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Axelsson, J. (2019). A refined terminology on system-of-systems substructure and constituent system states. In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019: . Paper presented at 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019 (pp. 31-36). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A refined terminology on system-of-systems substructure and constituent system states
2019 (English)In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 31-36Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the field of systems-of-systems (SoS) engineering, there is broad agreement on a few characterizations, and these are currently being standardized. However, many aspects in the field still lack an established terminology. In particular, there are unclarities related to the internal structure of an SoS, and on the internal states of constituent systems. In this paper, a refined terminology is therefore proposed, which covers the internal substructure of an SoS; the states of constituent systems in relation to those substructures; and how it relates to hierarchical levels. This terminology can also be used to classify the characteristics of an SoS through different metrics. The terminology is illustrated through three examples of SoS applications in various domains. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Capability, Constellation, Emergence, Hierarchy, Metrics, System-of-systems, Hierarchical systems, Terminology, System of systems
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39661 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2019.8753846 (DOI)2-s2.0-85069778063 (Scopus ID)9781728104577 (ISBN)
Conference
14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019
Note

Funding details: 2018-00671, 2016-04232; Funding text 1: This research has been partly funded by Vinnova, Sweden’s Innovation Agency (grants no. 2016-04232 and 2018-00671).

Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2019). Business models and roles for mediating services in a truck platooning system-of-systems. In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019: . Paper presented at 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019 (pp. 113-118). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business models and roles for mediating services in a truck platooning system-of-systems
2019 (English)In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 113-118Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Platooning of trucks on motorways has been proposed as a method of reducing fuel consumption. It requires communication between the trucks to control the distance between them. However, this system-of-systems (SoS) cannot only contain the trucks, but also needs to include mediating off-board services for match-making to find suitable constellations of trucks, and for creating platooning incentives by distributing the profit made equally among the constituent systems. This paper analyzes what actors in the SoS would be suitable to operate these services, and also business models that cover the cost for their implementation and operation. It concludes that the truck OEMs have a vital role in creating the mediating services, and that a suitable business model would be based on usage fees for the services rather than upfront payment for platooning equipment. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Fuel saving distribution, Incentives, Match-making, Platooning, System-of-systems, Fuel economy, Trucks, Business modeling, Business models, Fuel savings, Match making, System of systems
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39662 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2019.8753887 (DOI)2-s2.0-85069759573 (Scopus ID)9781728104577 (ISBN)
Conference
14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019
Note

Funding details: Trafikverket; Funding details: 2016-04232; Funding text 1: This research has been funded by Vinnova, Sweden’s Innovation Agency (grant no. 2016-04232), and has been carried out within a joint project with Scania, Volvo Group, DB Schenker, Swedish Transport Administration, and KTH.

Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Borg, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Wnuk, K., Alégroth, E., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Axelsson, J. (2019). Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions. Information and Software Technology, 112, 18-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions
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2019 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components. Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Component-based software engineering, Decision making, Software architecture, Sourcing, Survey, Decision support systems, Open systems, Software design, Surveying, Surveys, Commercial off-the-shelf softwares, Industry practices, Make-or-buy decisions, Online questionnaire, Software development organizations, Software Evolution, Open source software
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38474 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2019.03.015 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064013176 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling; Funding text 1: The work is partially supported by a research grant for the ORION project (reference number 20140218 ) from The Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling in Sweden. The authors have no competing interests to declare.

Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. & Nylander, S. (2018). An analysis of systems-of-systems opportunities and challenges related to mobility in smart cities. In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018: . Paper presented at 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018 (pp. 132-137).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of systems-of-systems opportunities and challenges related to mobility in smart cities
2018 (English)In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 132-137Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Urbanization is one of the major current trends in society. Cities around the world are looking into 'smart' solutions based on information and communication technology to deal with the challenges that result from this development. Mobility is one of the most important areas to address, and system-of-systems solutions where vehicles and infrastructure are connected have a potential to improve urban transportation in many aspects. In this paper, current initiatives related to mobility in smart cities around the world are surveyed, and this is complemented with input from focus groups of transportation stakeholders to identify the important aspects of the problem. Based on this, challenges related to the application of systems-ofsystems in urban mobility are identified.

Keywords
mobility, smart cities, Systems-of-systems, transportation, Carrier mobility, Economic and social effects, Smart city, System of systems, Urban transportation, Focus groups, Information and Communication Technologies, Systems of systems, Urban mobility, Systems engineering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35655 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2018.8428713 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052287521 (Scopus ID)9781538648766 (ISBN)
Conference
13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2018). An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems. In: 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon): . Paper presented at 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems
2018 (English)In: 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As systems-of-systems start to be more common in commercial applications, an analysis of emergent properties related to utility and cost for all stakeholders becomes critical. This paper describes an approach for this based on network simulation and game theory, which is applied to truck highway platooning. The emergent properties of energy efficiency and transport efficiency are studied as a consequence of the strategies for platoon formation, and it is shown that having information about the route planning of other vehicles has a significant positive effect on the properties. This indicates the need for a mediator in the platooning system-of-systems architecture. Its role is to communicate plans of the constituent systems.

Keywords
game theory, network theory (graphs), road traffic, road vehicles, roads, transportation, platoon formation, system-of-systems architecture, operational emergent properties, systems-of-systems, network simulation, truck highway platooning, Analytical models, Junctions, Stakeholders, Context modeling, System-of-systems, platooning, emergent properties, architecture
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34346 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2018.8369506 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048862825 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon)
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2018). Proceedings of the Third SwedishWorkshop on the Engineering ofSystems-of-Systems (SWESoS2018).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings of the Third SwedishWorkshop on the Engineering ofSystems-of-Systems (SWESoS2018)
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 22
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:69
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36559 (URN)978-91-88907-18-9 (ISRN)
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Borg, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Wnuk, K., Alégroth, E., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Axelsson, J. (2018). Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis
Show others...
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

Publisher
p. 36
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:71
Keywords
component-based software engineering, sourcing, software architecture, decision making, survey
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36624 (URN)978-91-88907-15-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Orion
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140218
Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. & Kobetski, A. (2018). Towards a risk analysis method for systems-of-systems based on systems thinking. In: : . Paper presented at 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon) (pp. 1-8).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a risk analysis method for systems-of-systems based on systems thinking
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The characteristics of systems-of-systems (SoS) present fundamental challenges regarding properties such as safety, security, reliability, and robustness. This is due to the SoS nature where a collection of independent systems cooperate to fulfil certain high-level objectives. Risk analysis is thus an important activity in SoS engineering. This paper presents a risk analysis method which extends the existing STAMP safety analysis method that is based on systems thinking. Our extensions are aimed at coping with other risks than safety, and the usage is tailored to SoS. The method aims at deriving requirements on the constituent systems that will reduce the emergent risks on the SoS as a whole. The method has been applied to a case study of vehicle platooning.

Keywords
risk analysis, systems analysis, systems engineering, systems-of-systems, SoS engineering, constituent systems, STAMP safety analysis, systems thinking, SoS risk analysis, systems-theoretic accident model and processes, Safety, Modeling, Software, Security, Risk management, platooning
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34330 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2018.8369501 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048869954 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon)
Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J., Fröberg, J. & Eriksson, P. (2018). Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.0. In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018: . Paper presented at 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018 (pp. 576-582).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.0
2018 (English)In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 576-582Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Road construction is a very large business segment, consuming enormous public funding every year and with significant environmental impacts. However, the rate of efficiency improvement during the last few decades has been negligible, whereas other industries, such as manufacturing, have seen very large improvements by applying automation and Leanbased flow optimization across the production system. In this paper, we outline a system-of-systems concept for road construction which applies similar principles as have previously proved successful in other industries. The paper identifies efficiency attributes and wastes in current practices, which lead to a conceptual solution that focuses on improved coordination of working machines. Technical elements from Industry 4.0 are considered as potential building blocks in this concept, identifying similarities and differences between the construction domain and other industries. Finally, challenges are identified, in particular within knowledge representation and information management.

Keywords
Architecture, Industry 40, Lean, Road construction, System-of-systems, Efficiency, Environmental impact, Industry 4.0, Information management, Knowledge representation, Roads and streets, System of systems, Construction efficiency, Current practices, Efficiency improvement, Flow optimization, Large business, Potential building blocks, Production system, Systems engineering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35165 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2018.8428698 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052331727 (Scopus ID)9781538648766 (ISBN)
Conference
13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J., Papatheocharous, E., Nyfjord, J. & Törngren, M. (2016). Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development. Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, 41(2), 23-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development
2016 (English)In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agile approaches have been highly influential to the software engineering practices in many organizations, and are increasingly being applied in larger companies, and for developing systems outside the pure software domain. To understand more about the current state of agile, its applications to safety-critical systems, and the consequences on innovation and large organizations, a seminar was organized in Stockholm in 2014. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at that seminar, a summary of the main results and suggestions for future work as input to a research agenda for agile development of safety-critical software.

Keywords
System, Process, Embedded Systems, Cyber Physical Systems
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28266 (URN)10.1145/2894784.2894796 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3986-1196

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