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Amon, F. (2023). Roadmap for measurable sustainability indicators for the fire safety community.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roadmap for measurable sustainability indicators for the fire safety community
2023 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This pre-study aims to determine whether developing measurable sustainability indicators (MSI) to assess the sustainability of projects, ideas, and decisions related to fire safety would be useful for fire safety engineers, researchers, municipalities, authorities, policymakers, first responders and other stakeholders. A review of the literature, online sources, project reports and numerous interactions with representatives of several target groups within the fire safety community were conducted to assess their sustainability needs. The results show that the target groups included in this project had some overlapping and some unique sustainability needs. Fire service product suppliers are content at this time to self-declare their sustainability status. Fire and rescue services would like MSI to help them make tactical and strategic decision while responding to fires. They are also interested in MSI to help them convey their sustainability value to the communities they serve. Fire safety engineers would like MSI to support their suggestions for improvements in construction design. Researchers and educators will contribute to the development of MSI that serve the needs of the other target groups. Authorities could use MSI to evaluate progress toward improved sustainability in their jurisdictions and transfer data to other levels of government.

Publisher
p. 31
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:73
Keywords
Measurable sustainability indicators, fire safety, social impacts, environmental impacts, economic impacts
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65660 (URN)10.23699/wjvr-bb12 (DOI)978-91-89821-37-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-07-07 Created: 2023-07-07 Last updated: 2023-07-07
Cuesta, A., Alvear, D., Carnevale, A. & Amon, F. (2022). Gender and Public Perception of Disasters: A Multiple Hazards Exploratory Study of EU Citizens. Safety, 8(3), Article ID 59.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender and Public Perception of Disasters: A Multiple Hazards Exploratory Study of EU Citizens
2022 (English)In: Safety, E-ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To explore gender influence on individual risk perception of multiple hazards and personal attitudes towards disaster preparedness across EU citizens. Method: An online survey was distributed to 2485 participants from Spain, France, Poland, Sweden and Italy. The survey was divided into two parts. The first part examined perceived likelihood (L), perceived personal impact (I) and perceived self-efficacy (E) towards disasters due to extreme weather conditions (flood, landslide and storm), fire, earthquake, hazardous materials accidents, and terrorist attacks. The overall risk rating for each specific hazard was measured through the following equation R = (L × I)/E and the resulting scores were brought into the range between 0 and 1. The second part explored people’s reactions to the Pros and Cons of preparedness to compute the overall attitudes of respondents towards preparation (expressed as a ratio between −1 and 1). Results: Although we found gender variations on concerns expressed as the likelihood of the occurrence, personal consequences and self-efficacy, the overall risks were judged significantly higher by females in all hazards (p < 0.01). We also found that, in general, most respondents (both males and females) were in favour of preparedness. More importantly, despite the gender differences in risk perception, there were no significant differences in the attitudes towards preparedness. We found weak correlations between risks perceived and attitudes towards preparedness (rho < 0.20). The intersectional analysis showed that young and adult females perceived higher risks than their gender counterparts at the same age. There were also gender differences in preparedness, i.e., females in higher age ranges are more motivated for preparedness than men in lower age ranges. We also found that risk perception for all hazards in females was significantly higher than in males at the same education level. We found no significant differences between sub-groups in the pros and cons of getting ready for disasters. However, females at a higher level of education have more positive attitudes towards preparedness. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender along with other intersecting factors (e.g., age and education) still shape differences in risk perception and attitudes towards disasters across the EU population. Overall, the presented results policy actions focus on promoting specific DRR policies and practices (bottom-up participatory and learning processes) through interventions oriented to specific target groups from a gender perspective. © 2022 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
gender, multiple hazards, preparedness, public perception, risk perception
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60261 (URN)10.3390/safety8030059 (DOI)2-s2.0-85138695581 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020, 832576; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 832576.

Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Amon, F., Dahlbom, S. & Blomqvist, P. (2021). Challenges to transparency involving intellectual property and privacy concerns in life cycle assessment/costing: A case study of new flame retarded polymers. Cleaner Environmental Systems, 3, Article ID 100045.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges to transparency involving intellectual property and privacy concerns in life cycle assessment/costing: A case study of new flame retarded polymers
2021 (English)In: Cleaner Environmental Systems, ISSN 2666-7894, Vol. 3, article id 100045Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work explores the challenges of using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) analysis to provide easily accessible decision support for early product development in cases where intellectual property (IP) and privacy issues require special consideration. Innovation research projects with partners representing different links along the value chain are potential examples of such cases. A case study in which spreadsheet-based cradle to compounder's gate LCA and LCC screening tools were created for candidate flame retarded polymer formulations exemplifies the need for better solutions to overcome problems associated with lack of transparency due to IP/privacy concerns. These problems affect data quality, scaling up processes, and uncertainty of the results. The consortium in this case study had a common overall goal, although each of the partners had a unique perspective on the polymer development process and different IP/privacy needs. The measures used to overcome the challenges include aggregation, normalisation, and omission of costs and impacts common to all candidate compounds. The resulting LCA and LCC screening tools represent a compromise between providing the requested information at the level of detail required by the partners and reporting results that are as accurate and useful as possible. The findings are: in cases where absolute secrecy must be maintained, no one can learn which materials and processes provide the optimal results; appointing a trusted third party to handle sensitive inventory data can cause increased uncertainty of the results due to lack of peer review; the results of the work cannot be built upon by subsequent research.

Keywords
Automotive sector, Decision aid, Life cycle cost, Life cycle assessment, Flame retardant, Polymer
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56324 (URN)10.1016/j.cesys.2021.100045 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-09-03 Created: 2021-09-03 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Amon, F., Gehandler, J., McNamee, R., McNamee, M. & Vilic, A. (2021). Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment. Fire safety journal, 120, Article ID 103071.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment
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2021 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, article id 103071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden the responsibility for environmental damage when emergency responders are called to an incident is increasingly focussing on the responders. The problem is that most incident response personnel do not have the training and expertise to assess the environmental consequences of their suppression operations. The Fire Impact Tool was developed for training responders about how fire effluents and suppression media affect air, surface/groundwater and soil. The tool has three interdependent parts: fire models (for vehicles and enclosures), an environmental risk assessment (ERA) model for local impacts, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) model for global impacts. Users can create two scenarios that are compared with a reference case in which responders arrive at the incident and prevent the fire from spreading beyond the vehicle or enclosure but do not suppress the fire. The Fire Impact Tool is not intended for use during an actual fire incident. This work does not answer every question for every possible fire scenario, but it does provide a framework for deeper, broader, more comprehensive training and pre-planning. This is a necessary step toward a future in which responders are prepared to make informed decisions about firefighting strategies and tactics that include environmental consequences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Compartment fires, Decision support tool, Environment, Environmental risk assessment, Lifecycle assessment, Modelling, Pre-planning, Suppression, Training, Vehicle fires, Artificial life, Enclosures, Environmental impact, Forestry, Life cycle, Personnel training, Risk assessment, Emergency responders, Environmental consequences, Environmental damage, Fire suppression, Incident response, Informed decision, Life cycle assessment model, Fires
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45005 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2020.103071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85084384175 (Scopus ID)
Note

Article; CODEN: FSJOD; Funding details: Fire Protection Research Foundation; Funding text 1: The project team would like to thank Brandforsk and the National Fire Protection Association/ Fire Protection Research Foundation for their financial support for this work.

Available from: 2020-05-26 Created: 2020-05-26 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Amon, F., Steen-Hansen, A., Haghighatpanah, S. & Larsson, I. (2021). Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing. Fire and Materials, 181-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing
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2021 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, p. 181-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this exploratory study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations, mainly for domestic applications. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three-dimensional web structure has been examined as an alternative padding material, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2021
Keywords
environmental impact, fire safety, furnishing, life cycle analysis, sustainability, Blending, Fires, Life cycle, Smoke, Textiles, Cone calorimeter, Environmental aspects, Exploratory studies, Fire performance, Heat Release Rate (HRR), Life-cycle assessments, Material combination, Smoke production, Sustainable development
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45636 (URN)10.1002/fam.2859 (DOI)2-s2.0-85088117333 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: The authors acknowledge the Swedish Fire Protection Association for funding this project through the Brandforsk research funding. The authors also want to thank the Swedish office furniture manufacturer Kinnarps for providing their expertise and some sample textiles for this project as well as the University of Borås for producing some of the tested textiles.

Available from: 2020-08-13 Created: 2020-08-13 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Gehandler, J., McNamee, R., McNamee, M. & Amon, F. (2021). Interaktiv Miljöbedömning vid Insats: IMI-verktyget. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaktiv Miljöbedömning vid Insats: IMI-verktyget
2021 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Continued development of the Fire Impact Tool
Abstract [sv]

Programmet ”IMI-verktyget” (se länk till höger) är utvecklat för att ge räddningstjänst, studenter och forskare ett verktyg för att öka kunskapen angående konsekvenserna av taktiska val vid respons till en brand, exemplifierad av några fordons- och rumsbränder.

I rapporten till höger (”fulltext”) beskriver hur verktyget fungerar och innehåller också exempel på datorlabbar som skulle kunna genomföras inom en brandingenjörsutbildning eller räddningsledarutbildning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2021. p. 30
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2021:115
Keywords
Environmental impact, environmental risk assessment, life cycle assessment, fire, fire and rescue service
National Category
Engineering and Technology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57483 (URN)978-91-89561-06-9 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2020-00450
Available from: 2021-12-28 Created: 2021-12-28 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Amon, F., Shayesteh, H., Steen-Hansen, A., Larsson, I. & Bergstrand, A. (2019). Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective. Trondheim
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Loose furnishings, such as upholstered furniture, mattresses and textiles, are very important for the early stages of fires. Such products can be easily ignited, contribute to rapid spread of fire and produce a lot of smoke and heat when they burn. This limits the time and opportunity for evacuation and fire rescue. The regulation of fire properties of interior textiles, armchairs, sofas and mattresses has been discussed nationally and internationally for many years, without resulting in more stringent requirements for such products, at least not on a harmonized level. Fire safety and environmental considerations are important factors that are often set against each other. It is therefore important to promote the development of safe and fireproof furnishings that are environmentally friendly throughout their life cycle, and which satisfy other requirements that are usually imposed on this product group. The main objective of this project has been to contribute to new knowledge about how fire safety associated with loose interior design can be improved through developing products that meet sustainability and circularity requirements. These new products shall have fire performance comparable to flame retarded reference products but will rely on construction techniques and materials containing small amounts or no flame retardants. The new products shall be safe while in use and shall be recyclable at the end of life. Sustainability and environmental impact analyses including life cycle analyses of furnishing materials have been performed, as well as fire tests for screening the fire performance of a selection of material combinations. Combining a requirement for both sustainable yet fire safe furnishing is a complex task to solve. The more complex the material combination, the more difficult to predict both factors in parallel. Slight variations in components can potentially change the overall scoring of their performance. Cotton, wool and polyester has been shown to have equally high sustainability scores, although cotton had relatively high environmental impact. Polyamide was identified as the fabric with the best environmental performer but scoring lower on sustainability. The cushion material has great impact on fire safety because it may contribute with large amounts of heat energy and smoke. Polyurethane is by far the most common cushion material and comes in many variations, some including chemical fire retardants (FR). FR’s have not been included in in the sustainability and environmental impact analyses in this study, instead focus has been on exploring alternative methods of achieving comparable fire performance. In the case of cushion material, latex was identified as performing much higher on both sustainability and environmental impact than polyurethane. Unfortunately, latex was not a part of the fire testing series and was therefore not explored with regard to fire performance. Future studies should explore the interaction of the fire performance properties of different materials identified as high sustainability and environmental impact performers, especially in full scale room fire experiments. Thorough knowledge about how different components (of high sustainability and low environmental impact) contribute to the fire performance and how these are maintained throughout the furniture’s lifetime, would improve the possibility of fire safe furniture to be part of a circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trondheim: , 2019. p. 125
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019-67
Keywords
Fire safety, furnishing, sustainability, life cycle analysis, environmental impact
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39962 (URN)978-91-88907-94-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Brandforsk, 702-171
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Steen-Hansen, A., Amon, F., Haghighatpanah, S. & Larsson, I. (2019). Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing
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2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three-dimensional web structure has been examined, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39343 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Bisschop, R., Willstrand, O., Amon, F. & Rosenggren, M. (2019). Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues to increase around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. There are many different types of lithium-ion batteries, with different packaging and chemistries but also variations in how they are integrated into modern vehicles. To use lithium-ion batteries safely means to keep the cells within a defined voltage and temperature window. These limits can be exceeded as a result of crash or fault conditions. This report provides background information regarding lithium-ion batteries and battery pack integration in vehicles. Fire hazards are identified and means for preventing and controlling them are presented. The possibility of fixed fire suppression and detection systems in electric vehicles is discussed.

Publisher
p. 107
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:50
Keywords
Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electric Vehicles, Fire Risks, Post-Crash Handling, Risk Management, Fire Safety
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38873 (URN)978-91-88907-78-3 (ISBN)
Note

UPDATED VERSION:The report/full text has been updated 2019-09-23 according to following addition/clarification at the last paragraph on page 39:

Updated version published 2019-09-23, page 39: ”To mitigate this risk EVs must pass fire resistance testing, i.e. UNECE Reg. No. 100[144].  The  amount  of  time in which  the  battery  pack  is  exposed  to  external  flames  is  2 minutes. This test is similar to the test conducted on gasoline tanks. In the test the size of the fire is determined by the geometry of the battery or tank respectively. When there is no evidence of explosion during these 2 minutes or the following observation period, where the test object is to reach ambient temperatures or has its temperature decrease for at least 3 hours, this test can be considered passed.”

Original version published 2019-05-22, page 39: “To mitigate this risk EVs must pass fire resistance testing, i.e. UNECE Reg. No. 100[144].  The  amount  of  time in which  the  battery  pack  is  exposed  to  external  flames  is  2 minutes. This test is similar to the test conducted on gasoline tanks. In the test the size of the fire is determined by the geometry of the battery or tank respectively. When there is no evidence of explosion during these 2 minutes, this test can be considered passed.”

DOWNLOAD STATISTICS: Note: 932 downloads of the fullltext/report until 2019-09-23. This number was reset 2019-09-23 due to the aforementioned correction of the report.

PREFACE; FUNDING:The project (No. 45629-1) is financed by the Swedish FFI-program (Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation) which is a partnership between the Swedish government and the automotive industry. Partners within this project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Scania, Volvo Buses, SFVF (Swedish Association of Vehicle Workshops), Fogmaker International and Dafo Vehicle Fire Protection.

Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
Amon, F., Gehandler, J., McNamee, R., McNamee, M. & Vilic, A. (2019). Measuring the impact of fire on the environment (Fire Impact Tool, version 1): Project report and user manual.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the impact of fire on the environment (Fire Impact Tool, version 1): Project report and user manual
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 74
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:60
Keywords
environmental impact, firemodelling, environmental risk assessment, life cycle assessment, firefighting, fire protection, sprinkler systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39049 (URN)10.23699/tmpv-pj71 (DOI)9789188907875 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3019-0979

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