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Hennessy, J., Li, H., Wallin, F. & Thorin, E. (2019). Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks. Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018. Energy Procedia, 158, 2430-2434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 158, p. 2430-2434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Future energy systems need to be more flexible. The use of cross-sector coupling in combination with thermal storage in thermal grids has been shown to provide such flexibility. The presented study reviews how short-term storage in district heating distribution networks is used or modelled for flexibility, what are the most important parameters, and where the knowledge gaps remain. The results show that the potential for flexibility from district heating has not been fully exploited. Sensible thermal storage tanks are 50-100 times cheaper than electrical storage and storage in the distribution network requires little additional investment in infrastructure. In some countries, the majority of district heating systems have sensible thermal storage tanks, with as much as 64 % of their capacity available for flexibility services. Initial results suggest that only smaller networks are prevented from using the distribution network for storage, but the impacts of this type of use on the physical components and the capacity limitations remain unclear and show a need for standardised methods for analysis. There is a growing interest, both in Europe and China, in the use of short-term storage in district heating to provide flexibility, particularly in the form of ancillary services to the electricity grid, but implementations of these techniques are rare. The presented study identifies a number of remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in order to harness available flexibility in district heating. © 2019 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAE2018 - The 10th International Conference on Applied Energy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Curtailment, District heating and cooling, Flexibility, Renewable energy, Thermal grids, Thermal inertia, Thermal storage, Heat storage, Investments, Tanks (containers), Renewable energies, District heating
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38470 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.302 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063896688 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018
Note

 Funding details: Knowledge Foundation; Funding text 1: This study was part-financed by R SE eR search Institutes of Sweden and conducted under the auspices of the Reesbe industrial post -graduate school, which is financed by the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen), Sweden.

Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Zheng, W., Hennessy, J. & Li, H. (2019). Reducing renewable power curtailment and CO2 emissions in China through district heating storage. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, Article ID e361.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing renewable power curtailment and CO2 emissions in China through district heating storage
2019 (English)In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, ISSN 2041-8396, E-ISSN 2041-840X, article id e361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emissions reductions are often achieved through the increased share of renewable energy sources (RES) and China is the leader in the growth of RES in the power sector. This growth has led to high levels of curtailment of RES power due to insufficient reinforcement of the electricity grid to support such growth and due to competition with other power sources. Although the problem of curtailment has been alleviated in recent years, large amounts of power are still discarded, and it is important to consider how to address this problem in the short term and how much CO2e emissions could be avoided as a result. The use of district heating systems to reduce the curtailment of renewable power has seen increasing interest in recent years. Based on a review of potential energy storage in district heating, the current paper assesses the capability to use the national storage potential of district heating systems in China to reduce curtailment and to determine what effects that may have on avoiding CO2e emissions. The distribution networks and the thermal inertia of buildings connected to district heating are considered as two major forms of storage that can be “charged” using power that would otherwise be curtailed. The results show that there may be sufficient storage available to absorb all renewable power that is currently curtailed in those provinces using district heating during the heating season, resulting in avoided emissions of up to 14 MtCO2e/annum. This article is categorized under: Energy and Climate > Economics and Policy Wind Power > Climate and Environment Energy Infrastructure > Climate and Environment Energy and Urban Design > Climate and Environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2019
Keywords
CO2 emission, district heating storage, renewable power curtailment, thermal inertia, Carbon dioxide, Electric energy storage, Heating equipment, Potential energy, Wind power, Avoided emissions, CO2 emissions, District heating system, Emissions reduction, Energy infrastructures, Renewable energy source, Renewable Power, District heating
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39857 (URN)10.1002/wene.361 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070734905 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: China Scholarship Council, CSC; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling, KK; Funding text 1: Jay Hennessy would like to thank the financial support from RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and the Reesbe industrial post‐graduate school, which is financed by the Knowledge Foundation (KK‐stiftelsen), Sweden. W.Z. would like to thank the support from China Scholarship Council.

Available from: 2019-08-30 Created: 2019-08-30 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Hennessy, J., Li, H., Wallin, F. & Thorin, E. (2018). Towards smart thermal grids: Techno-economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies for district heating. Applied Energy, 228, 766-776
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards smart thermal grids: Techno-economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies for district heating
2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 766-776Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent improvements in low-temperature heat-to-power (LTHtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. LTHtP has so far not been used in district heating. The aim of the study is to establish under what conditions the use of existing LTHtP technology is technically and economically feasible using a district heating system as the heat source. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is identified as the most interesting LTHtP technology, due to its high relative efficiency and the commercial availability of devices operating at temperatures in the district heating operating range. The levelised cost of electricity of several ORC devices is calculated for temperatures found in district heating, assuming a zero cost of heat. A case study from Sweden is used to calculate the levelised cost of electricity, the net present value and payback period, based on income from the electricity produced, excluding taxes. Hourly spot market electricity prices from 2017 are used, as well as forecast scenarios for 2020, 2030 and 2040. A sensitivity study tests the importance of electricity price, cost of heat and capital/installation cost. Based on the case study, the best levelised cost of electricity achieved was 26.5 EUR/MWh, with a payback period greater than 30 years. Under current Swedish market conditions, the ORC does not appear to be economically feasible for use in district heating, but the net present value and payback period may be significantly more attractive under other countries’ market conditions or with reduced capital costs. For a positive net present value in the Swedish market the capital cost should be reduced to 1.7 EUR/W installed, or the average electricity price should be at least 35.2 EUR/MWh, if the cost of heat is zero. The cost of heat is an important factor in these calculations and should be developed further in future work.

Keywords
Ancillary services, District heating, Heat to power, LCOE, Smart grids, Thermal grids
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34358 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.105 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049354404 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: KK, Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling; Funding details: Knowledge Foundation; Funding details: DH, Department of Health;

Funding text: Many thanks to Sweco AB and the DH network operator for their data,

Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Hennessy, J., Li, H., Wallin, F., Thorin, E. & Räftegård, O. (2017). Economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies suitable for use in district heating networks. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2017, 21 August 2017 through 24 August 2017. Energy Procedia, 1721-1727
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies suitable for use in district heating networks
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, p. 1721-1727Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent improvements in heat-to-power (HtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. HtP is used extensively in power generation via the steam Rankine cycle, but so far has not been used in district heating (DH). The aim of the study is to analyze the economic feasibility of using HtP technologies in a DH network. This is achieved by establishing suitable technologies and calculating the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) under conditions that may be found in DH. The result, for the vendors, temperatures and assumptions considered, is a range of 25-292 €/MWh, excluding the cost of heat. The breadth of this range in part reflects the importance of selecting appropriate products to match the heat source temperature.

Keywords
ancillary services, balancing power, district energy, district heat to power, district heating, heat to power, LCOE, LCOH, levelized cost of electricity, levelized cost of heat, ORC, organic Rankine cycle, smart grids, smart thermal grids, thermal grids
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33325 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.555 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041516921 (Scopus ID)
Conference
9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2017, 21 August 2017 through 24 August 2017
Note

 Funding details: KK, Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling; Funding details: Knowledge Foundation; Funding details: AIR, American Institutes for Research; Funding text: Special thanks to the participating vendors for their detailed data provided in confidence. The work has been carried out under the auspices of the Reesbe industrial post-graduate school, which is financed by the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen), Sweden . The work was also part-financed by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.

Available from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-02-27 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, O., Hadin, Å., Hennessy, J. & Jonsson, D. (2016). Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment. Energies, 9(12), Article ID 1011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment
2016 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 1011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Bedding material, Biogas, Combustion, Composting, Horse manure, Incineration, Life cycle assessment (LCA)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27685 (URN)10.3390/en9121011 (DOI)2-s2.0-85002989961 (Scopus ID)
Note

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Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
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