., Arnell, M., Svedin, C., Ejlertsson, J., Jeppsson, U. & Karlsson, A. (2019). Modelling Industrial Symbiosis of BiogasProduction and Industrial WastewaterTreatment Plants – A Review. Linköping, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling Industrial Symbiosis of BiogasProduction and Industrial WastewaterTreatment Plants – A Review
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present-day treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents can be significantly improvedby incorporating biogas production in the context of industrial symbiosis. In this work anew industrial symbiosis concept is presented, the focus being on modelling it in view ofprocess optimization, design improvement and adoption by the pulp and paper industry.The concept consists of a first stage in which pulp and paper mills effluents are treatedby high-rate anaerobic digestion in external circulation sludge bed (ECSB) reactors toproduce biogas. In the second stage the removal of organic matter contained in thedigestate stream occurs through aerobic activated sludge treatment, aiming to achievemaximum sludge production with minimum aeration requirements. This sludge shouldin the case study then be co-digested with fish-waste silage to yield methane for energyproduction, nutrients-rich reject water that can be recycled to the activated sludgetreatment for optimum microbial activities and, production of nutrient rich soilamendment. The overall research aim is to develop a mathematical model that describesthe relevant process units and the dynamics of the different processes involving organicmatter removal, biogas production and nutrients release. The review overall finds thatan integrated model is required to simulate this concept and should include recentdevelopments in activated sludge, anaerobic digestion and physico-chemical modelling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping, Sweden: , 2019. p. 39
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:48
Keywords
biogas, industrial symbiosis, granular sludge bed reactors, anaerobic digestion, high-rate activated sludge system, modelling
National Category
Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39233 (URN)978-91-88907-75-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03205
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Regmi, P., Miller, M., Jimenez, J., Stewart, H., Johnson, B., Amerlinck, Y., . . . Takács, I. (2019). The future of WRRF modelling - Outlook and challenges. Water Science and Technology, 79(1), 3-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The future of WRRF modelling - Outlook and challenges
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2019 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The wastewater industry is currently facing dramatic changes, shifting away from energy-intensive wastewater treatment towards low-energy, sustainable technologies capable of achieving energy positive operation and resource recovery. The latter will shift the focus of the wastewater industry to how one could manage and extract resources from the wastewater, as opposed to the conventional paradigm of treatment. Debatable questions arise: Can the more complex models be calibrated, or will additional unknowns be introduced? After almost 30 years using well-known International Water Association (IWA) models, should the community move to other components, processes, or model structures like 'black box' models, computational fluid dynamics techniques, etc.? Can new data sources - e.g. on-line sensor data, chemical and molecular analyses, new analytical techniques, off-gas analysis - keep up with the increasing process complexity? Are different methods for data management, data reconciliation, and fault detection mature enough for coping with such a large amount of information? Are the available calibration techniques able to cope with such complex models? This paper describes the thoughts and opinions collected during the closing session of the 6th IWA/WEF Water Resource Recovery Modelling Seminar 2018. It presents a concerted and collective effort by individuals from many different sectors of the wastewater industry to offer past and present insights, as well as an outlook into the future of wastewater modelling.

Keywords
activated sludge model, big-data, computational fluid dynamics, dynamic simulation, modelling, wastewater, Activated sludge process, Big data, Chemical analysis, Computer simulation, Fault detection, Information management, Model structures, Models, Water distribution systems, Water resources, Calibration techniques, Computational fluid dynamics technique, Data reconciliation, International Water Association, Sustainable technology, Wastewater industry, Wastewater modelling, Wastewater treatment
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38207 (URN)10.2166/wst.2018.498 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062411629 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-31Bibliographically approved
Keucken, A., Habagil, M., Batstone, D., Jeppsson, U. & Arnell, M. (2018). Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community. Energies, 11(9), Article ID 2325.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community
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2018 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

Keywords
anaerobic digestion; co-digestion; mathematical modelling; microbial community; solid
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36639 (URN)10.3390/en11092325 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054058521 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Keucken, A., Habagil, M., Batstone, D. & Arnell, M. (2018). New insights on process performance and stability for anaerobic co-digestion through modelling and population analysis. In: : . Paper presented at IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition 2018, Tokyo, Japan.16-21 September, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New insights on process performance and stability for anaerobic co-digestion through modelling and population analysis
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) allows for underutilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), e.g. food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper focuses on the implementation of codigestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment and OFMSW through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process and an increase of the biomethane production of 20 to 40% with 50% OFMSW and it has an impact on the microbial community. The methanogenic activity increases and changes towards acetate degradation while the community without co-substrate remains unaffected. The modelling results show that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in digester performance due to varying inhibition. Modelling can be successfully used for designing feed strategies and experimental set-ups for anaerobic co-digestion.

Keywords
anaerobic digestion, mathematical modelling, microbial community, solid waste
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33939 (URN)
Conference
IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition 2018, Tokyo, Japan.16-21 September, 2018.
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Wittgren, H. B., Arnell, M., Berbeyer Cuevas, M. & Bäckman, J. (2017). A tool to support upstream work. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Wastewater Conference (NORDIWA2017), Århus, Denmark, 10 – 12 October, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A tool to support upstream work
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Theupstream work at utilities can be facilitated by a tool for calculatingpollution loads. A web application for mapping sources and performing substanceflow analysis is being developed. It aims to support location of sources,planning of measurement campaigns and evaluation of specific measures.

National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30008 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Wastewater Conference (NORDIWA2017), Århus, Denmark, 10 – 12 October, 2017
Available from: 2017-06-29 Created: 2017-06-29 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Arnell, M., Jeppsson, U., Rahmberg, M., Oliveira, F. & Carlsson, B. (2017). Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan. Stockholm, Sverige: Svenskat Vatten AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Use of plant-wide modelling and life-cycle analysis of WWTPs for multi-criteria assessment of performance and environmental impact
Abstract [sv]

Genom att använda detaljerade dynamiska modeller och kombinera resultat från årslånga simuleringar av ARV (såväl vatten- som slamlinjer) med livscykelanalys kan olika driftstrategier utvecklas och utvärderas utifrån en bred uppsättning hållbarhetskriterier fö att maximera resursutvinning och energieffektivitet samtidigt som vattenkvalitén bibehålls och driftskostnaderna kontrolleras. Metodiken har tillämpats vid en omfattande fallstudie av Käppalaverket.

Abstract [en]

By using detailed dynamic plant-wide models and combining results from one-year simulations of ’within-the-fence’ WWTPs (both water- and sludge lines) with life-cycle analysis, different operational strategies can be developed and evaluated based on the total environmental impact (including external activities) while maximizing resource recovery and energy efficiency, maintaining good effluent quality and keeping track of the operational costs. The methodology has been applied and tested in an extensive case study of Käppala WWTP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sverige: Svenskat Vatten AB, 2017. p. 66
Series
Svenskt Vatten Utveckling ; 2017-05
Keywords
Benchmarking, BSM, case study Käppala, energy effi ciency, total environmental impact, greenhouse gas emissions, life-cycle analysis, LCA, multi-criteria evaluation, plant-wide modelling, wastewater treatment
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29226 (URN)
Projects
Utveckling av operationella strategier och dynamiskt analysverktyg med fokus på energieffektivisering av avloppsreningsverk. Svenskt Vatten Utveckling 10-106
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 211-2010-141
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Arnell, M., Rahmberg, M., Oliveira, F. & Jeppsson, U. (2017). Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment. Journal of Water and Climate Change, 8(4), 715-729
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment
2017 (English)In: Journal of Water and Climate Change, ISSN 20402244, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 715-729Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multi-objective performance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluation of modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also resource efficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost calls for assessment methods including both on- and off-site effects. In this study, a method combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG), detailed energy models and operational cost – and life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed. The method was applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performance assessment study, changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primary treatment was evaluated. The results show that the primary objectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce GHG emissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the global warming potential decreased by 28%. However, due to increased consumption of chemicals, the operational cost increased by 87% and the LCA revealed that the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil resources increased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasize the importance of using plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture both the dynamics of the plant and the potential environmental impacts.

National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32831 (URN)10.2166/wcc.2017.179 (DOI)2-s2.0-85036607674 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Arnell, M., Lundin, E. & Jeppsson, U. (2017). Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review. Lund: Lund University Open Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This technical report describes the literature review conducted on wastewater heat recovery (WWHR). As part of the urban water cycle, domestic hot water consumes the lion share – up to 90 % – of the total energy requirement for water management. Individual energy consumption of 780 to 1 150 kWh/cay/yr has been estimated in Sweden. Energy can be recovered from wastewater, in buildings close to the source or further downstream in the wastewater system. Depending on wastewater flow and temperature heat exchangers or heat pumps (or a combination of both) can be used for extracting heat the energy. Obstacles for utilizing this potential are for example: clogging and fouling of equipment, potentially negative system impacts and economic feasibility. Examples of various WWHR implementations have been found in Sweden, Switzerland and North America. Some installations have been running for a long time and technical function and financial viability has been evaluated and are reviewed in the report. Generally, heat pumps reach a coefficient of performance of 3 to 7, better the higher the wastewater temperature is, i.e. further up-stream.

WWHR application in a wastewater system can be modelled. The domestic hot water requirement and associated energy use has been modelled previously and concepts can be adapted for modelling the larger system. Equations for calculating performance and output variables from heat recovery equipment have been reviewed and is presented. For the purpose of assessing single WWHR installations in sewers, detailed models have been developed and presented. There are reviewed in the text. Concepts for estimating temperature variations in sewers are essential to assess the impact on wastewater treatment plants. Performance of wastewater treatment plants and their temperature dependence can be modelled with existing process models. Temperature variations along the course of the treatment plant might be important to consider.

In Sweden, there are currently some regulations related to WWHR. The temperature of hot water systems in buildings are regulated to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Furthermore, the practice of WWHR is limited in extent and requires a permit from the utility as by the contract between the consumer and the utility. Currently, this limits the implementation of WWHR in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Lund University Open Access, 2017. p. 41
Series
Lund University Technical Report
Keywords
energy systems, heat recovery, mathematical modelling, performance assessment, sustainability
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32832 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Lindblom, E., Arnell, M., Flores-Alsina, X., Stenström, F., Gustavsson, D., Yang, J. & Jeppsson, U. (2016). Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems. Water Science and Technology, 73(4), 798-806
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems
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2016 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 798-806Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O production by both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. In addition, mass transfer equations are implemented to characterize the dynamics of N2O in the water and the gas phases. The biochemical model is simulated and validated for two hydraulic patterns: (1) a sequencing batch reactor; and (2) a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Results show that the calibrated model is partly capable of reproducing the behaviour of N2O as well as the nitritation/nitrification/denitrification dynamics. However, the results emphasize that additional work is required before N2O emissions from sludge liquor treatment plants can be generally predicted with high certainty by simulations. Continued efforts should focus on determining the switching conditions for different N2O formation pathways and, if full-scale data are used, more detailed modelling of the measurement devices might improve the conclusions that can be drawn.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2016
Keywords
ASMN, Autotrophic denitrification, Greenhouse gases, Heterotrophic denitrification, Modelling, Sludge liquor treatment
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-399 (URN)10.2166/wst.2015.534 (DOI)2-s2.0-84959421357 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-22 Created: 2016-06-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1547-8413

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