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Storesund, K., Amon, F., Shayesteh, H., Steen-Hansen, A., Larsson, I. & Bergstrand, A. (2019). Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective. Trondheim
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Loose furnishings, such as upholstered furniture, mattresses and textiles, are very important for the early stages of fires. Such products can be easily ignited, contribute to rapid spread of fire and produce a lot of smoke and heat when they burn. This limits the time and opportunity for evacuation and fire rescue. The regulation of fire properties of interior textiles, armchairs, sofas and mattresses has been discussed nationally and internationally for many years, without resulting in more stringent requirements for such products, at least not on a harmonized level. Fire safety and environmental considerations are important factors that are often set against each other. It is therefore important to promote the development of safe and fireproof furnishings that are environmentally friendly throughout their life cycle, and which satisfy other requirements that are usually imposed on this product group. The main objective of this project has been to contribute to new knowledge about how fire safety associated with loose interior design can be improved through developing products that meet sustainability and circularity requirements. These new products shall have fire performance comparable to flame retarded reference products but will rely on construction techniques and materials containing small amounts or no flame retardants. The new products shall be safe while in use and shall be recyclable at the end of life. Sustainability and environmental impact analyses including life cycle analyses of furnishing materials have been performed, as well as fire tests for screening the fire performance of a selection of material combinations. Combining a requirement for both sustainable yet fire safe furnishing is a complex task to solve. The more complex the material combination, the more difficult to predict both factors in parallel. Slight variations in components can potentially change the overall scoring of their performance. Cotton, wool and polyester has been shown to have equally high sustainability scores, although cotton had relatively high environmental impact. Polyamide was identified as the fabric with the best environmental performer but scoring lower on sustainability. The cushion material has great impact on fire safety because it may contribute with large amounts of heat energy and smoke. Polyurethane is by far the most common cushion material and comes in many variations, some including chemical fire retardants (FR). FR’s have not been included in in the sustainability and environmental impact analyses in this study, instead focus has been on exploring alternative methods of achieving comparable fire performance. In the case of cushion material, latex was identified as performing much higher on both sustainability and environmental impact than polyurethane. Unfortunately, latex was not a part of the fire testing series and was therefore not explored with regard to fire performance. Future studies should explore the interaction of the fire performance properties of different materials identified as high sustainability and environmental impact performers, especially in full scale room fire experiments. Thorough knowledge about how different components (of high sustainability and low environmental impact) contribute to the fire performance and how these are maintained throughout the furniture’s lifetime, would improve the possibility of fire safe furniture to be part of a circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trondheim: , 2019. p. 125
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019-67
Keywords
Fire safety, furnishing, sustainability, life cycle analysis, environmental impact
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39962 (URN)978-91-88907-94-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Brandforsk, 702-171
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Steen-Hansen, A., Amon, F., Haghighatpanah, S. & Larsson, I. (2019). Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing
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2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three-dimensional web structure has been examined, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39343 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Bisschop, R., Willstrand, O., Amon, F. & Rosenggren, M. (2019). Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues to increase around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. There are many different types of lithium-ion batteries, with different packaging and chemistries but also variations in how they are integrated into modern vehicles. To use lithium-ion batteries safely means to keep the cells within a defined voltage and temperature window. These limits can be exceeded as a result of crash or fault conditions. This report provides background information regarding lithium-ion batteries and battery pack integration in vehicles. Fire hazards are identified and means for preventing and controlling them are presented. The possibility of fixed fire suppression and detection systems in electric vehicles is discussed.

Publisher
p. 107
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:50
Keywords
Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electric Vehicles, Fire Risks, Post-Crash Handling, Risk Management, Fire Safety
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38873 (URN)978-91-88907-78-3 (ISBN)
Note

UPDATED VERSION:The report/full text has been updated 2019-09-23 according to following addition/clarification at the last paragraph on page 39:

Updated version published 2019-09-23, page 39: ”To mitigate this risk EVs must pass fire resistance testing, i.e. UNECE Reg. No. 100[144].  The  amount  of  time in which  the  battery  pack  is  exposed  to  external  flames  is  2 minutes. This test is similar to the test conducted on gasoline tanks. In the test the size of the fire is determined by the geometry of the battery or tank respectively. When there is no evidence of explosion during these 2 minutes or the following observation period, where the test object is to reach ambient temperatures or has its temperature decrease for at least 3 hours, this test can be considered passed.”

Original version published 2019-05-22, page 39: “To mitigate this risk EVs must pass fire resistance testing, i.e. UNECE Reg. No. 100[144].  The  amount  of  time in which  the  battery  pack  is  exposed  to  external  flames  is  2 minutes. This test is similar to the test conducted on gasoline tanks. In the test the size of the fire is determined by the geometry of the battery or tank respectively. When there is no evidence of explosion during these 2 minutes, this test can be considered passed.”

DOWNLOAD STATISTICS: Note: 932 downloads of the fullltext/report until 2019-09-23. This number was reset 2019-09-23 due to the aforementioned correction of the report.

PREFACE; FUNDING:The project (No. 45629-1) is financed by the Swedish FFI-program (Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation) which is a partnership between the Swedish government and the automotive industry. Partners within this project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Scania, Volvo Buses, SFVF (Swedish Association of Vehicle Workshops), Fogmaker International and Dafo Vehicle Fire Protection.

Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Amon, F., Gehandler, J., McNamee, R., McNamee, M. & Vilic, A. (2019). Measuring the impact of fire on the environment (Fire Impact Tool, version 1): Project report and user manual.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the impact of fire on the environment (Fire Impact Tool, version 1): Project report and user manual
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 74
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:60
Keywords
environmental impact, firemodelling, environmental risk assessment, life cycle assessment, firefighting, fire protection, sprinkler systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39049 (URN)10.23699/tmpv-pj71 (DOI)9789188907875 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Amon, F. & Gehandler, J. (2017). Assessment of the environmental impact of warehouse fires and fire service response. In: Fire and Materials 2017: 15th International Conference. Paper presented at 15th International Conference Fire & Materials 2017. San Francisco, USA 6 - 8 February 2017. (pp. 433-442). London, UK: Interscience Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the environmental impact of warehouse fires and fire service response
2017 (English)In: Fire and Materials 2017: 15th International Conference, London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2017, p. 433-442Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2017
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29297 (URN)2-s2.0-85036465055 (Scopus ID)9781510846746 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Conference Fire & Materials 2017. San Francisco, USA 6 - 8 February 2017.
Available from: 2017-04-19 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Amon, F., Gehandler, J., Stahl, S., Tomida, M. & Meacham, B. (2016). Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool (Enveco Tool) for Fire Events. Springer-Verlag New York
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool (Enveco Tool) for Fire Events
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2016 (English)Book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2016. p. XII, 111
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28343 (URN)978-1-4939-6559-5 (ISBN)978-1-4939-6558-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Amon, F., Gehandler, J. & Stahl, S. (2016). Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool (Enveco Tool) for Fire Events. Brandposten (54), 32-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool (Enveco Tool) for Fire Events
2016 (English)In: Brandposten, no 54, p. 32-32Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28245 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-17 Created: 2017-02-17 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Persson, H., Bobert, M. & Amon, F. (2016). ETANKFIRE - Fire extinguishing tests ofethanol tank fires in reduced scale.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ETANKFIRE - Fire extinguishing tests ofethanol tank fires in reduced scale
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ETANKFIRE project is focused on tank fires involving ethanol; the work conductedin this part of the ETANKFIRE project (WP1 and WP2) has been focused on tankfirefighting operations.Two series of fire extinguishing tests in reduced scale have been conducted. Both testseries simulated tank fire conditions by using a large amount of fuel and long preburntimes. The influence of foam application techniques, foam characteristics, and applicationrates have been investigated. Some tests have also included alternative extinguishingmedia such as cellular glass, liquid nitrogen and aqueous vermiculite dispersion (AVD).In total 29 extinguishing tests were conducted in the first test series using a 0,41 m2 firetray and 14 tests were conducted in the second test series using a 3,14 m2 fire tray. Priorto the experimental work a literature review was conducted to gain experience, both fromreal tank fire incidents and from various test and system design standards for the use offoam on water-miscible fuel fires.The results showed the importance of the characteristics of the finished foam. Higherfoam expansion ratios and longer drainage times resulted in significantly improved fireperformance. These improved foam characteristics are dependent on the foam applicationhardware as well as the foam concentrate formulation. To obtain these improvedcharacteristics the foam concentration was increased to 6 % from a nominal value of 3 %On the other hand, the improved foam characteristics allowed the application rate to bereduced by 50 % without compromising extinguishing performance. This shows that theperformance requirements in existing test standards for foam (e.g. UL 162, EN 1568) donot provide an incentive for manufacturers to formulate their foam to handle more severefire conditions, such as a tank fire scenario.The tests also indicated that gentle application of the foam is not guaranteed by the use offoam pourers (Type II discharge outlet according to NFPA 11) as the foam was not ableto flow gently along the tank wall due to high steel temperatures.With respect to alternative media, applying a layer of cellular glass followed by foamapplication made the extinguishing operation even more robust.The overall conclusion is that fighting ethanol tank fires would very likely result in afailure to extinguish if standard firefighting operations are used. However, the test resultsalso indicate important parameters that would improve the possibilities for a successfulextinguishment. Further validation of these results in larger scale could also providepossibilities to improve foam system standards, e.g. NFPA11 and EN 13565-2 forextinguishment of water-miscible fuels as well as test standards for foam concentrates(e.g. UL 162, EN 1568-4).Key words: ethanol, fire extinguishment, fire suppression, tank fire, tactics, foam, foamconcentrate, CAF, liquid nitrogen, vermiculite, cellular glass.

Publisher
p. 119
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2016:56
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27993 (URN)978-91-88349-59-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
Sjöström, J., Amon, F. & Granström, A. (2016). Forest fires in Sweden - Spatial, temporal and climatic patterns. In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016: . Paper presented at 1st Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, June 16-17, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark (pp. 32).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest fires in Sweden - Spatial, temporal and climatic patterns
2016 (English)In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 32-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
Wildfires, Climate modelling, FWI, Distribution
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28329 (URN)
Conference
1st Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, June 16-17, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Sjöström, J., Granström, A., Amon, F. & Vylund, L. (2016). Skogsbränder och gräsbränder i Sverige, 1996-2014. Brandposten (55), 22-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skogsbränder och gräsbränder i Sverige, 1996-2014
2016 (Swedish)In: Brandposten, no 55, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27716 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-02 Created: 2017-01-02 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3019-0979

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