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Huang, C., Bisschop, R. & Anderson, J. (2023). A Sensitivity Study of a Thermal Propagation Model in an Automotive Battery Module. Fire technology, 59, 1405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Sensitivity Study of a Thermal Propagation Model in an Automotive Battery Module
2023 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 59, p. 1405-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal runaway is a major concern for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. A manufacturing fault or unusual operating conditions may lead to this event. Starting from a single battery cell, more cells may be triggered into thermal runaway, and the battery pack may be destroyed. To prevent this from happening, safety solutions need to be evaluated. Physical testing is an effective, yet costly, method to assessing battery safety performance. As such, the potential of a numerical tool, which can cut costs and reduce product development times, is investigated in terms of capturing a battery module’s tolerance to a single cell failure. A 3D-FE model of a battery module was built, using a commercial software, to study thermal runaway propagation. The model assumes that when the cell jelly roll reaches a critical value, thermal runaway occurs. This approach was considered to study the module’s tolerance to a single cell failure, which was in reasonable agreement with what had been observed in full-scale experiments. In addition, quantitative sensitivity study on the i) model input parameters, ii) model space, and iii) time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The critical temperature was found to have the greatest influence on thermal runaway propagation. The specific heat capacity of jelly roll was found to significantly impact the thermal runaway time duration. The multi-physics model for battery thermal propagation is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with physical testing.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64217 (URN)10.1007/s10694-023-01383-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85149268579 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-09 Created: 2023-03-09 Last updated: 2024-05-23Bibliographically approved
Sjöström, J., Brandon, D., Temple, A., Anderson, J. & McNamee, R. (2023). External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades. Fire and Materials, 47, 433
Open this publication in new window or tab >>External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades
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2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, p. 433-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Post-flashover fires inherently lead to external fire plumes, constituting a hazard for rapid fire spread over façades. As multi-storey mass timber buildings with internal visible timber surfaces become more common, there are concerns that such buildings would produce larger external plumes and hazards (assuming all other parameters equal). The literature reveals only indications of this, and how the actual exposure relates to different test methods for assessment is unknown. Here we utilise a series of full-scale mass timber compartment tests to quantify the exposure to the external façade. An incombustible external façade is instrumented with gauges at positions corresponding to reference data from several different assessment methods. The results show that there is an increase in plume duration, height, and temperatures when increasing the areas of exposed timber, but that this increase is less for normal- to large-opening compartments, than was previously seen in small-opening compartments. Also, normal variations in external wind speed have a larger influence on plume heights than the effect of doubling exposed timber surfaces. Test methods used for regulatory compliance differ significantly not only in exposure but also in pass/fail criteria. The proposed European large exposure method and the BS8414 method exhibit exposures on par with the severe end of what could be expected from mass timber compartments, whereas methods like SP Fire 105 and Lepir II produce significantly less severe plumes. However, the safety level is always a combination of exposure and assessment criteria. This data can help justify assessment criteria from a performance perspective. © 2023 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
Keywords
BS 8414, exposure, external flaming, Façade, mass timber compartments, standard, testing, Facades, Fire hazards, Regulatory compliance, Thermal plumes, Timber, Wind, Assessment criteria, Compartment fires, External fires, Fire plume, Mass timber compartment, Test method, Timber surfaces, Fires
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63983 (URN)10.1002/fam.3129 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147449069 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Correspondence Address: Sjöström, J, RISE Research institutes of Sweden, Box 875, Sweden; email: johan.sjostrom@ri.se;

Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding text 1: Brandforsk, The Swedish fire research fund and the European Commission (grant SI2.825082 ‐ Finalisation of the European approach to assess the fire performance of façades) are greatly acknowledged for financial support. Additionally, the work could not have been performed without the funding for the mass timber compartments for which we acknowledge United States Forest Service (USFS) ‐ United States Department of Agriculture and other contributing industry partners for material and advice (American Wood Council, Henkel, KLH, Boise Cascade, Rothoblaas, Softwood Export Council, Atelier Jones, UL).

Available from: 2023-02-16 Created: 2023-02-16 Last updated: 2024-05-27Bibliographically approved
Dai, X., Gamba, A., Liu, C., Anderson, J., Charlier, M., Rush, D. & Welch, S. (2022). An engineering CFD model for fire spread on wood cribs for travelling fires. Advances in Engineering Software, 173, Article ID 103213.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An engineering CFD model for fire spread on wood cribs for travelling fires
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2022 (English)In: Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN 0965-9978, E-ISSN 1873-5339, Vol. 173, article id 103213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The temperature heterogeneity due to fire in large open-plan office compartments is closely associated with fire spread behaviour and has been historically limited to experimental investigations using timber cribs. This study explores the ability of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, specifically the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), to reproduce the results of full-scale tests involving fire spread over timber cribs for continuous fuel-beds. Mesh schemes are studied, with a fine mesh over the crib and 2 × 2 cells in the wood stick cross-section by default, this being relaxed in the surrounding regions to enhance computational efficiency. The simple pyrolysis model considers the charring phase and moisture. In application to the TRAFIR-Liège LB7 test, this calibrated “stick-by-stick” representation shows a good agreement for interrelated parameters of heat release rate, fire spread, gas phase temperature, and burn-away, a set of agreements which has not been demonstrated in previous studies. Fire spread shows relatively high sensitivities to: heat of combustion, ignition temperature, thermal inertia, radiation fraction, heat release rate per unit area, and the fuel load density. An approximately linear regression was found between the different fire modes and the thermal exposures, with “travelling” (and decaying) fires characterised by heat fluxes associated with the fire plume, while the growing fires were associated with proportionally higher heat fluxes on the horizontal surfaces of the sticks, in conditions where these receive more pre-heating. The trends in the overall HRR are more dependent on the fire spread rates than variations in the stick burning rates. © 2022 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
CFD modelling, FDS, Fire spread, Travelling fires, Wood crib fire experiments, Computational efficiency, Computational fluid dynamics, Heat flux, Ignition, Mesh generation, Office buildings, Timber, Computational fluid dynamics modeling, Fire dynamics simulator, Fire experiments, Heat release, Release rate, Timber cribs, Wood crib fire, Wood crib fire experiment, Fires
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60047 (URN)10.1016/j.advengsoft.2022.103213 (DOI)2-s2.0-85135936681 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, EPSRC, EP/R029369/1; Funding details: University of Edinburgh, ED; Funding details: Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCS, 754198; Funding text 1: This work was carried out in the frame of the TRAFIR project with funding from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (grant N°754198). Partners are ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Liège Univ. the Univ. of Edinburgh, RISE Research Inst. of Sweden and the Univ. of Ulster. This work used the ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service (http://www.archer.ac.uk), and the resources provided by the Edinburgh Compute and Data Facility (ECDF) (http://www.ecdf.ed.ac.uk/) and assistance of relevant administrators is acknowledged. The authors are grateful to EPSRC (grant number: EP/R029369/1) and ARCHER for financial and computational support as a part of their funding to the UK Consortium on Turbulent Reacting Flows (www.ukctrf.com). The UKCTRF Consortium benefits from the support of CoSeC, the Computational Science Centre for Research Community. Funding text 2: This work was carried out in the frame of the TRAFIR project with funding from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (grant N°754198 ). Partners are ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Liège Univ., the Univ. of Edinburgh, RISE Research Inst. of Sweden and the Univ. of Ulster. This work used the ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service ( http://www.archer.ac.uk ), and the resources provided by the Edinburgh Compute and Data Facility (ECDF) ( http://www.ecdf.ed.ac.uk/ ) and assistance of relevant administrators is acknowledged. The authors are grateful to EPSRC (grant number: EP/R029369/1) and ARCHER for financial and computational support as a part of their funding to the UK Consortium on Turbulent Reacting Flows ( www.ukctrf.com ). The UKCTRF Consortium benefits from the support of CoSeC, the Computational Science Centre for Research Community.

Available from: 2022-09-05 Created: 2022-09-05 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Temple, A. & Anderson, J. (2022). BREND 2.0: Fire simulation technical report.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BREND 2.0: Fire simulation technical report
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electric vehicles (EVs) and other vehicles with alternative energy carriers (such as hydrogen) are becoming increasingly common, and with them new fire risks. This report provides the technical details of computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out as part of the BREND 2.0 project to assess the tenability conditions within a ro-ro space from EV fires, via assessment of temperatures, radiation and spread of toxic species. The simulations primarily considered variation in compartment ventilation and fuel source. In all scenarios a selection of gaseous species, gas temperatures and radiative intensity are recorded at point locations and as 2D slices across the ro-ro space. From the gaseous species fractional effective concentrations, for irritant gases, and fraction effective doses, for asphyxiants, can be calculated to provide an assessment for tenability conditions in each scenario. This report contains the results of the simulations and some general observations but no detailed analysis of the implications of the results in terms of safety of EV fires on a ro-ro space.

Publisher
p. 103
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:59
Keywords
toxic gases, batteries, electric vehicles, fire tests, simulations, heat release, ro-ro, ship
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59161 (URN)978-91-89561-99-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-26 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Huang, C., Temple, A., Ramachandra, V., Anderson, J. & Andersson, P. (2022). Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions. Gothenburg: Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thermal propagation is one of the major challenges when batteries will be used in dwellings in large scale. It means the exothermic reactions in the cell are out of control and can lead to a fast release of flammable and toxic gases. In a system involving a large number of cells, thermal runaway can rapidly propagate from one battery cell to the whole system, which means substantial fire and explosion risks, an event that is important to mitigate and prevent. Multi-physics simulations together with full-scale testing is a cost-effective method for designing safer batteries. This project aims at simulating thermal runaway initiation and propagation using a multi-physics commercial software GT-Suite. 

A battery thermal runaway model containing 12 prismatic cells based on 3-D Finite Element approach was built using GT-Suite. The computed thermal runaway time instants versus thermal runaway cell number were compared with full-scale experimental data with reasonable agreement. Quantitative sensitivity study on the model input parameters and model space and time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The thermal runaway model was then extended with an electric equivalent sub-model to simulate the short circuit. With the electrical model acting as the input to the thermal model, the most interesting output of the simulation is the change in temperature of the cells, dependent on the current in the cells, with respect to time. The current is determined by the value of the external resistance through which the short takes place and the voltage level of the battery pack. The obtained results from the above short circuit simulations can only be used as a starting point and not as absolute values for neither triggering the thermal model nor for accurately simulating a battery under an electrical load. Furthermore, GT-Suite was applied to simulate the gas dispersion inside a room. A comparative study of the dispersion of toxic gases during thermal runaway, utilising an arbitrary release of HCN to represent the battery gases, in a small compartment with natural ventilation was investigated and the results compared the same situation simulated in FDS. The pipe based modelling supported by GT-Suite has limited applicability and overestimated the concentrations close to the ceiling whereas the lateral concentrations where underestimated. 

The multi-physics model for battery thermal runaway process is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with full-scale testing. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gothenburg: Research Institutes of Sweden, 2022. p. 33
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:121
Keywords
battery thermal runaway, multi-physics simulation, short circuit, dwelling, gas dispersion
National Category
Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62016 (URN)978-91-89757-02-8 (ISBN)
Funder
Brandforsk, 322-001
Available from: 2022-12-22 Created: 2022-12-22 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
McNamee, R., Anderson, J. & Temple, A. (2022). The development of façade fire testing in Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of façade fire testing in Sweden
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Façade fire testing has been high on the agenda worldwide due to the increased hazard of many occurrences of severe fire spread on façades. There is also international work going on to create a European standard for façade fire testing. In this context it is interesting to clarify what different national test methodologies are based on. This report is a review of the development that led to the Swedish standard for assessing fire performance of façades, SP Fire 105. The review starts from the development in the 1950s with assessing fire exposure from compartment fires and follows further development until 1990s. The fire exposure in the first edition of SP Fire 105 published 1985 was based on two test campaigns including external flames from room fires performed at Lund University during the late 70-ties and early 80-ties. In the early 90-ties the geometry of the air intake in the combustion chamber and the opening under the test specimen was slightly reduced leading to a lower effective thermal exposure of the façade than in the first edition of SP Fire 105. An important observation done already in the 1950s at the Swedish fire laboratory in Stockholm and in the late 1970s at Lund University was that the wind is influencing the test results when doing experiments outside.

Publisher
p. 64
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:146
Keywords
Façade, Fire Testing, Standardization
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64291 (URN)978-91-89757-35-6 (ISBN)
Note

The Authors are grateful for the financial support from The Swedish Federation of Wood and Furniture Industry and RISE which made this work possible.

Available from: 2023-04-13 Created: 2023-04-13 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Johansson, N., Anderson, J., McNamee, R. & Pelo, C. (2021). A Round Robin of fire modelling for performance-based design. Fire and Materials, 45(8), 985
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Round Robin of fire modelling for performance-based design
2021 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 985-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nine participants, representing eight different Swedish fire consultancy firms participated in a Round Robin study where two different cases were simulated with the Fire Dynamics Simulator. The first case included a large open warehouse where the activation of a sprinkler system was to be studied. In the second case time to critical conditions in a theatre was to be calculated. The participants were given clear instructions on the building layout and heat release rate for the two cases. Still, the results demonstrate a significant variation in time to sprinkler system activation (range of 110 seconds) and available safe escape time (range of 60 seconds), between the participants. It is important to emphasise that some degree of variation is unavoidable, as engineers can model things differently without the modelling solution necessarily being incorrect. Even though it is hard to isolate and specific cause of the variation, some of the variation seen in this study is related to modelling choices that are questionable and consequently problematic for the reliability of the fire safety design. © 2020 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2021
Keywords
fire dynamics, Fire Dynamics Simulator, fire safety engineering, performance-based design, round robin, Chemical activation, Sprinkler systems (fire fighting), Sprinkler systems (irrigation), Consultancy firms, Critical condition, Fire safety designs, Heat Release Rate (HRR), Performance based design, Round robin studies, System activation, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45640 (URN)10.1002/fam.2891 (DOI)2-s2.0-85087767685 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-13 Created: 2020-08-13 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jenninger, B., Anderson, J., Bernien, M., Bundaleski, N., Dimitrova, H., Granovskij, M., . . . Wüest, M. (2021). Development of a design for an ionisation vacuum gauge suitable as a reference standard. Vacuum, 183, Article ID 109884.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a design for an ionisation vacuum gauge suitable as a reference standard
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2021 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 183, article id 109884Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The EURAMET EMPIR project “16NRM05 - Ion gauge” aims to develop an ionisation vacuum gauge suitable as a reference vacuum standard. In such a gauge the electron trajectories and their kinetic energy inside the ionisation volume should be well defined and stable. In the search for a suitable design, a series of simulations on different ionisation gauge concepts that have the potential to meet stringent stability requirements have been carried out. Different software packages were used for this purpose. This paper focuses on the design aspects and the performance of the different ionisation gauge concepts that have been investigated by simulation. Parameters such as ionisation gauge sensitivity, ion collection efficiency and electron transmission efficiency, have been determined as a function of emission current, pressure and electron source alignment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Hot cathode, Ionisation gauge, Reference standard, Sensitivity, Simulation, Kinetic energy, Kinetics, Vacuum gages, Electron trajectories, Electron transmission, Emission current, Gauge sensitivities, Ion collection efficiencies, Stability requirements, Vacuum standards, Ionization
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-50938 (URN)10.1016/j.vacuum.2020.109884 (DOI)2-s2.0-85096372400 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: UID/FIS/00068/2019; Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the EMPIR programme, co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, and the Portuguese National Funding Agency for Science, Research and Technology in the framework of the project UID/FIS/00068/2019 .

Available from: 2020-12-02 Created: 2020-12-02 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Temple, A., Sokoti, H., Sundberg, P., Kahl, F., Anderson, J., Vermina Plathmer, F. & Sjöström, J. (2021). Development of Experimental Method for Assessing Risk of Lithium Fires Related with Fusion Reactor Lithium Cooling Loops. Gothenburg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Experimental Method for Assessing Risk of Lithium Fires Related with Fusion Reactor Lithium Cooling Loops
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this project is to provide the basis for risk assessments relating to the risk of lithium leaks in the DONES project. This report firstly summarizes the current knowledge of risks and reaction features at different scales with liquid lithium. Note that the review is limited to fire behaviour of lithium in its liquid state and does not consider additional risks connected with breeding tritium or corrosive effects of impurities. Some of the questions important for this project are to limit the lithium reaction with water, limit the spread of fire started by a reaction with lithium and extinguish flame of lithium induced fires. The second part of the report consists discussion of some initial small-scale experiments, undertaken to provide a basis for limiting the extent for further larger tests, and a proposal for an experimental device where lithium reactions can be studied in a controlled environment, i.e. with controlled amount of oxygen, nitrogen or humidity in the experiment. This will then be the basis for risk assessment for liquid lithium loop in the DONES facility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gothenburg: , 2021. p. 52
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2021:98
Keywords
Li Fires, Lithium Fire Safety, Liquid Lithium, Magnetically Confined Fusion, MFE
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61536 (URN)978-91-89385-88-7 (ISBN)
Projects
Eurofusion
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, Eurofusion
Available from: 2022-12-18 Created: 2022-12-18 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Anderson, J., Sjöström, J., Temple, A., Charlier, M., Dai, X., Welch, S. & Rush, D. (2021). FDS simulations and modelling efforts of travelling fires in a large elongated compartment. Fire and Materials, 45(6), 699
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FDS simulations and modelling efforts of travelling fires in a large elongated compartment
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2021 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 699-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m × width 6 m × height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six trays filled with diesel (width 4 m × length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires consecutively in the pools. Fire dynamics simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load, whereas simulations using the final design and measured heat release rates (HRR) were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulations were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post-test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2021
Keywords
FDS, modelling, travelling fires, Fire resistance, Controlled fires, Elongated structures, Fds simulations, Fire dynamics simulator, Heat Release Rate (HRR), Material data, Thermal materials, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51215 (URN)10.1002/fam.2933 (DOI)2-s2.0-85096795163 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCS, 754198; Funding details: Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCS; Funding text 1: Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS), Grant/Award Number: N°754198 Funding information; Funding text 2: This work was carried out in the frame of the TRAFIR project with funding from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (Grant N°754198). Partners are ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Liège University, the University of Edinburgh, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and the University of Ulster.

Available from: 2021-01-04 Created: 2021-01-04 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7524-0314

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