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Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Crispin, X., Berggren, M., Engquist, I. & Jonsson, M. (2019). Greyscale and paper electrochromic polymer displays by UV patterning. Polymers, 11(2), Article ID 267.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greyscale and paper electrochromic polymer displays by UV patterning
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

Keywords
Cellulose, Conductive polymers, Digital cellulose, Electrochromic, Electrochromic displays, Electrochromism, Paper displays, Paper electronics, Patterning, PEDOT, Vapor phase polymerization, Electrochromic devices, Energy efficiency, Intelligent buildings, Paper, Polymerization, Temperature, Conductive Polymer, Electrochromics
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37894 (URN)10.3390/polym11020267 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061197759 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF; Funding details: SFO-Mat-LiU No 2009 00971; Funding details: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; Funding text 1: Funding: The authors acknowledge funding by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, the Wenner-Gren Foundations, Vinnova, and the Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linköping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU No 2009 00971).; Funding text 2: Acknowledgements: This research has been supported by Treesearch.se

Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Edberg, J., Brooke, R., Granberg, H., Engquist, I. & Berggren, M. (2019). Improving the Performance of Paper Supercapacitors Using Redox Molecules from Plants. Advanced Sustainable Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Performance of Paper Supercapacitors Using Redox Molecules from Plants
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2019 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable SystemsArticle in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

A supercapacitor made from organic and nature‐based materials, such as conductive polymers (PEDOT:PSS), nanocellulose, and an the organic dye molecule (alizarin), is demonstrated. The dye molecule, which historically was extracted from the roots of the plant rubia tinctorum, is here responsible for the improvement in energy storage capacity, while the conductive polymer provides bulk charge transport within the composite electrode. The forest‐based nanocellulose component provides a mechanically strong and nonporous network onto which the conductive polymer self‐organizes. The electrical and electrochemical properties of the material composition are investigated and prototype redox‐enhanced supercapacitor devices with excellent specific capacitance exceeding 400 F g−1 and an operational stability over >1000 cycles are demonstrated. This new class of supercapacitors, which in part are based on organic materials from plants, represents an important step toward a green and sustainable energy technology.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39696 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201900050 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Chen, S., Kühne, P., Stanishev, V., Knight, S., Brooke, R., Petsagkourakis, I., . . . Jonsson, M. (2019). On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: Ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 7(15), 4350-4362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: Ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 4350-4362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are becoming increasingly important in areas such as optoelectronics, biomedical devices, and energy systems. Still, their detailed charge transport properties produce an anomalous optical conductivity dispersion that is not yet fully understood in terms of physical model equations for the broad range optical response. Several modifications to the classical Drude model have been proposed to account for a strong non-Drude behavior from terahertz (THz) to infrared (IR) ranges, typically by implementing negative amplitude oscillator functions to the model dielectric function that effectively reduce the conductivity in those ranges. Here we present an alternative description that modifies the Drude model via addition of positive-amplitude Lorentz oscillator functions. We evaluate this so-called Drude-Lorentz (DL) model based on the first ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry study of ECPs, spanning over four orders of magnitude: from 0.41 meV in the THz range to 5.90 eV in the ultraviolet range, using thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) as a model system. The model could accurately fit the experimental data in the whole ultrawide spectral range and provide the complex anisotropic optical conductivity of the material. Examining the resonance frequencies and widths of the Lorentz oscillators reveals that both spectrally narrow vibrational resonances and broader resonances due to localization processes contribute significantly to the deviation from the Drude optical conductivity dispersion. As verified by independent electrical measurements, the DL model accurately determines the electrical properties of the thin film, including DC conductivity, charge density, and (anisotropic) mobility. The ellipsometric method combined with the DL model may thereby become an effective and reliable tool in determining both optical and electrical properties of ECPs, indicating its future potential as a contact-free alternative to traditional electrical characterization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
Keywords
Anisotropy, Conducting polymers, Dispersions, Ellipsometry, Functional polymers, Optical conductivity, Resonance, Sulfur compounds, Thin films, Classical drude model, Conductivity dispersions, Electrical characterization, Electrical measurement, Electrically conducting polymer, Model dielectric functions, Optical and electrical properties, Poly-3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene, Electric variables measurement
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38510 (URN)10.1039/c8tc06302h (DOI)2-s2.0-85064273362 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Say, M., Sawatdee, A., Grimoldi, A., Åhlin, J., . . . Engquist, I. (2019). Supercapacitors on demand: All-printed energy storage devices with adaptable design. Flexible and Printed Electronics, 4(1), Article ID 015006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supercapacitors on demand: All-printed energy storage devices with adaptable design
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2019 (English)In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 015006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Demands on the storage of energy have increased for many reasons, in part driven by household photovoltaics, electric grid balancing, along with portable and wearable electronics. These are fast-growing and differentiated applications that need large volume and/or highly distributed electrical energy storage, which then requires environmentally friendly, scalable and flexible materials and manufacturing techniques. However, the limitations on current inorganic technologies have driven research efforts to explore organic and carbon-based alternatives. Here, we report a conducting polymer:cellulose composite that serves as the active material in supercapacitors which has been incorporated into all-printed energy storage devices. These devices exhibit a specific capacitance of ≈90 F g -1 and an excellent cyclability (>10 000 cycles). Further, a design concept coined 'supercapacitors on demand' is presented, which is based on a printing-cutting-folding procedure, that provides us with a flexible production protocol to manufacture supercapacitors with adaptable configuration and electrical characteristics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing, 2019
Keywords
cellulose, energy storage, organic electronics, PEDOT, printed electronics, screen printing, supercapacitor, Conducting polymers, Manufacture, Organic carbon, Cellulose composites, Electrical characteristic, Electrical energy storages, Manufacturing techniques, Specific capacitance, Storage (materials)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38901 (URN)10.1088/2058-8585/aafc4f (DOI)2-s2.0-85065297208 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Girayhan Say, M., Sawatdee, A., Grimoldi, A., Åhlin, J., . . . Engquist, I. (2019). Supercapacitors on demand: all-printed energy storage devices withadaptable design. Flexible and Printed Electronics, 4(1), Article ID 015006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supercapacitors on demand: all-printed energy storage devices withadaptable design
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2019 (English)In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 015006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Demands on the storage of energy have increased for many reasons, in part driven by householdphotovoltaics, electric grid balancing, along with portable and wearable electronics. These are fastgrowingand differentiated applications that need large volume and/or highly distributed electricalenergy storage, which then requires environmentally friendly, scalable and flexible materials andmanufacturing techniques. However, the limitations on current inorganic technologies have drivenresearch efforts to explore organic and carbon-based alternatives. Here, we report a conductingpolymer:cellulose composite that serves as the active material in supercapacitors which has beenincorporated into all-printed energy storage devices. These devices exhibit a specific capacitance of≈90 F g−1 and an excellent cyclability (>10 000 cycles). Further, a design concept coined ‘supercapacitorson demand’ is presented, which is based on a printing–cutting–folding procedure, thatprovides us with a flexible production protocol to manufacture supercapacitors with adaptableconfiguration and electrical characteristics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOPscience, 2019
Keywords
Supercapacitors, printed electronics, energy storage, cellulose, PEDOT, organic electronics, conductive polymers
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38934 (URN)10.1088/2058-8585/aafc4f (DOI)
Projects
0D+1D+2D=3D (0-3D)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , GMT14-0058
Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Mitraka, E., Sardar, S., Sandberg, M., Sawatdee, A., Berggren, M., . . . Jonsson, M. P. (2017). Infrared electrochromic conducting polymer devices. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 5(23), 5824-5830
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infrared electrochromic conducting polymer devices
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, no 23, p. 5824-5830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is well known for its electrochromic properties in the visible region. Less focus has been devoted to the infrared (IR) wavelength range, although tunable IR properties could enable a wide range of novel applications. As an example, modern day vehicles have thermal cameras to identify pedestrians and animals in total darkness, but road and speed signs cannot be easily visualized by these imaging systems. IR electrochromism could enable a new generation of dynamic road signs that are compatible with thermal imaging, while simultaneously providing contrast also in the visible region. Here, we present the first metal-free flexible IR electrochromic devices, based on PEDOT:Tosylate as both the electrochromic material and electrodes. Lateral electrochromic devices enabled a detailed investigation of the IR electrochromism of thin PEDOT:Tosylate films, revealing large changes in their thermal signature, with effective temperature changes up to 10 °C between the oxidized (1.5 V) and reduced (-1.5 V) states of the polymer. Larger scale (7 × 7 cm) vertical electrochromic devices demonstrate practical suitability and showed effective temperature changes of approximately 7 °C, with good optical memory and fast switching (1.9 s from the oxidized state to the reduced state and 3.3 s for the reversed switching). The results are highly encouraging for using PEDOT:Tosylate for IR electrochromic applications.

Keywords
Conducting polymers, Electrochromic devices, Infrared imaging, Polymer films, Roads and streets, Sulfur compounds, Temperature, Effective temperature, Electro-chromic applications, Electrochromic materials, Electrochromic properties, Infrared wavelengths, Novel applications, Poly(3, 4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Thermal signatures, Electrochromism
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31115 (URN)10.1039/c7tc00257b (DOI)2-s2.0-85021669689 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Malti, A., Brooke, R., Liu, X., Zhao, D., Andersson Ersman, P., Fahlman, M., . . . Crispin, X. (2016). Freestanding electrochromic paper. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 4(41), 9680-9686
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freestanding electrochromic paper
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 41, p. 9680-9686Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochromic displays based on conducting polymers exhibit higher contrasts and are cheaper, faster, more durable, and easier to synthesize as well as to process than their non-polymeric counterparts. However, current devices are typically based on thin electrochromic layers on top of a reflecting surface, which limits the thickness of the polymer layer to a few hundred nanometers. Here, we embed a light-scattering material within the electrochromic material to achieve a freestanding electrochromic paper-like electrode (50 to 500 μm). The device is based on a cellulose composite combining PEDOT:PSS as the electrochromic material and TiO2 nanoparticles as the reflecting material. Owing to the excellent refractive properties of TiO2, this nanocomposite is white in the neutral state and, when reduced, turns blue resulting in a color contrast around 30. The composite has a granular morphology and, as shown by AFM, an intermingling of TiO2 and PEDOT:PSS at the surface. Variation of the amount of TiO2 within the composite material is shown to result in a trade-off in optical and electrical properties. A proof-of-concept freestanding electrochromic device was fabricated by casting all layers successively to maximize the interlayer conformation. This freestanding device was found to be stable for over 100 cycles when ramped between 3 and -3 V.

Keywords
Conducting polymers, Economic and social effects, Electrochromic devices, Light scattering, Titanium dioxide, Electrochromic displays, Electrochromic layers, Electrochromic materials, Granular morphology, Light-scattering materials, Optical and electrical properties, Reflecting surface, Refractive properties, Electrochromism
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32594 (URN)10.1039/c6tc03542f (DOI)2-s2.0-84992371722 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-07 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8485-6209

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