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Vermina Lundström, F. & Andersson, P. (2018). Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data. Lund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Limiting factors for fire extent in residential buildings – analysis of information from the insurance sector
Abstract [en]

Every year, the insurance sector reports 23 000 fire incidents in Sweden. Of these, the fire rescue service are called into 6 000. Since there is little knowledge on the fires that the fire rescue service is not involved in, incident data from insurance companies has been analyzed.

One limitation to the results in this report is that the insurance sector’s definition of fire is broad; e.g. short-circuit is regarded a fire incident.

Still, the data complies with the statistics from the fire rescue service: Kitchen fires and fire in electric equipment are the most common sources of fire in residential buildings.

The cost (property damage) of a fire is also presented. It is seen that the most common fires sources commonly lead to a relatively low economical loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: , 2018. p. 30
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:06
Keywords
insurance; cost; small fire
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33009 (URN)978-91-88695-41-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-10 Created: 2018-01-10 Last updated: 2018-08-24Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Arvidson, M., Evegren, F., Jandali, M., Larsson, F. & Rosengren, M. (2018). Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

Publisher
p. 49
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:77
Keywords
lithium-ion batteries, ships, battery room, fire-fighting
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36683 (URN)978-91-88907-27-1 (ISBN)
Note

The Lion Fire @ Sea project was funded by the Swedish Maritime Administration (Sjöfartsverket) and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.

Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
Brandon, D., Just, A., Andersson, P. & Östman, B. (2018). Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

Publisher
p. 47
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:43
Keywords
Tall timber buildings; Fire; Fire stop; Fire spread; Water damage
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35110 (URN)978-91-88695-82-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Aras, S., Arvidson, M., Frantzich, H., Larsson, I., Vermina Lundström, F., . . . Runefors, M. (2018). Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thisreport summarizes the work conducted within the project ”Analysis of physicaldeterminants and technical measures in support of the zero vision” financed bythe Civil Contingency Authority (MSB) in Sweden. The work aims to find measuresto prevent and reduce the number of fatalities in fires in residentialbuildings in a Sweden, a list of such measures is provided in the end of thereport. The list is based on work conducted in several small sub-projects, ashort summary of these is also provided in the report.

Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport utgör slutrapport i projektet ”Analys av brandsäkerhetens fysiska bestämningsfaktorer och tekniska åtgärder som stöd till nollvisionen” som har finansierats av MSB. Rapporten sammanfattar projektet i form av förslag på åtgärder som kan införas för att minska antalet omkomna och skadade i bostadsbränder. De rekommenderade åtgärderna baseras på de resultat som framkommit i de underprojekt som genomförts under projektets gång. En kort sammanfattning av de projekten ges, för fullständig information hänvisas läsaren till de olika delprojektsrapporterna.

För att minska antalet döda och skadade i bränder i bostäder behövs många olika åtgärder, det finns ingen universallösning som kan förhindra alla dödsfall i bostadsbränder. Åtgärderna som rekommenderas inkluderar:

  • Fortsatt satsning på brandvarnare i hemmet, både i form av fler brandvarnare och bättre brandvarnare
  • Informationsspridning genom t.ex. bättre spridning av sidan ”Din säkerhet”
  • Bättre brandskydd för personer som vårdas i hemmet
  • Brandkrav på lös inredning 
  • Fortsatt och förbättrad uppföljning av dödsbränder
  • Mer vikt vid nyttan av brandskyddsåtgärder i regelverk även om det inte går att räkna hem nyttan rent samhällsekonomiskt
  • Fortsatt forskning inom området gällande t.ex. bättre brandvarnare, utvärderingsverktyg olika insatser samt bränder med okänd orsak.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2018. p. 32
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:37
Keywords
Fires, Residential fires, Fire fatalities, Fire prevention, Fire measures, Bränder, bostadsbränder, omkomna i bränder, förebyggande åtgärder, förebyggnade brandskydd
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33857 (URN)978-91-88695-75-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Analys av brandsäkerhetens fysiska bestämningsfaktorer och tekniksa åtgärder som stöd till nollvivionen
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2014-5284
Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-08-24Bibliographically approved
Strömgren, M. & Andersson, P. (2016). Dwelling and fire scenario characteristics in fatal residential fires - a review. In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016: . Paper presented at 1st Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, June 16-17, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark (pp. 37).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dwelling and fire scenario characteristics in fatal residential fires - a review
2016 (English)In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 37-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28331 (URN)
Conference
1st Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, June 16-17, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P. & Willstrand, O. (2016). FIVE 2016. Brandposten (55), 30-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FIVE 2016
2016 (Swedish)In: Brandposten, no 55, p. 30-30Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28246 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-17 Created: 2017-02-17 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Brandt, J. & Willstrand, O. (2016). Full scale fire-test of an electric hybrid bus.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full scale fire-test of an electric hybrid bus
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In November 2014 a full scale fire test was conducted on an electric-diesel hybrid bus at the rescue-service training facility Guttasjön outside of Borås. The fire was started in the engine compartment and allowed to spread and grow until the entire bus was consumed in the fire. Temperature measurements were conducted in the engine compartment, passenger compartment, air-channels within the passenger compartment and on the battery. In addition were gas analysis, useful for evaluation of evacuation, performed within the passenger compartment and extra detectors installed in the engine compartment. The test was video-recorded from several angles. The purpose of the test and measurements were several; study the fire behaviour of an electric-hybrid bus, i.e. would the battery fall down into the passenger compartment and thus pose a new risk, or would the battery explode and pose a new risk, investigate the benefits of early detection of fires in the engine compartment and to provide a set of measuring data that can be used by researchers and others that are evaluating and modelling different fire safety means and rescue for buses.Key words: Fire, bus, hybrid, electric vehicle, battery, full-scale fire test

Publisher
p. 43
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2016:05
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28006 (URN)978-91-88349-12-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2018-08-24Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2016). Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire. In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016: . Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles (FIVE 2016), October 4-6, 2016, Baltimore, US (pp. 253-256).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire
2016 (English)In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, 2016, p. 253-256Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28301 (URN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles (FIVE 2016), October 4-6, 2016, Baltimore, US
Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-03 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Arvidson, M., Larsson, I. & Bergstrand, A. (2016). Halvtid i bostadsbrandprojekten. Brandposten (55), 14-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Halvtid i bostadsbrandprojekten
2016 (Swedish)In: Brandposten, no 55, p. 14-14Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27711 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-02 Created: 2017-01-02 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2016). Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests. Batteries, 2(9), 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests
2016 (English)In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Safety issues concerning the use of large lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electrified vehicles are discussed based on the abuse test results of Li-ion cells together with safety devices for cells. The presented abuse tests are: overcharge, short circuit, propane fire test and external heating test (oven). It was found that in a fire, cells with higher state of charge (SOC) gave a higher heat release rate (HRR), while the total heat release (THR) had a lower correlation with SOC. One fire test resulted in a hazardous projectile from a cylindrical cell. In the fire tests, toxic gas emissions of hydrogen fluoride (HF) were measured for 100%, 50% and 0% SOC.

Keywords
lithium-ion (Li-ion), battery, electrified vehicle, safety, thermal runaway, fire, hydrogen fluoride, toxic gases, abuse test
National Category
Physical Sciences Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32904 (URN)10.3390/batteries2020009 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3690-387x

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