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Publications (10 of 89) Show all publications
Ögren, Y., Sepman, A., Fooladgar, E., Weiland, F. & Wiinikka, H. (2024). Development and evaluation of a vision driven sensor for estimating fuel feeding rates in combustion and gasification processes. Energy and AI, 15, Article ID 100316.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and evaluation of a vision driven sensor for estimating fuel feeding rates in combustion and gasification processes
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2024 (English)In: Energy and AI, ISSN 2666-5468, Vol. 15, article id 100316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A machine vision driven sensor for estimating the instantaneous feeding rate of pelletized fuels was developed and tested experimentally in combustion and gasification processes. The feeding rate was determined from images of the pellets sliding on a transfer chute into the reactor. From the images the apparent area and velocity of the pellets were extracted. Area was determined by a segmentation model created using a machine learning framework and velocities by image registration of two subsequent images. The measured weight of the pelletized fuel passed through the feeding system was in good agreement with the weight estimated by the sensor. The observed variations in the fuel feeding correlated with the variations in the gaseous species concentrations measured in the reactor core and in the exhaust. Since the developed sensor measures the ingoing fuel feeding rate prior to the reactor, its signal could therefore help improve process control. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2024
Keywords
Combustion, Fuel feeding, Gasification, Image processing, Neural network, Process monitoring, Feeding, Image segmentation, Pelletizing, Process control, Combustion pro-cess, Feeding rate, Gasification process, Images processing, Machine-learning, Machine-vision, Neural-networks, Segmentation models, Transfer chutes
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71916 (URN)10.1016/j.egyai.2023.100316 (DOI)2-s2.0-85181658798 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 50470-1Swedish Research Council FormasVinnovaEU, Horizon 2020, 818011
Note

Correspondence Address: Y. Ögren; RISE AB, Piteå, Box 726 SE-941 28, Sweden; . The Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish government and the SwedishCenter for Gasification financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and member companies. The RE:source program finance by the Swedish Energy Agency, Vinnova and Formas. The Pulp&Fuel project financed by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 818011 and the TDLAS-AI project (Swedish energy agency project 50470-1). 

Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Weiland, F., Jacobsson, D., Wahlqvist, D., Ek, M. & Wiinikka, H. (2024). Inorganic Chemistry during Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Oxyfuel Combustion of Kraft Pulping Black Liquor. Energy & Fuels, 38(6), 5279-5287
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inorganic Chemistry during Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Oxyfuel Combustion of Kraft Pulping Black Liquor
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2024 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 5279-5287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Changed utilization of black liquor in the pulp and paper industry has the potential to offer simplified carbon capture and, thus, negative net emissions from these large point sources. This can be achieved either by adapting existing recovery boilers to oxyfuel combustion or by replacing them with black liquor gasification technology. In this work, the chemistry during black liquor conversion was therefore studied in detail under different atmospheres relevant for pyrolysis, gasification, and oxyfuel combustion. Experiments were performed using environmental scanning transmission electron microscopy (ESTEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), supported with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TECs) to understand and interpret the results. Black liquor conversion was found to be generally similar in air and oxyfuel atmospheres containing approximately 20-25 mol % oxygen. The results however indicated that there was a higher probability of forming carbonates in the melt at higher carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures, which in addition was found to be associated with potentially higher sulfur loss during black liquor conversion. Both of these characteristics can negatively affect the chemical recycling at the pulp mill by increasing the need for lime and makeup chemicals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2024
Keywords
Combustion; Gasification; Gravimetry; Lime; Pyrolysis; Scanning Electron Microscopy; Sulfur Dioxide; Thermal Analysis; Combustion; Gasification; High resolution transmission electron microscopy; Indicators (chemical); Kraft pulp; Lime; Paper and pulp industry; Pyrolysis; Scanning electron microscopy; Sulfur dioxide; Thermogravimetric analysis; Black liquor; Black liquor gasification; Inorganic chemistry; Oxyfuel combustion; Point-sources; Pulp and paper industry; Pulping black liquor; Pyrolysis combustions; Pyrolysis gasifications; Recovery boilers; Carbon dioxide
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72825 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c05031 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187342372 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P2020-90041
Note

This work was made possible through funding from the Swedish Energy Agency’s initiative “The Industrial Leap”, project P2020-90041.

Available from: 2024-04-29 Created: 2024-04-29 Last updated: 2024-04-29Bibliographically approved
Sepman, A., Malhotra, J. S., Wennebro, J. & Wiinikka, H. (2024). Iron as recyclable electrofuel: Effect on particle morphology from multiple combustion-regeneration cycles. Combustion and Flame, 259, Article ID 113137.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iron as recyclable electrofuel: Effect on particle morphology from multiple combustion-regeneration cycles
2024 (English)In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 259, article id 113137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work describes the morphological and material changes in the iron powder during four regeneration-combustion cycles. The regeneration in H2 and combustion in air experiments were made in a fluidized bed (FB) and an entrained flow reactor (EFR), respectively. The average size of the iron oxide particles more than doubled between the first and fourth combustion cycles, and many of the particles were hollow. The regeneration step did not change the size of the particles but increased their porosity. A mechanism is proposed that describes the formation of large-diameter hollow particles which increases as a function of the regeneration-combustion cycles. The observed increase in particle size and the change in particle morphology complicates the iron fuel concept, as it leads to a degradation of the structural stability of the particle with time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2024
Keywords
Fluidized bed combustion; Fluidized beds; Iron oxides; Morphology; Particle size; Air experiments; Average size; Combustion cycle; Entrained Flow Reactor; Iron oxide particles; Material change; Morphological changes; Particle morphologies; Recyclables; Regeneration cycles; Stability
National Category
Energy Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67706 (URN)10.1016/j.combustflame.2023.113137 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174581752 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
Wahlqvist, D., Mases, M., Jacobsson, D., Wiinikka, H. & Ek, M. (2024). Nanocarbon oxidation in the environmental transmission electron microscope - Disentangling the role of the electron beam. Carbon, 218, Article ID 118686.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocarbon oxidation in the environmental transmission electron microscope - Disentangling the role of the electron beam
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2024 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 218, article id 118686Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) can provide unique insights into nanocarbon oxidation processes through atomic resolution and real time imaging of materials at high temperatures in reactive atmospheres. However, the electron beam can also influence the reaction rates, and even alter the processes entirely, complicating the interpretation of the in situ observations. Many mechanisms have been proposed to account for the impact of the electron beam, predominantly involving ionization of the oxidative gases to form more reactive species. However, these mechanisms have not been critically evaluated and compared to predictions from theory. Here, we evaluate the impact of the electron beam both qualitatively (oxidation mode and spatial extent) and quantitatively (oxidation rates), using high resolution imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy, at different electron energies and dose rates. We demonstrate that transient defects generated by elastic scattering, forming highly active sites for carbon abstraction by oxygen, is the main mechanism for the enhanced oxidation rates observed in situ. This is evident from an insensitivity to electron energy and saturation of the effects at high electron dose rates. To avoid undue influence of the electron beam in future ETEM studies, we therefore recommend conditions where the intrinsic oxidation dominates over the beam-enhanced oxidation (note that no conditions are completely “safe”) and extensive comparisons with other methods. © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Carbon black; Dissociation; Electron beams; Electron energy levels; Electron scattering; Electrons; Energy dissipation; High resolution transmission electron microscopy; Impact ionization; Ionization of gases; Oxidation; Reaction rates; Condition; Dose rate; Electron beam effects; Electron dose; Electron-beam; Electrons energy; Environmental transmission electron microscopes; Environmental transmission electron microscopy; Nanocarbons; Oxidation rates; Electron energy loss spectroscopy
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68780 (URN)10.1016/j.carbon.2023.118686 (DOI)2-s2.0-85178132166 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2020-04453Swedish Research Council, 2017-04902
Note

We thank Jens Kling for assistance of, and discussion regarding, the operation of the ETEM at DTU, Vesna Mirosavljevic at Trelleborg AB for supplying CB, and Hugo Selling for assistance with the preliminary quantification of the oxidation rate at low pressures. The authors acknowledge support from NanoLund and funding from the Swedish Research Council (grant numbers 2020-04453 and 2017-04902 ).

Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Siddanathi, S. L., Westerberg, L. G., Åkerstedt, H., Wiinikka, H. & Sepman, A. (2023). Computational modeling and temperature measurements using emission spectroscopy on a non-transferred plasma torch. AIP Advances, 13(2), Article ID 025019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational modeling and temperature measurements using emission spectroscopy on a non-transferred plasma torch
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2023 (English)In: AIP Advances, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 025019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A non-transferred plasma torch is a device used to generate a steady thermal plasma jet. Plasma torches have the potential to replace fossil fuel burners used as heat sources in the process industry. Today, however, the available plasma torches are of small scale compared to the power used in the burners in the process industry. In order to understand the effects of large scales on the plasma flow dynamics, it is essential to understand the operation of the plasma torch under different operating conditions and for different geometries. In this study, the analysis of a non-transferred plasma torch has been carried out using both computational and experimental methods. Computationally, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations are solved using a single-fluid model on a 2D axisymmetric torch geometry. The experiments are performed using emission spectroscopy to measure the plasma jet temperature at the outlet. This paper explains the changes in the arc formation, temperature, and velocity for different working gases and power inputs. Furthermore, the possibilities and disadvantages of the MHD approach, considering a local thermal equilibrium, are discussed. It was found that in general, the computational temperature obtained is supported by the experimental and equilibrium data. The computational temperatures agree by within 10% with the experimental ones at the center of the plasma torch. The paper concludes by explaining the significant impact of input properties like working gas and power input on the output properties like velocity and temperature of plasma jet. © 2023 Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics Inc., 2023
Keywords
Emission spectroscopy, Fossil fuels, Magnetohydrodynamics, Plasma diagnostics, Plasma jets, Temperature measurement, Computational modelling, Gas input, Heat sources, Large-scales, Power, Power input, Process industries, Small scale, Thermal plasma jets, Working gas, Plasma torches
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64103 (URN)10.1063/5.0129653 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147798595 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 49609-1; Funding text 1: This work was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Grant No. 49609-1.

Available from: 2023-02-28 Created: 2023-02-28 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Malhotra, J. S., Valiollahi Bisheh, R. & Wiinikka, H. (2023). From wood to supercapacitor electrode material via fast pyrolysis. Journal of Energy Storage, 57, Article ID 106179.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From wood to supercapacitor electrode material via fast pyrolysis
2023 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 57, article id 106179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adding high-value products, such as carbon-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage, to the value chain of biorefinery may increase the profits of the whole concept. In this work, carbon-based supercapacitor electrode materials were produced by chemical activation (using KOH) of two fractions of bio-oil (aerosol and condensed) as well as bio-char precursors, all of them originally made from fast pyrolysis of stem wood from pine and spruce. The produced materials show a hierarchical porous structure, a high surface area (1300–1500 m2 g−1) and, almost double the specific capacitance (149–152 F g−1 @ 50 mA g−1) compared to commercially available activated carbon (79 F g−1 @ 50 mA g−1). The benefit of using bio-oils compared to biochar is having an electrode material almost free from metal impurities alongside marginally higher energy storage performance. Together with the material yield in the production chain (fast pyrolysis and activation), a normalized energy storage value was presented for each material that may be used in the future to select the best techno-economic route for the whole concept. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Biomass, Biorefinery, Electrode material, Pyrolysis, Supercapacitor, Activated carbon, Chemical activation, Electrochemical electrodes, Energy storage, Potassium hydroxide, Refining, Storage (materials), Bio-oils, Biochar, Biorefineries, Carbon-based, Carbon-based electrodes, Electrochemical energy storage, Fast pyrolysis, Supercapacitor electrodes, Value chains
National Category
Renewable Bioenergy Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61357 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2022.106179 (DOI)2-s2.0-85142668205 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Stiftelsen Åforsk, 19-540; Funding text 1: The authors want to thank the Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish government and ÅForsk foundation (grant nr: 19-540 ) for funding of this work.

Available from: 2022-12-09 Created: 2022-12-09 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Thorin, E., Sepman, A., Ögren, Y., Ma, C., Carlborg, M., Wennebro, J., . . . Schmidt, F. M. (2023). Quantitative real-time in situ measurement of gaseous K, KOH and KCl in a 140 kW entrained-flow biomass gasifier. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 39(1), 1337-1345
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative real-time in situ measurement of gaseous K, KOH and KCl in a 140 kW entrained-flow biomass gasifier
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, ISSN 1540-7489, E-ISSN 1873-2704, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 1337-1345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photofragmentation tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (PF-TDLAS) was used to simultaneously measure the concentrations of gas phase atomic potassium (K), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and potassium chloride (KCl) in the reactor core of a 140 kWth atmospheric entrained-flow gasifier (EFG). In two gasification experiments at air-to-fuel equivalence ratio of 0.5, the EFG was first run on forest residues (FR) and then on an 80/20 mixture of FR and wheat straw (FR/WS). Combustion at air-to-fuel equivalence ratio of 1.3 was investigated for comparison. A high K(g) absorbance was observed in gasification, requiring the photofragmentation signals from KOH(g) and KCl(g) to be recorded at a fixed detuning of 7.3 cm-1 from the center of the K(g) absorption profile. In combustion, the fragments recombined instantly after the UV pulse within around 10 μs, whereas in gasification, the K(g) fragment concentration first increased further for 30 μs after the UV pulse, before slowly decaying for up to hundreds of μs. According to 0D reaction kinetics simulations, this could be explained by a difference in recombination kinetics, which is dominated by oxygen reactions in combustion and by hydrogen reactions in gasification. The K species concentrations in the EFG were stable on average, but periodic short-term variations due to fuel feeding were observed, as well as a gradual increase in KOH(g) over the day as the reactor approached global equilibrium. A comparison of the average K species concentrations towards the end of each experiment showed a higher total K in the gas phase for FR/WS, with higher K(g) and KCl(g), but lower KOH(g), compared to the FR fuel. The measured values were in reasonable agreement with predictions by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. © 2022 The Author(s). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Biomass, Entrained-flow gasification, Photofragmentation, Potassium (K), Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), Absorption spectroscopy, Combustion, Fuels, Gases, Gasification, Potassium hydroxide, Reaction kinetics, Semiconductor lasers, Entrained flow gasification, Entrained flow gasifiers, Equivalence ratios, Forest residue, Gas-phases, Potassium chloride, Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, Chlorine compounds
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61456 (URN)10.1016/j.proci.2022.07.180 (DOI)2-s2.0-85139508080 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 36160-1, 50470-1; Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding details: Kempestiftelserna, JCK-1316; Funding details: Horizon 2020, 637020; Funding text 1: The authors acknowledge financial support from the Swedish strategic research program Bio4Energy, the Kempe Foundations ( JCK-1316 ), and the Swedish Energy Agency through both the Swedish Gasification Centre and projects no. 50470-1 and 36160-1 . The fuels were received from a project which received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 637020 - Mobile Flip.

Available from: 2022-12-07 Created: 2022-12-07 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
Shafaghat, H., Linderberg, M., Janosik, T., Hedberg, M., Wiinikka, H., Sandström, L. & Johansson, A.-C. (2022). Enhanced Biofuel Production via Catalytic Hydropyrolysis and Hydro-Coprocessing. Energy & Fuels, 36(1), 450-462
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Biofuel Production via Catalytic Hydropyrolysis and Hydro-Coprocessing
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2022 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 450-462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to successfully integrate biomass pyrolysis oils as starting materials for conventional oil refineries, upgrading of the pyrolysis oils is needed to achieve desired properties, something which can be performed either as part of the pyrolysis process and/or by separate catalytic treatment of the pyrolysis intermediate oil products. In this study, the quality of stem wood-derived pyrolysis oil was improved via ex situ catalytic hydropyrolysis in a bench-scale pyrolyzer (stage 1), followed by catalytic hydro-coprocessing with fossil co-feed in a laboratory-scale high pressure autoclave (stage 2). The effect of pyrolysis upgrading conditions was investigated based on the quality of intermediate products and their suitability for hydro-coprocessing. HZSM-5 and Pt/TiO2 catalysts (400 °C, atmospheric pressure) were employed for ex situ pyrolysis, and the NiMoS/Al2O3 catalyst (330 °C, 100 bar H2 initial pressure) was used for hydro-coprocessing of the pyrolysis oil. The application of HZSM-5 in the pyrolysis of stem wood under a N2 atmosphere decreased the formation of acids, ketones, aldehydes, and furans and increased the production of aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolics (guaiacols and phenols). Replacing HZSM-5 with Pt/TiO2 and N2 with H2 resulted in complete conversion of guaiacols and significant production of phenols, with further indications of increased stability and reduced coking tendencies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2022
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57373 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c03263 (DOI)2-s2.0-85122002259 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-12-22 Created: 2021-12-22 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Lestander, T. A., Weiland, F., Grimm, A., Rudolfsson, M. & Wiinikka, H. (2022). Gasification of pure and mixed feedstock components: Effect on syngas composition and gasification efficiency. Journal of Cleaner Production, 369, Article ID 133330.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gasification of pure and mixed feedstock components: Effect on syngas composition and gasification efficiency
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 369, article id 133330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this work was to investigate whether the use of individual tree components (i.e., stem wood, bark, branches, and needles of spruces) as feedstocks during oxygen blow gasification is more efficient than using mixtures of these components. Experiments were performed at three oxygen levels in an 18-kW oxygen blown fixed bed gasifier with both single and mixed component feedstocks. The composition of the resulting syngas and the cold gas efficiency based on CO and H2 (CGEfuel) were used as response variables to evaluate the influence of different feedstocks on gasification performance. Based on the experimental results and data on the composition of ∼26000 trees drawn from a national Swedish spruce database, multivariate models were developed to simulate gasifier performance under different operating conditions and with different feedstock compositions. The experimental results revealed that the optimal CGEfuel with respect to the oxygen supply differed markedly between the different spruce tree components. Additionally, the models showed that co-gasification of mixed components yielded a lower CGEfuel than separate gasification of pure components. Optimizing the oxygen supply for the average tree composition reduced the GCEfuel by 1.3–6.2% when compared to optimal gasification of single component feedstocks. Therefore, if single-component feedstocks are available, it may be preferable to gasify them separately because doing so provides a higher gasification efficiency than co-gasification of mixed components. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Bark, Biomass components, Branches, Co-gasification, Cold gas efficiency, Needles, Wood, Efficiency, Forestry, Gasification, Synthesis gas, Trees (mathematics), Tumors, Branch, Gasification efficiency, Gasifiers, Performance, Single components, Tree components, Feedstocks
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60051 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.133330 (DOI)2-s2.0-85135831044 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: We thank the Bio4Energy strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish government ( www.bio4energy.se ) for financial support. Gunnar Kalén and Markus Segerström are acknowledged for assistance in the preparation and pelleting of tree components. RISE ETC engineers and technicians are acknowledged for operating the gasification pilot plant.

Available from: 2022-10-04 Created: 2022-10-04 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Udayakumar, M., Tóth, P., Wiinikka, H., Singh Malhotra, J., Likozar, B., Gyergyek, S., . . . Németh, Z. (2022). Hierarchical porous carbon foam electrodes fabricated from waste polyurethane elastomer template for electric double-layer capacitors. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article ID 11786.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hierarchical porous carbon foam electrodes fabricated from waste polyurethane elastomer template for electric double-layer capacitors
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2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 11786Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastic waste has become a major global environmental concern. The utilization of solid waste-derived porous carbon for energy storage has received widespread attention in recent times. Herein, we report the comparison of electrochemical performance of porous carbon foams (CFs) produced from waste polyurethane (PU) elastomer templates via two different activation pathways. Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) fabricated from the carbon foam exhibited a gravimetric capacitance of 74.4 F/g at 0.1 A/g. High packing density due to the presence of carbon spheres in the hierarchical structure offered excellent volumetric capacitance of 134.7 F/cm3 at 0.1 A/g. Besides, the CF-based EDLCs exhibited Coulombic efficiency close to 100% and showed stable cyclic performance for 5000 charge–discharge cycles with good capacitance retention of 97.7% at 3 A/g. Low equivalent series resistance (1.05 Ω) and charge transfer resistance (0.23 Ω) due to the extensive presence of hydroxyl functional groups contributed to attaining high power (48.89 kW/kg). Based on the preferred properties such as high specific surface area, hierarchical pore structure, surface functionalities, low metallic impurities, high conductivity and desirable capacitive behaviour, the CF prepared from waste PU elastomers have shown potential to be adopted as electrodes in EDLCs. © 2022, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Research, 2022
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59820 (URN)10.1038/s41598-022-16006-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85133938642 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding details: Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS, ARRS, P2-0089; Funding details: European Regional Development Fund, ERDF, GINOP-2.3.4-15-2016-00004; Funding text 1: Open access funding provided by University of Miskolc. This research was supported by the European Union and the Hungarian State, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund in the framework of the GINOP-2.3.4-15-2016-00004 project, aimed at promoting the cooperation between higher education and industry.; Funding text 2: Z.N. would like to thank the HAS Bolyai János Research Scholarship Program. S.G. acknowledges the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency (research core funding Nos. P2-0089).

Available from: 2022-08-04 Created: 2022-08-04 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9395-9928

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