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Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Odeberg Glasenapp, A., Alfthan, J., Salmen, L., Stevanic Srndovic, J., Björk, E., Holmqvist, C., . . . Berthold, J. (2019). Next level of corrugated board research. In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging. Paper presented at 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 11-14 June, 2019, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Next level of corrugated board research
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2019 (English)In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 For the first time in the Bioeconomy research program at RISE, corrugatedboard has an own research area. Research is building around the main driving forcesin the corrugated board value chain like e-commerce, improved box performance anddigital printing. The main weakness of corrugated board, its moisture sensitivity, isalso addressed.These main driving forces and weaknesses of corrugated board are mirrored in thethemes of this large research program area:Fibre sorption and deformation mechanismsFundamental knowledge on the mechanisms behind moisture sorption and deformation on fibre level is developed to increase moisture and creep resistance throughmodification of paper materials. State of the art methods for characterization ofthe fibre ultra- and nano-structure such as Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy(FTIR), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)give new insights on mechanisms and clarify effects of moisture as well as chemicalmodifications.Papermaking for improved base sheetsConcepts that are explored are fibre-based strength additives produced with novelrefining techniques, and modified ZD-profiles in the sheet for better mechanical properties.Box mechanicsMechanical performance of structures such as corrugated board boxes can be predicted through physically based mathematical modelling by taking the behaviour ofthe constituent materials as well as the geometry into account. Appropriate materialmodels for the corrugated board are identified and finite element models for simulation of corrugated board packaging performance are developed.Tool for inkjet printability on corrugatedThere is a genuine need for improved inkjet printability on corrugated materials thanksto rapid development in e-commerce as well as digitalization along the corrugatedvalue chain. Effective measurement methods and knowledge around ink-substrateinteractions are developed to enable board producers and converters to have effective product development and predictable printability on not only liners but also oncorrugated materials.

Keywords
corrugated board, moisture, box mechanics, inkjet printing, fibre sorption
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39737 (URN)
Conference
29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 11-14 June, 2019, Enschede, The Netherlands
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, A., Alfthan, J., Pettersson, H., Flodberg, G. & Yang, L. (2018). Mechanical performance of polymer powder bed fused objects: FEM simulation and verification. Additive manufacturing, 24, 577-586
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical performance of polymer powder bed fused objects: FEM simulation and verification
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2018 (English)In: Additive manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 24, p. 577-586Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (3D printing) enables the designing and producing of complex geometries in a layer-by-layer approach. The layered structure leads to anisotropic behaviour in the material. To accommodate anisotropic behaviour, geometrical optimization is needed so that the 3D printed object meets the pre-set strength and quality requirements. In this article a material description for polymer powder bed fused also or selective laser sintered (SLS) PA12 (Nylon-12), which is a common 3D printing plastic, was investigated, using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The Material Model parameters were obtained by matching them to the test results of multipurpose test specimens (dumb-bells or dog bones) and the model was then used to simulate/predict the mechanical performance of the SLS printed lower-leg prosthesis components, pylon and support. For verification purposes, two FEM designs for a support were SLS printed together with additional test specimens in order to validate the used Material Model. The SLS printed prosthesis pieces were tested according to ISO 10328 Standard. The FEM simulations, together with the Material Model, was found to give good estimations for the location of a failure and its load. It was also noted that there were significant variations among individual SLS printed test specimens, which impacted on the material parameters and the FEM simulations. Hence, to enable reliable FEM simulations for the designing of 3D printed products, better control of the SLS process with regards to porosity, pore morphology and pore distribution is needed.

Keywords
additive manufacturing, 3D printing, selective laser sintering, finite element method, material model
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36296 (URN)10.1016/j.addma.2018.10.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056189717 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-15 Created: 2018-11-15 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Odeberg Glasenapp, A., Sundin, M., Nordlinder, J., Berthold, J. & Alfthan, J. (2018). Water-free bonding of corrugated board. In: 21st IAPRI World Conference on Packaging 2018: Packaging: Driving a Sustainable Future. Paper presented at 21st IAPRI World Conference on Packaging 2018 - Packaging: Driving a Sustainable Future; Zhuhai; China; 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018 (pp. 608-616). DEStech Publications Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water-free bonding of corrugated board
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2018 (English)In: 21st IAPRI World Conference on Packaging 2018: Packaging: Driving a Sustainable Future, DEStech Publications Inc. , 2018, p. 608-616Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The "water-free bonding of corrugated board" concept focuses on the development, waste management and market potential of a new corrugated board production method. It has earlier been shown that by integrating PLA into paper, certain mechanical properties of corrugated board papers can be enhanced. These enhanced papers have been used for producing corrugated board. Corrugated board is usually produced by gluing the corrugated board paper layers with a starch suspension. This process is reducing the mechanical paper strength and is also energy consuming, as the water added by the starch suspension in the process has to be evaporated. In this study, two new water-free joining techniques for corrugated board have been investigated: PLA-welding, which melts the inherent PLA of the paper to create a bond and using PLA as an adhesive. Both techniques have shown promising results and are recommended for further investigation, however, replacing starch glue with PLA seems to be a solution closer to the market. For the material to fit in a future circular economy it is important that the waste is managed in a way that is sustainable for the environment and the society. Repulpability testing in combination with literature studies indicate that the new material would be possible to recycle, and that the new material could function in every step described in the EU Waste Framework Directive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DEStech Publications Inc., 2018
Keywords
Adhesives, Gluing, Mechanical properties, Packaging, Starch, Waste management, Circular economy, Corrugated board, Joining techniques, Mechanical paper, Starch suspension, Corrugated paperboard
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38939 (URN)2-s2.0-85064976616 (Scopus ID)
Conference
21st IAPRI World Conference on Packaging 2018 - Packaging: Driving a Sustainable Future; Zhuhai; China; 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018
Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Odeberg Glasenapp, A., Sundin, M., Nordlinder, J., Berthold, J. & Alfthan, J. (2018). Water-free bonding of corrugated board. In: Wang S-W (Ed.), Packaging: Driving a sustainable future. Paper presented at The 21st IAPRI World conference on packaging, June 19-22, 2018, Zhuhai, China (pp. 608-616).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water-free bonding of corrugated board
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2018 (English)In: Packaging: Driving a sustainable future / [ed] Wang S-W, 2018, p. 608-616Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The "water-free bonding of corrugated board" concept focuses on thedevelopment, waste management and market potential of a new corrugated board production method. It has earlier been shown that by integrating PLA into paper, certain mechanical properties of corrugated board papers can be enhanced. These enhanced papers have been used for producing corrugated board. Corrugated board is usually produced by gluing the corrugated board paper layers with a starch suspension. This process is reducing the mechanical paper strength and is also energy consuming, as the water added by the starch suspension in the process has to be evaporated. In this study, two new water-free joining techniques for corrugated board have been investigated: PLA-welding, which melts the inherent PLA of the paper to create a bond and using PLA as an adhesive. Both techniques have shown promising results and are recommended for further investigation, however, replacing starch glue with PLA seems to be a solution closer to the market. For the material to fit in a future circular economy it is important that the waste is managed in a way that is sustainable for the environment and the society. Repulp ability testing in combination with literature studies indicate that the new material would be possible to recycle, and that the new material could function in every step described in the EU Waste Framework Directive.

Keywords
corrugated board, PLA, gluing, circular economy
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36526 (URN)10.12783/iapri2018/24438 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064976616 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 21st IAPRI World conference on packaging, June 19-22, 2018, Zhuhai, China
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Odeberg Glasenapp, A., Pötzsch, S., Alfthan, J., Lindström, M. & Berthold, F. (2017). DuraWell : novel approach to enhance the moisture resistance of corrugated board paper. In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging: . Paper presented at 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging,9-12 May, 2017, Lausanne (pp. 178-197).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DuraWell : novel approach to enhance the moisture resistance of corrugated board paper
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2017 (English)In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2017, p. 178-197Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
corrugated board, polylactic acid, moisture barrier
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30295 (URN)
Conference
28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging,9-12 May, 2017, Lausanne
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Trost, T. & Alfthan, J. (2017). The real world of corrugated: focus on packaging performance. In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging: . Paper presented at 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, Lausanne, Switzerland, 9-12 May 2017 (pp. 136-141).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The real world of corrugated: focus on packaging performance
2017 (English)In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2017, p. 136-141Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
corrugated board, packaging, performance, transport, test method
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29757 (URN)9782839921060 (ISBN)
Conference
28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, Lausanne, Switzerland, 9-12 May 2017
Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2018-07-18Bibliographically approved
Odeberg Glasenapp, A., Alfthan, J. & Köhke, K. (2016). Standards for corrugated board converting. In: IAPRI 2016 - 20th World conference on packaging: Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging. Paper presented at 20th World Conference on Packaging : Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging (IAPRI 2016), June 12-15, 2016, Campinas, Brazil.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Standards for corrugated board converting
2016 (English)In: IAPRI 2016 - 20th World conference on packaging: Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Corrugated board is the dominant transport packaging material. All corrugated board blanks have to pass converting machines in order to produce packaging. The corrugated board converting process should be precise to avoid waste and machine stops. There are standards existing that state tolerances for the corrugated board converting process. These tolerances can be set for corrugated board properties like warp and dimensions or tolerances to be achieved for the ready packaging. The standards are issued among others by FEFCO, GIFCO, VDW, and SUW (The International Development Group of Corrugated Board), but also by some large brand owners. A comparison of tolerances mentioned in the most important standards was conducted. Further actual tolerances of corrugated board and corrugated board packages converted in several corrugated board plants and used at the brand owners were investigated. At corrugated board plants and brand owners the ambient temperature and humidity were measured. Also the temperature and humidity in the corrugated board stacks and the warp of the sheets were investigated. The runnability in the converting machines was evaluated by machine drivers. Some of these results will be shown. Furthermore thickness, folding strength of creases and misalignment, fishtailing, gap of manufactures joint and width and length of folded blanks of slotted boxes were determined. The results indicate that stricter tolerances for corrugated board are possible. The results of the plant trials will be used to propose a new SUW standard with new tolerance levels e.g. for warp and dimensions of the corrugated board sheets and packages. The new tolerances will be discussed within the corrugated board branch, converting machine suppliers and users of corrugated board. New stricter tolerances for corrugated board packaging in the converting process contribute to a better competitiveness of this renewable and sustainable packaging material in the future.

Keywords
corrugated board, converting, tolerance, packaging machine, standardisation, standard
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29255 (URN)
Conference
20th World Conference on Packaging : Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging (IAPRI 2016), June 12-15, 2016, Campinas, Brazil
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Trost, T. & Alfthan, J. (2015). Corrugated boxes and transportation demands: a feasibility study. In: : . Paper presented at 44 Jahrestagung der GUS (Gesellschaft für Umweltsimulation), 25 - 27 March 2015, Karlsruhe.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrugated boxes and transportation demands: a feasibility study
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The exporting industry has problems finding the right transport packaging materials and solutions for export to different markets. Many different standards exist for different purposes. On the other hand, there are missing standards in some cases, e.g. high humidity and creep. Also, each industry branch has different requirements and demands. From the industry’s point of view there is a wish to specify how the packages will be used and which environmental hazards they have to withstand. Performance of the box is important, not the specific paper properties, even if they affect the performance.This presentation will clarify some of the problems the users of corrugated packaging have and ways to improve the situation in an effort for "real optimized" transport packaging. Different test methods for corrugated will be presented and compared with the industries needs on transport packaging. Test methods will be covered at paper level, board level and box level.

Keywords
corrugated box, transpoort package, test method, standard, packaging
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29125 (URN)
Conference
44 Jahrestagung der GUS (Gesellschaft für Umweltsimulation), 25 - 27 March 2015, Karlsruhe
Available from: 2017-03-20 Created: 2017-03-20 Last updated: 2018-07-18Bibliographically approved
Alfthan, J. & Björklund, M. (2014). Measuring creep with confidence (ed.). In: : . Paper presented at Progress in paper physics seminar: Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, 8-11 September 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring creep with confidence
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-9550 (URN)
Conference
Progress in paper physics seminar: Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, 8-11 September 2014
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2016-09-12 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
Alfthan, J. (2010). Experimental study of non-linear stress relaxation and creep of paper materials and the relation between the two types of experiments. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 25(3), 351-357
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study of non-linear stress relaxation and creep of paper materials and the relation between the two types of experiments
2010 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The non-linear time-dependent mechanical behaviour of three different commercial paper grades was investigated. Stress relaxation and creep tests were carried out in MD and CD using different load levels. The strain in each test was split in a linear part and a non-linear part. From the stress and the linear part of the strain in the test, a stress relaxation modulus or a creep compliance was calculated. The stress relaxation moduli and creep compliances determined in this way were observed to be independent of the load level. The stress relaxation moduli and creep compliances for each paper were further independent of the loading direction (MD/CD) when scaled by the elastic modulus. It was also shown that the stress relaxation modulus was approximately equal to the inverse of the creep compliance, which is what would have been expected if linear viscoelastic theory had been applicable.

Keywords
Creep, Mechanical properties, Stress relaxation, Viscoelasticity
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29512 (URN)2-s2.0-79955718300 (Scopus ID)
Note

cited By 5

Available from: 2017-05-15 Created: 2017-05-15 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5902-4291

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