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Axelsson, J. (2019). A refined terminology on system-of-systems substructure and constituent system states. In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019: . Paper presented at 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019 (pp. 31-36). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A refined terminology on system-of-systems substructure and constituent system states
2019 (English)In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 31-36Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the field of systems-of-systems (SoS) engineering, there is broad agreement on a few characterizations, and these are currently being standardized. However, many aspects in the field still lack an established terminology. In particular, there are unclarities related to the internal structure of an SoS, and on the internal states of constituent systems. In this paper, a refined terminology is therefore proposed, which covers the internal substructure of an SoS; the states of constituent systems in relation to those substructures; and how it relates to hierarchical levels. This terminology can also be used to classify the characteristics of an SoS through different metrics. The terminology is illustrated through three examples of SoS applications in various domains. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Capability, Constellation, Emergence, Hierarchy, Metrics, System-of-systems, Hierarchical systems, Terminology, System of systems
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39661 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2019.8753846 (DOI)2-s2.0-85069778063 (Scopus ID)9781728104577 (ISBN)
Conference
14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019
Note

Funding details: 2018-00671, 2016-04232; Funding text 1: This research has been partly funded by Vinnova, Sweden’s Innovation Agency (grants no. 2016-04232 and 2018-00671).

Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J., Fröberg, J. & Eriksson, P. (2019). Architecting systems-of-systems and their constituents: A case study applying Industry 4.0 in the construction domain. Systems Engineering, 22(6), 455-470
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecting systems-of-systems and their constituents: A case study applying Industry 4.0 in the construction domain
2019 (English)In: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 455-470Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of system-of-systems (SoS) requires a continuous interplay between design decisions on the SoS level and those on the level of its constituent systems (CS), which often preexist and need to be adapted as the SoS evolves. This involves not only preparing the CS to participate in a particular SoS, but also designing the CS architecture to make it easily adaptable to a future SoS context. The problem is in part addressed in an emerging SoS framework in the manufacturing domain called Industry 4.0. It focuses on connected and digitalized production with the ambition of increasing flexibility and efficiency. This paper investigates how Industry 4.0 standards can be used in an SoS context to make CS more flexible and adaptive, and evaluates their usefulness outside manufacturing. The study is based on a case from the construction domain, for which a generic SoS architecture is developed. Several extensions and adaptations of Industry 4.0 are suggested, including specifications of ontologies for missions and workflows. © 2019 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2019
Keywords
architecture, construction, Industry 4.0, interoperability, system-of-systems, Design decisions, It focus, Manufacturing domains, Systems of systems, Work-flows, System of systems
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40866 (URN)10.1002/sys.21516 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074593146 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 2018-03244, 2018-00671; Funding text 1: informationThis research was funded by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova), Formas and Sweden's Energy Agency, within their joint program InfraSweden2030 under grant no. 2018-00671, and by Vinnova under grant no.?2018-03244.

Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-27 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2019). Business models and roles for mediating services in a truck platooning system-of-systems. In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019: . Paper presented at 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019 (pp. 113-118). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business models and roles for mediating services in a truck platooning system-of-systems
2019 (English)In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 113-118Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Platooning of trucks on motorways has been proposed as a method of reducing fuel consumption. It requires communication between the trucks to control the distance between them. However, this system-of-systems (SoS) cannot only contain the trucks, but also needs to include mediating off-board services for match-making to find suitable constellations of trucks, and for creating platooning incentives by distributing the profit made equally among the constituent systems. This paper analyzes what actors in the SoS would be suitable to operate these services, and also business models that cover the cost for their implementation and operation. It concludes that the truck OEMs have a vital role in creating the mediating services, and that a suitable business model would be based on usage fees for the services rather than upfront payment for platooning equipment. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Fuel saving distribution, Incentives, Match-making, Platooning, System-of-systems, Fuel economy, Trucks, Business modeling, Business models, Fuel savings, Match making, System of systems
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39662 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2019.8753887 (DOI)2-s2.0-85069759573 (Scopus ID)9781728104577 (ISBN)
Conference
14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019
Note

Funding details: Trafikverket; Funding details: 2016-04232; Funding text 1: This research has been funded by Vinnova, Sweden’s Innovation Agency (grant no. 2016-04232), and has been carried out within a joint project with Scania, Volvo Group, DB Schenker, Swedish Transport Administration, and KTH.

Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2019). Experiences of using linked data and ontologies for operational data sharing in systems-of-systems. In: SysCon 2019 - 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, Proceedings: . Paper presented at 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2019, 8 April 2019 through 11 April 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of using linked data and ontologies for operational data sharing in systems-of-systems
2019 (English)In: SysCon 2019 - 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the problem of exchanging complex data between the constituent systems in a system-of-systems. This is necessary to ensure that they have compatible understandings of the world surrounding them and entails a need for semantic interoperability between the constituents. Through a case study of a road construction system-of-systems, the world wide web technologies of linked data and ontologies are explored as a framework for data representation and exchange. This data includes several broad categories, such as assets, interfaces, organizations, capabilities, missions, and observations, as well as various properties of those. It is also discussed how the constituents can use this data for reasoning and decision making. The results have been validated through a simulation-based research prototype of the road construction case, from which experiences are reported. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Industry 4.0, Linked data, Ontology, Road construction, Semantic interoperability, System-of-systems, Data handling, Decision making, Roads and streets, Semantics, System of systems, Complex data, Construction systems, Data representations, Operational data, Research prototype, Systems of systems, Web technologies, Interoperability
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40614 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2019.8836909 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073158985 (Scopus ID)9781538683965 (ISBN)
Conference
13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2019, 8 April 2019 through 11 April 2019
Note

Funding details: 2018-03244, 2018-00671; Funding text 1: This research was funded by Vinnova, Formas and Sweden’s Energy Agency, within their joint program InfraSweden2030, under grant no. 2018-00671, and by Vinnova under grant no. 2018-03244.

Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2019). Experiences of Using Linked Data and Ontologiesfor Operational Data Sharing in Systems-of-Systems. In: Proceedings of SysCon2019: . Paper presented at 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference SysCon2019, Orlando, Florida, United States, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of Using Linked Data and Ontologiesfor Operational Data Sharing in Systems-of-Systems
2019 (Swedish)In: Proceedings of SysCon2019, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the problem of exchangingcomplex data between the constituent systems in a system-ofsystems. This is necessary to ensure that they have compatibleunderstandings of the world surrounding them and entails aneed for semantic interoperability between the constituents.Through a case study of a road construction system-of-systems,the world wide web technologies of linked data and ontologiesare explored as a framework for data representation andexchange. This data includes several broad categories, such asassets, interfaces, organizations, capabilities, missions, andobservations, as well as various properties of those. It is alsodiscussed how the constituents can use this data for reasoningand decision making. The results have been validated through asimulation-based research prototype of the road constructioncase, from which experiences are reported.

Keywords
system-of-systems, linked data, ontology, semantic interoperability, road construction, Industry 4.0.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40559 (URN)
Conference
13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference SysCon2019, Orlando, Florida, United States, 2019
Note

This research was funded by Vinnova, Formas and Sweden’s EnergyAgency, within their joint program InfraSweden2030, under grant no.2018-00671, and by Vinnova under grant no. 2018-03244.

Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2019). Game theory applications in systems-of-systems engineering: A literature review and synthesis. Procedia Computer Science, 153, 154-165
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game theory applications in systems-of-systems engineering: A literature review and synthesis
2019 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 153, p. 154-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Systems-of-systems (SoS) are becoming increasingly common in more and more domains, spreading from the initial focus on government-controlled areas such as defense to open market industries. This implies that collaborative SoS are becoming more important, where the constituents need to be given incentives to join and remain within the SoS. Game theory has been proposed as a framework to model and analyze such SoS mechanisms. It aims at providing incentives to the independently operated and managed constituents. This paper presents a systematic literature review on the applications of game theory to SoS engineering, together with a synthesis aiming at capturing the best practices for doing such an analysis. The main conclusions are that game theory can be applied to SoS in a wide range of application areas, and deal with problems related to acquisition, design, and operations. In particular, the operational formation of SoS are well suited for this kind of analysis, and it often requires the use of simulation techniques. However, most results in the field lack a validation in practice.

Keywords
System-of-systems, game theory, literature review
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40562 (URN)10.1016/j.procs.2019.05.066 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074979294 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
Borg, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Wnuk, K., Alégroth, E., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Axelsson, J. (2019). Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions. Information and Software Technology, 112, 18-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions
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2019 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components. Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Component-based software engineering, Decision making, Software architecture, Sourcing, Survey, Decision support systems, Open systems, Software design, Surveying, Surveys, Commercial off-the-shelf softwares, Industry practices, Make-or-buy decisions, Online questionnaire, Software development organizations, Software Evolution, Open source software
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38474 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2019.03.015 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064013176 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling; Funding text 1: The work is partially supported by a research grant for the ORION project (reference number 20140218 ) from The Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling in Sweden. The authors have no competing interests to declare.

Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. & Nylander, S. (2018). An analysis of systems-of-systems opportunities and challenges related to mobility in smart cities. In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018: . Paper presented at 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018 (pp. 132-137).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of systems-of-systems opportunities and challenges related to mobility in smart cities
2018 (English)In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 132-137Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Urbanization is one of the major current trends in society. Cities around the world are looking into 'smart' solutions based on information and communication technology to deal with the challenges that result from this development. Mobility is one of the most important areas to address, and system-of-systems solutions where vehicles and infrastructure are connected have a potential to improve urban transportation in many aspects. In this paper, current initiatives related to mobility in smart cities around the world are surveyed, and this is complemented with input from focus groups of transportation stakeholders to identify the important aspects of the problem. Based on this, challenges related to the application of systems-ofsystems in urban mobility are identified.

Keywords
mobility, smart cities, Systems-of-systems, transportation, Carrier mobility, Economic and social effects, Smart city, System of systems, Urban transportation, Focus groups, Information and Communication Technologies, Systems of systems, Urban mobility, Systems engineering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35655 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2018.8428713 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052287521 (Scopus ID)9781538648766 (ISBN)
Conference
13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2018). An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems. In: 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon): . Paper presented at 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems
2018 (English)In: 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As systems-of-systems start to be more common in commercial applications, an analysis of emergent properties related to utility and cost for all stakeholders becomes critical. This paper describes an approach for this based on network simulation and game theory, which is applied to truck highway platooning. The emergent properties of energy efficiency and transport efficiency are studied as a consequence of the strategies for platoon formation, and it is shown that having information about the route planning of other vehicles has a significant positive effect on the properties. This indicates the need for a mediator in the platooning system-of-systems architecture. Its role is to communicate plans of the constituent systems.

Keywords
game theory, network theory (graphs), road traffic, road vehicles, roads, transportation, platoon formation, system-of-systems architecture, operational emergent properties, systems-of-systems, network simulation, truck highway platooning, Analytical models, Junctions, Stakeholders, Context modeling, System-of-systems, platooning, emergent properties, architecture
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34346 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2018.8369506 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048862825 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon)
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2018). Proceedings of the Third SwedishWorkshop on the Engineering ofSystems-of-Systems (SWESoS2018).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings of the Third SwedishWorkshop on the Engineering ofSystems-of-Systems (SWESoS2018)
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 22
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:69
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36559 (URN)978-91-88907-18-9 (ISRN)
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3986-1196

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