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Mesfun, S., Gustafsson, G., Larsson, A., Samavati, M. & Furusjö, E. (2023). Electrification of Biorefinery Concepts for Improved Productivity—Yield, Economic and GHG Performances. Energies, 16(21), Article ID 7436.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrification of Biorefinery Concepts for Improved Productivity—Yield, Economic and GHG Performances
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2023 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 21, article id 7436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Demand for biofuels will likely increase, driven by intensifying obligations to decarbonize aviation and maritime sectors. Sustainable biomass is a finite resource, and the forest harvesting level is a topic of ongoing discussions, in relation to biodiversity preservation and the short-term role of forests as carbon sinks. State-of-the-art technologies for converting lignocellulosic feedstock into transportation biofuels achieves a carbon utilization rate ranging from 25% to 50%. Mature technologies like second-generation ethanol and gasification-based processes tend to fall toward the lower end of this spectrum. This study explores how electrification can enhance the carbon efficiency of biorefinery concepts and investigates its impact on energy, economics and greenhouse gas emissions. Results show that electrification increases carbon efficiency from 28% to 123% for gasification processes, from 28% to 45% for second-generation ethanol, and from 50% to 65% for direct liquefaction processes. Biofuels are produced to a cost range 60–140 EUR/MWh-biofuel, depending on the chosen technology pathway, feedstock and electricity prices. Notably, production in electrified biorefineries proves cost-competitive when compared to pure electrofuel (E-fuels) tracks. Depending on the selected technology pathway and the extent of electrification, a reduction in GHG emissions ranging from 75% to 98% is achievable, particularly when powered by a low-carbon electricity mix. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67912 (URN)10.3390/en16217436 (DOI)2-s2.0-85176355971 (Scopus ID)
Note

This research was carried out within the collaborative research program Renewable transportation fuels and systems (Förnybara drivmedel och system), Project No. 50452-1. The project has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and f3—Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels. We acknowledge for in kind contribution and expertise from St1, Södra and Vattenfall AB.

Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2023-11-27Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Engvall, K. & Toffolo, A. (2022). Electrolysis Assisted Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuels Production. Frontiers in Energy Research, 10, Article ID 799553.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrolysis Assisted Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuels Production
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, article id 799553Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gasification is a promising pathway for converting biomass residues into renewable transportation fuels and chemicals needed to comply with the ambitious Swedish environmental targets. The paper investigates the integration of a molten carbonate electrolysis cell (MCEC) in biofuel production pathway from sawmill byproducts, to improve the performance of gas cleaning and conditioning steps prior to the final conversion of syngas into liquid biofuels. The energy, material, and economic performance of process configurations with different gasification technologies are simulated and compared. The results provide relevant information to develop the engineering of gas-to-liquid transportation fuels utilizing renewable electricity. The MCEC replaces the water-gas shift step of a conventional syngas conditioning process and enables increased product throughput by as much as 15%–31%. Depending on the process configuration and steam-methane reforming technology, biofuels can be produced to the cost range 140–155 €/MWh in the short-term. Copyright © 2022 Mesfun, Engvall and Toffolo.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
biofuels, biomass gasification, biomass to liquid, forest industry byproducts, gas conditioning, molten carbonate electrolysis cell, technoeconomic, Electrolysis, Gasification, Liquids, Steam reforming, Synthesis gas, Water gas shift, Electrolysis cell, Forest industry, Forest industry byproduct, Industry byproduct, Molten carbonate, Molten carbonate electrolyse cell, Techno-economics, Biomass
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59833 (URN)10.3389/fenrg.2022.799553 (DOI)2-s2.0-85133904573 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Mesfun, S.; RISE Research Institutes of SwedenSweden; email: sennai.asmelash.mesfun@ri.se; Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text 1: This work was carried out within the collaborative research program Renewable transportation fuels and systems (Förnybara drivmedel och system), Project No. 48371–1. The project has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and f3—Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, and co-financed by Bio4Energy (a Strategic Research Environment appointed by the Swedish government).

Available from: 2022-08-03 Created: 2022-08-03 Last updated: 2023-04-05Bibliographically approved
Jafri, Y., Wetterlund, E., Mesfun, S., Rådberg, H., Mossberg, J., Hulteberg, C. & Furusjö, E. (2020). Combining expansion in pulp capacity with production of sustainable biofuels – Techno-economic and greenhouse gas emissions assessment of drop-in fuels from black liquor part-streams. Applied Energy, 279, Article ID 115879.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining expansion in pulp capacity with production of sustainable biofuels – Techno-economic and greenhouse gas emissions assessment of drop-in fuels from black liquor part-streams
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2020 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 279, article id 115879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drop-in biofuels from forest by-products such as black liquor can help deliver deep reductions in transport greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil fuels in our vehicle fleet. Black liquor is produced at pulp mills that can increase their pulping capacity by upgrading some of it to drop-in biofuels but this is not well-studied. We evaluate the techno-economic and greenhouse gas performance of five drop-in biofuel pathways based on BL lignin separation with hydrotreatment or black liquor gasification with catalytic synthesis. We also assess how integrated biofuel production impacts different types of pulp mills and a petroleum refinery by using energy and material balances assembled from experimental data supplemented by expert input. Our results indicate that drop-in biofuels from black liquor part-streams can be produced for ~80 EUR2017/MWh, which puts black liquor on the same footing (or better) as comparable forest residue-based alternatives. The best pathways in both production routes have comparable costs and their principal biofuel products (petrol for black liquor gasification and diesel for lignin hydrotreatment) complement each other. All pathways surpass European Union's sustainability criteria for greenhouse gas savings from new plants. Supplementing black liquor with pyrolysis oil or electrolysis hydrogen can improve biofuel production potentials and feedstock diversity, but better economic performance does not accompany these benefits. Fossil hydrogen represents the cheaper option for lignin hydrotreatment by some margin, but greenhouse gas savings from renewable hydrogen are nearly twice as great. Research on lignin upgrading in industrial conditions is recommended for reducing the presently significant performance uncertainties. © 2020 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Biofuels, Black liquor, Gasification, Hydrotreatment, Lignin, Pulp, Drops, Fleet operations, Forestry, Fossil fuels, Gas emissions, Gasoline, Greenhouse gases, Industrial research, Petroleum refineries, Biofuel production, Black liquor gasification, Catalytic synthesis, Economic performance, Industrial conditions, Material balance, Renewable hydrogens, Sustainability criteria, biofuel, economic analysis, electrokinesis, energy conservation, greenhouse gas, hydrogen, pyrolysis, sustainability
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-49466 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115879 (DOI)2-s2.0-85091666946 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency , f3 – Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, and Bio4Energy .

Available from: 2020-10-21 Created: 2020-10-21 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Meng, Y., Liu, J., Leduc, S., Mesfun, S., Kraxner, F., Mao, G., . . . Wang, Z. (2020). Hydropower Production Benefits More From 1.5 °C than 2 °C Climate Scenario. Water resources research, 56(5), Article ID e2019WR025519.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydropower Production Benefits More From 1.5 °C than 2 °C Climate Scenario
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2020 (English)In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 56, no 5, article id e2019WR025519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydropower plays an important role as renewable and clean energy in the world's overall energy supply. Electricity generation from hydropower represented approximately 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity in 2015. Determining the different effects of 1.5 and 2 °C of global warming has become a hot spot in water resources research. However, there are still few studies on the impacts of different global warming levels on gross hydropower potential. This study used a coupled hydrological and techno-economic model framework to assess hydropower production under global warming levels of 1.5 and 2 °C, while also considering gross hydropower potential, power consumption, and economic factors. The results show that both global warming levels will have a positive impact on the hydropower production of a tropical island (Sumatra) relative to the historical period; however, the ratio of hydropower production versus power demand provided by 1.5 °C of global warming is 40% higher than that provided by 2 °C of global warming under RCP6.0. The power generation by hydropower plants shows incongruous changing trends with hydropower potential under the same global warming levels. This inconformity occurs because the optimal sites for hydropower plants were chosen by considering not only hydropower potential but also economic factors. In addition, the reduction in CO2 emissions under global warming of 1.5 °C (39.06 × 106 t) is greater than that under global warming of 2 °C (10.20 × 106 t), which reveals that global warming decreases the benefits necessary to relieve global warming levels. However, the hydropower generation and the reduction in CO2 emissions will be far less than the energy demand when protected areas are excluded as potential sites for hydropower plants, with a sharp decrease of 40–80%. Thus, government policy-makers should consider the trade-off between hydropower generation and forest coverage area in nationally determined contributions. © 2020 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020
Keywords
global warming, hydropower;hydro-economic modeling, ISIMIP, optimization model, PCR-GLOBWB, protected areas, Carbon dioxide, Conservation, Economic and social effects, Electric power utilization, Hydroelectric power, Water resources, Climate scenarios, Electricity generation, Historical periods, Hydro power production, Hydro-power generation, Hydropower potential, Renewable electricity, Techno-economic model, Hydroelectric power plants, alternative energy, climate change, energy planning, energy use, hydroelectric power plant, power generation, trade-off, Greater Sunda Islands, Sumatra, Sunda Isles
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45089 (URN)10.1029/2019WR025519 (DOI)2-s2.0-85085485819 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Southern University of Science and Technology, SUSTech, G02296402, G02296302; Funding details: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA; Funding details: National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC, 51711520317, 41811540346, 41571022, 41625001; Funding details: State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex; Funding details: Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS, XDA20060402; Funding details: Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, 2017B030301012; Funding details: National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA20060402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant No. 41625001, 51711520317, 41571022 and 41811540346). Part of the research was developed in the Young Scientists Summer Program at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). The discharge data provided by the ISIMIP can be found from https://www.isimip.org/. Additional support was provided by the High-level Special Funding of the Southern University of Science and Technology (Grant No. G02296302, G02296402), the State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Integrated Surface Water-Groundwater Pollution Control, and the Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control (Grant No. 2017B030301012).

Available from: 2020-06-30 Created: 2020-06-30 Last updated: 2023-04-05Bibliographically approved
Harahap, F., Leduc, S., Mesfun, S., Khatiwada, D., Kraxner, F. & Silveira, S. (2020). Meeting the bioenergy targets from palm oil based biorefineries: An optimal configuration in Indonesia. Applied Energy, 278, Article ID 115749.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meeting the bioenergy targets from palm oil based biorefineries: An optimal configuration in Indonesia
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2020 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 278, article id 115749Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries provide opportunities to improve the economic, environmental, and social performance of bio-based production systems. Prudent planning of plant configuration and localization is however of great merit to obtain maximum benefits from biorefineries. This study investigates optimal deployment of palm oil-based biorefineries on the two major islands of Indonesia, Sumatra and Kalimantan. In addition, the results of the optimal bioenergy (bioelectricity, biodiesel, ethanol) production are used to calculate the potential contribution of the palm oil industry according to the national bioenergy targets from 2020 to 2030. This work also offers a new perspective of analyzing the role of bioenergy in the palm oil industry in relation to meeting the bioenergy targets through the development of spatially explicit optimization model, BeWhere Indonesia. Results show that the palm oil-based biorefineries in Sumatra and Kalimantan can produce 1–1.25 GW of electricity, 4.6–12.5 bL of biodiesel, and 2.8–4.8 bL of ethanol in 2030. Significant efforts in terms of mobilization of resources and economic instruments are required to harness the full potential offered by the palm oil-based biorefineries. This study provides an important insight on how palm oil biorefineries can be developed for their enhanced roles in meeting global sustainability efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
BeWhere, Bioenergy targets, Palm oil, Spatio-temporal optimization, Supply chain
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-48298 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115749 (DOI)2-s2.0-85090056047 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, BMU; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, T6473; Funding text 1: The research was financed by the Swedish Energy Agency [ T6473 ] and also supported by the RESTORE + project ( www.restoreplus.org ). The latter is part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI), supported by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in Germany. The study was carried out independently.

Available from: 2020-09-10 Created: 2020-09-10 Last updated: 2023-04-05Bibliographically approved
Ringkjøb, H.-K., Haugan, P., Seljom, P., Lind, A., Wagner, F. & Mesfun, S. (2020). Short-term solar and wind variability in long-term energy system models - A European case study. Energy, 209, Article ID 118377.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short-term solar and wind variability in long-term energy system models - A European case study
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2020 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 209, article id 118377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Integration of variable renewables such as solar and wind has grown at an unprecedented pace in Europe over the past two decades. As the share of solar and wind rises, it becomes increasingly important for long-term energy system models to adequately represent their short-term variability. This paper uses a long-term TIMES model of the European power and district heat sectors towards 2050 to explore how stochastic modelling of short-term solar and wind variability as well as different temporal resolutions influence the model performance. Using a stochastic model with 48 time-slices as benchmark, the results show that deterministic models with low temporal resolution give a 15–20% underestimation of annual costs, an overestimation of the contribution of variable renewables (13–15% of total electricity generation) and a lack of system flexibility. The results of the deterministic models converge towards the stochastic solution when the temporal resolution is increased, but even with 2016 time-slices, the need for flexibility is underestimated. In addition, the deterministic model with 2016 time-slices takes 30 times longer to solve than the stochastic model with 48 time-slices. Based on these findings, a stochastic approach is recommended for long-term studies of energy systems with large shares of variable renewable energy sources. © 2020 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Energy modelling, Stochastic modelling, TIMES energy-Models, Variable renewable energy, Renewable energy resources, Solar power generation, Stochastic systems, Deterministic modeling, Deterministic models, Electricity generation, Energy system model, Stochastic approach, Stochastic solution, Temporal resolution, Variable renewable energies, Stochastic models
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45608 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2020.118377 (DOI)2-s2.0-85088641076 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Universitetet i Bergen, UiB; Funding details: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA; Funding details: Norges Forskningsråd; Funding text 1: The first author’s research project is financed by the University of Bergen . Part of the research was developed during the Young Scientists Summer Program at the International Institute for Systems Analysis ( IIASA ), with financial support from the Research Council of Norway .

Available from: 2020-08-14 Created: 2020-08-14 Last updated: 2023-04-05Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Matsakas, L., Rova, U. & Christakopoulos, P. (2019). Technoeconomic assessment of hybrid organosolv-steam explosion pretreatment of woody biomass. Energies, 12(21), Article ID en12214206.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technoeconomic assessment of hybrid organosolv-steam explosion pretreatment of woody biomass
2019 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 21, article id en12214206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates technoeconomic performance of standalone biorefinery concepts that utilize hybrid organic solvent and steam explosion pretreatment technique. The assessments were made based on a mathematical process model developed in UniSim Design software using inhouse experimental data. The work was motivated by successful experimental applications of the hybrid pretreatment technique on lignocellulosic feedstocks that demonstrated high fractionation efficiency into a cellulose-rich, a hemicellulose-rich and lignin streams. For the biorefinery concepts studied here, the targeted final products were ethanol, organosolv lignin and hemicellulose syrup. Minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and Internal rate of return (IRR) were evaluated as economic indicators of the investigated biorefinery concepts. Depending on the configuration, and allocating all costs to ethanol, MESP in the range 0.53-0.95 €/L were required for the biorefinery concepts to break even. Under the assumed ethanol reference price of 0.55 €/L, the corresponding IRR were found to be in the range -1.75-10.7%. Hemicellulose degradation and high steam demand identified as major sources of inefficiencies for the process and economic performance, respectively. Sensitivity of MESP and IRR towards the most influential technical, economic and market parameters performed. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Biofuels, Biorefinery, Ethanol, Lignin, Organosovl, Pretreatment, Steamexplosion, Technoeconomic, Cellulose, Earnings, Refining, Biorefineries, Pre-Treatment, Steam explosion, Techno-economics, Bioconversion
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42098 (URN)10.3390/en12214206 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075561566 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: Acknowledgments: Authors would like to thank Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish government, for supporting this work.

Available from: 2019-12-16 Created: 2019-12-16 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Harahap, F., Leduc, S., Mesfun, S., Kraxner, F. & Silveira, S. (2019). The role of oil palm biomass to meet liquid biofuels target in Indonesia. In: ECOS 2019 - Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: . Paper presented at 32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2019, 23 June 2019 through 28 June 2019 (pp. 1509-1524). Institute of Thermal Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of oil palm biomass to meet liquid biofuels target in Indonesia
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2019 (English)In: ECOS 2019 - Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Institute of Thermal Technology , 2019, p. 1509-1524Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Indonesia aims at reducing the dependence on oil import by liquid biofuels consumption (i.e., biodiesel and bio-ethanol) in industry, transport and power sectors. The palm oil industry has played significant role in the development of biodiesel in the country producing crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) based biodiesel. Opportunity exists for the industry to contribute to the development of bio-ethanol program by utilising the lignocellulosic biomass such as the empty fruit bunches (EFB). This study evaluates the potential of liquid biofuels production from oil palm biomass and the domestic demand for biofuels as per biofuel blending target set by the Indonesian government. The existing infrastructures as well as the investment opportunity of each type of biofuel are analyzed. While technology for biodiesel production is proven at large scale, the bio-ethanol production from EFB is not commercialized yet. The study shows that meeting the biodiesel blending target is at risk if Indonesia continues to solely reliance on the production of CPO and PFAD based biodiesel. Palm oil industry can produce nearly 7 billion litres biodiesel from CPO and PFAD in 2025 but the biodiesel domestic demand is 30% higher. The bio-ethanol program faces higher risk. EFB based ethanol through gasification and synthesis of alcohol can contribute to around 13% of the target in 2025, however the infrastructure is not ready yet. Feedstock diversification to produce liquid biofuels should be prioritized. We recommend a review of the current plan to a more achievable targets or prolong the timeline in order to secure domestic biofuels demand while continuing export. The study provides database for future modelling exercise on multi-period optimization study of palm biofuels supply chain in Indonesia in a geographically explicit way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Thermal Technology, 2019
Keywords
Biofuel Blending target, Indonesia, Liquid Biofuels, Oil Palm Biomass, Palm Oil Supply Chain
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44399 (URN)2-s2.0-85079622358 (Scopus ID)9788361506515 (ISBN)
Conference
32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2019, 23 June 2019 through 28 June 2019
Available from: 2020-03-09 Created: 2020-03-09 Last updated: 2023-04-05Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Pettersson, K., Leduc, S., Mesfun, S., Lundgren, J. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids. Applied Energy, 230, 912-924
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 912-924Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries for the production of fuels, chemicals, or materials can be an important contributor to reducing dependence on fossil fuels. The economic performance of the biorefinery supply chain can be increased by, for example, industrial integration to utilise excess heat and products, increasing size to improve economy of scale, and using intermediate upgrading to reduce feedstock transport cost. To enable a large-scale introduction of biorefineries it is important to identify cost efficient supply chain configurations. This work investigates a lignocellulosic biorefinery concept integrated with forest industry, focusing on how different economic conditions affect the preferred supply chain configurations. The technology investigated is black liquor gasification, with and without the addition of pyrolysis liquids to increase production capacity. Primarily, it analyses trade-offs between high biomass conversion efficiency and economy of scale effects, as well as the selection of centralised vs. decentralised supply chain configurations. The results show the economic advantage for biomass efficient configurations, when the biorefinery investment is benefited from an alternative investment credit due to the replacement of current capital-intensive equipment at the host industry. However, the investment credit received heavily influenced the cost of the biorefinery and clearly illustrates the benefit for industrial integration to reduce the cost of biorefineries. There is a benefit for a decentralised supply chain configuration under very high biomass competition. However, for lower biomass competition, site-specific conditions will impact the favourability of either centralised or decentralised supply chain configurations.

Keywords
Biorefinery, Black liquor, Economy of scale, Efficiency, Pyrolysis liquids, Supply chain, Bioconversion, Biomass, Cost reduction, Fossil fuels, Gasification, Investments, Liquids, Pyrolysis, Refining, Supply chains, Biorefineries, Black liquor gasification, Efficiency and economies, Industrial integration, Supply chain configuration, Economic and social effects, cost analysis, economic conditions, efficiency measurement, fossil fuel, integrated approach, replacement, resource use, supply chain management, Cost Control
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35582 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053046147 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding details: 213-2014-184, Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas; Funding text: The work has been carried out under the auspices of Forskarskola Energisystem financed by the Swedish Energy Agency . Economic support from the Swedish Research Council FORMAS is also gratefully acknowledged (dnr. 213-2014-184), as well as from Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish government.

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4909-6643

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