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Edberg, J., Boda, U., Mulla, Y., Brooke, R., Pantzare, S., Strandberg, J., . . . Armgarth, A. (2023). A Paper‐Based Triboelectric Touch Interface: Toward Fully Green and Recyclable Internet of Things. Advanced Sensor Research, 2(1), Article ID 2200015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Paper‐Based Triboelectric Touch Interface: Toward Fully Green and Recyclable Internet of Things
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Sensor Research, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 2200015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transition to a sustainable society is driving the development of green electronic solutions designed to have a minimal environmental impact. One promising route to achieve this goal is to construct electronics from biobased materials like cellulose, which is carbon neutral, non‐toxic, and recyclable. This is especially true for internet‐of‐things devices, which are rapidly growing in number and are becoming embedded in every aspect of our lives. Here, paper‐based sensor circuits are demonstrated, which use triboelectric pressure sensors to help elderly people communicate with the digital world using an interface in the form of an electronic “book”, which is more intuitive to them. The sensors are manufactured by screen printing onto flexible paper substrates, using in‐house developed cellulose‐based inks with non‐hazardous solvents. The triboelectric sensor signal, generated by the contact between a finger and chemically modified cellulose, can reach several volts, which can be registered by a portable microcontroller card and transmitted by Bluetooth to any device with an internet connection. Apart from the microcontroller (which can be easily removed), the whole system can be recycled at the end of life. A triboelectric touch interface, manufactured using printed electronics on flexible paper substrates, using cellulose‐based functional inks is demonstrated. These metal‐free green electronics circuits are implemented in an “electronic book” demonstrator, equipped with wireless communication that can control remote devices, as a step toward sustainable and recyclable internet‐of‐things devices.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63313 (URN)10.1002/adsr.202200015 (DOI)
Note

The authors would like to acknowledge funding from Vinnova through theD igital Cellulose Competence Center (DCC), Diary number 2016–05193, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (Smart Intra-body network; grant RIT15-0119), and the Norrköping municipality fund for research and development (Accessibility and remembering – storytelling and innovative media use in elderly care homes, 2020. Grant: KS 2020/0345). The work was also supported by Treesearch.se. The authors thank Patrik Isacsson and co-workers at Ahlstrom Munksjö for providing the paper substrates and for valuable know-how as part of the collaboration within DCC, as well as Erik Gabrielsson, Daniel Simon, Elisabet Cedersund, and Lars Herlogsson for their involvement in the work on the original Mediabook platform.

Available from: 2023-01-30 Created: 2023-01-30 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kim, N., Lienemann, S., Khan, Z., Greczynski, G., Rahmanudin, A., Vagin, M., . . . Tybrandt, K. (2023). An intrinsically stretchable symmetric organic battery based on plant-derived redox molecules. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 11(46), 25703-25714
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An intrinsically stretchable symmetric organic battery based on plant-derived redox molecules
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 11, no 46, p. 25703-25714Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intrinsically stretchable energy storage devices are essential for the powering of imperceptible wearable electronics. Organic batteries based on plant-derived redox-active molecules can offer critical advantages from a safety, sustainability, and economic perspective, but such batteries are not yet available in soft and stretchable form factors. Here we report an intrinsically stretchable organic battery made of elastomeric composite electrodes formulated with alizarin, a natural dye derived from the plant Rubia tinctorum, whose two quinone motifs enable its uses in both positive and negative electrodes. The quaternary biocomposite electrodes possess excellent electron-ion conduction/coupling and superior stretchability (>300%) owing to self-organized hierarchical morphology. In a full-cell configuration, its energy density of 3.8 mW h cm−3 was preserved at 100% strain, and assembled modules on stretchy textiles and rubber gloves can power integrated LEDs during various deformations. This work paves the way for low-cost, eco-friendly, and deformable batteries for next generation wearable electronics. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023
Keywords
Electrodes; Flow batteries; Molecules; Quinone; Redox reactions; Sustainable development; Textiles; Composites electrodes; Economic perspective; Elastomeric composite; Form factors; Natural dye; Organics; Positive electrodes; Redox active molecules; Redox molecules; Symmetrics; Wearable technology
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68834 (URN)10.1039/d3ta04153k (DOI)2-s2.0-85178244401 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2021-01668Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council, 2016-06146Swedish Research Council, 2018-03957Swedish Research Council, 2019-04424Swedish Research Council, 2020-05218Swedish Energy Agency, 51201-1ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 19-428
Note

We thank Mohsen Mohammadi, Sangmin Park, and Dr Robert Brooke for assistance with illustrations, Meysam Karami Rad for LabVIEW programming and help with the circuit tests, and Laura Seufert for assistance with the module demonstration. This work was financially supported by the ÅForsk Foundation (19-428), the Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linköping University (Faculty grant SFO-Mat-LiU no. 2009-00971), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (POC “paper batteries” and “high voltage aqueous electrolyte”), and the Swedish Research Council (starting grant no. 2020-05218, no. 2019-04424 and no. 2016-06146). G. G. acknowledges financial support from the Swedish Research Council (no. 2018-03957) and the Swedish Energy Agency grant 51201-1. A. R. acknowledges Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions Seal of Excellence Fellowship program from the Sweden's Innovation Agency (Vinnova grant no. 2021-01668). This work was partially supported by the Wallenberg Initiative Materials Science for Sustainability (WISE) funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.

Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Mulla, Y., Isacsson, P., Dobryden, I., Beni, V., Östmark, E., Håkansson, K. & Edberg, J. (2023). Bio-Graphene Sensors for Monitoring Moisture Levels in Wood and Ambient Environment. Global Challenges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-Graphene Sensors for Monitoring Moisture Levels in Wood and Ambient Environment
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2023 (English)In: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Wood is an inherently hygroscopic material which tends to absorb moisture from its surrounding. Moisture in wood is a determining factor for the quality of wood being employed in construction, since it causes weakening, deformation, rotting, and ultimately leading to failure of the structures resulting in costs to the economy, the environment, and to the safety of residents. Therefore, monitoring moisture in wood during the construction phase and after construction is vital for the future of smart and sustainable buildings. Employing bio-based materials for the construction of electronics is one way to mitigate the environmental impact of such electronics. Herein, a bio-graphene sensor for monitoring the moisture inside and around wooden surfaces is fabricated using laser-induced graphitization of a lignin-based ink precursor. The bio-graphene sensors are used to measure humidity in the range of 10% up to 90% at 25 °C. Using laser induced graphitization, conductor resistivity of 18.6 Ω sq−1 is obtained for spruce wood and 57.1 Ω sq−1 for pine wood. The sensitivity of sensors fabricated on spruce and pine wood is 2.6 and 0.74 MΩ per % RH. Surface morphology and degree of graphitization are investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis methods. © 2023 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
cellulose, humidity sensors, laser-induced graphene, lignin, moisture sensors, wood
National Category
Wood Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64231 (URN)10.1002/gch2.202200235 (DOI)2-s2.0-85148603362 (Scopus ID)
Note

Article; Export Date: 15 March 2023; Correspondence Address: J. Edberg, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden;

 The authors would like to acknowledge funding from Vinnova for the Digital Cellulose Competence Center (DCC), Diary number 2016–05193, as well as financial support from Stora Enso AB. The work was also supported by Treesearch.se. Dr. Robert Brooke is thankfully acknowledged for taking the picture and video for Figure 7 and Video S1 , Supporting Information respectively.

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Lay, M., Jain, K., Francon, H., Say, M., Belaineh Yilma, D., . . . Berggren, M. (2023). Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS composites and their applications. Polymer Reviews (2), 437
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS composites and their applications
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2023 (English)In: Polymer Reviews, ISSN 1558-3724, no 2, p. 437-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The need for achieving sustainable technologies has encouraged research on renewable and biodegradable materials for novel products that are clean, green, and environmentally friendly. Nanocellulose (NC) has many attractive properties such as high mechanical strength and flexibility, large specific surface area, in addition to possessing good wet stability and resistance to tough chemical environments. NC has also been shown to easily integrate with other materials to form composites. By combining it with conductive and electroactive materials, many of the advantageous properties of NC can be transferred to the resulting composites. Conductive polymers, in particular poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have been successfully combined with cellulose derivatives where suspensions of NC particles and colloids of PEDOT:PSS are made to interact at a molecular level. Alternatively, different polymerization techniques have been used to coat the cellulose fibrils. When processed in liquid form, the resulting mixture can be used as a conductive ink. This review outlines the preparation of NC/PEDOT:PSS composites and their fabrication in the form of electronic nanopapers, filaments, and conductive aerogels. We also discuss the molecular interaction between NC and PEDOT:PSS and the factors that affect the bonding properties. Finally, we address their potential applications in energy storage and harvesting, sensors, actuators, and bioelectronics. © 2022 The Author(s). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2023
Keywords
cellulose, composites, conductive polymers, nanocellulose, PEDOT, Aerogels, Chemical bonds, Chemical stability, Sols, Styrene, Suspensions (fluids), Biodegradable material, Conductive Polymer, Ethylenedioxythiophenes, High mechanical strength, Nano-cellulose, Poly(styrene sulfonate), Property, Renewable materials, Sustainable technology, Conducting polymers
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60200 (URN)10.1080/15583724.2022.2106491 (DOI)2-s2.0-85136111219 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Dimbleby Cancer Care, DCC, 2016–05193; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, GMT14-0058; Funding details: Wallenberg Wood Science Center, WWSC; Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge funding from Vinnova for the Digital Cellulose Competence Center (DCC), Diary number 2016–05193, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (GMT14-0058) and the Wallenberg Wood Science Centre.

Available from: 2022-09-22 Created: 2022-09-22 Last updated: 2023-06-30Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Petsagkourakis, I., Freitag, K., Mulla, M. Y., Nilsson, M., . . . Andersson Ersman, P. (2023). Paper Electronics Utilizing Screen Printing and Vapor Phase Polymerization. Advanced Sustainable Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paper Electronics Utilizing Screen Printing and Vapor Phase Polymerization
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The rise of paper electronics has been accelerated due to the public push for sustainability. Electronic waste can potentially be avoided if certain materials in electronic components can be substituted for greener alternatives such as paper. Within this report, it is demonstrated that conductive polymers poly(3,4-ethylenedoxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole, and polythiophene, can be synthesized by screen printing combined with vapor phase polymerization on paper substrates and further incorporated into functional electronic components. High patterning resolution (100 µm) is achieved for all conductive polymers, with PEDOT showing impressive sheet resistance values. PEDOT is incorporated as conductive circuitry and as the active material in all-printed electrochromic displays. The conductive polymer circuits allow for functional light emitting diodes, while the electrochromic displays are comparable to commercial displays utilizing PEDOT on plastic substrates. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
conductive polymers, paper electronics, PEDOT, printed electronics, vapor phase polymerization, Electrochromism, Network components, Polypyrroles, Screen printing, Substrates, Conductive Polymer, Electrochromic displays, Electronic component, Electronics wastes, Paper substrate, Synthesised, Polymerization
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64953 (URN)10.1002/adsu.202300058 (DOI)2-s2.0-85159261879 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Edberg, J.; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden; email: jesper.edberg@ri.se; Funding details: 2016‐05193; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, EM16‐0002; Funding details: Horizon 2020, 101008701;  This work was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (Diary number EM16‐0002), Vinnova for the Digital Cellulose Center (Diary number 2016‐05193) and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement 101008701 (EMERGE).

Available from: 2023-06-09 Created: 2023-06-09 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
Edberg, J., Mulla, Y., Hosseinaei, O., Ul Hassan Alvi, N. & Beni, V. (2022). A Forest-Based Triboelectric Energy Harvester. Global Challenges, 6(10), Article ID 2200058.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Forest-Based Triboelectric Energy Harvester
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2022 (English)In: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646, Vol. 6, no 10, article id 2200058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are a new class of energy harvesting devices that have the potential to become a dominating technology for producing renewable energy. The versatility of their designs allows TENGs to harvest mechanical energy from sources like wind and water. Currently used renewable energy technologies have a restricted number of materials from which they can be constructed, such as metals, plastics, semiconductors, and rare-earth metals. These materials are all non-renewable in themselves as they require mining/drilling and are difficult to recycle at end of life. TENGs on the other hand can be built from a large repertoire of materials, including materials from bio-based sources. Here, a TENG constructed fully from wood-derived materials like lignin, cellulose, paper, and cardboard, thus making it 100% green, recyclable, and even biodegradable, is demonstrated. The device can produce a maximum voltage, current, and power of 232 V, 17 mA m–2, and 1.6 W m–2, respectively, which is enough to power electronic systems and charge 6.5 µF capacitors. Finally, the device is used in a smart package application as a self-powered impact sensor. The work shows the feasibility of producing renewable energy technologies that are sustainable both with respect to their energy sources and their material composition. © 2022 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022
Keywords
cellulose, energy harvesting, green electronics, lignin, triboelectric nanogenerators
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61208 (URN)10.1002/gch2.202200058 (DOI)2-s2.0-85140055553 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Dimbleby Cancer Care, DCC, 2016–05193; Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge funding from Vinnova for the Digital Cellulose Competence Center (DCC), Diary number 2016–05193. The work was also supported by Treesearch.se. The authors thank Patrik Isacsson and co‐workers at Ahlstrom Munksjö for providing paper samples and for valuable know‐how as part of the collaboration within DCC, as well as Robert Brooke for making the graphics for the table of contents and the background image in the Smart Package App.

Available from: 2022-12-02 Created: 2022-12-02 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Karpenja, T., Granberg, H., Edberg, J. & Ahniyaz, A. (2022). Circularity of DCC materials – case study on three energy storage solutions.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circularity of DCC materials – case study on three energy storage solutions
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Due to growing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels and the capacity and resilience of energy grids around the world, engineers and policymakers are increasingly turning their attention to energy storage solutions1. In turn, the huge demand for materials for such storage systems will require a considerable energy input in extraction, processing and materials formulation, and new and sustainable electrochemical systems need to be developed2. Current report is the result of the exploration work where the circularity and environmental potentials of biobased energy storage solutions were analysed in the form of iterative interviews with stakeholders along the energy storage and packaging value chains, complemented by literature research. The work was performed within the scope of Digital Cellulose Center (DCC) research center3 in the sub-project 1 “Circularity of DCC materials” of the Theme 1: Design for a circular bioeconomy. Totally three systems were selected and analysed in the form of three respective case studies: • Case study I: Biobased battery (Chemical energy storage system) • Case study II: Biobased printed supercapacitor (Electrochemical energy storage system) • Case study III: Intelligent packaging (Chemical or electrochemical energy storage for fiber-based packaging) Each case study was put into the life cycle context where aspects such as legislation, circularity potential and potential environmental impact were discovered. The biobased battery for large-scale grid storage applications was classified as an industrial battery with collection rate requirement of 75% at end-of-life, of which 50% to be materially recycled. The biobased printed supercapacitor was classified as an electric and electronic equipment (EEE) with collection rate requirement of 65%, of which recovery and recycling / preparing for reuse targets vary between 55% - 85% depending on application. The material recycling target for the fiber-based intelligent packaging is 85% since being perceived as a paper-based packaging it would enter paper packaging recycling stream rather than entering the recycling stream of Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In next steps of this exploratory journey, the compositions of the respective energy storage solutions were identified, including biobased content and recycling potential on the short- and long-term, compared to their benchmark solutions where possible. Today, the material recycling processes for batteries and WEEE are strongly economically driven: the material components that are considered as valuable by recyclers are mainly base metals (e.g., aluminium, steel) and to low extent critical raw materials (e.g., cobalt, nickel). The biobased energy storage solutions though do not contain any critical raw materials and use base metals to a less extent. This is a dilemma where the material value of the biobased, renewable materials (more sustainable materials by origin) is not favourable in the end-of-life processes of today and therefore will be lost (i.e., incinerated). A more balanced approach to such dilemma is urged in order to facilitate both economic and environmental incentives in the energy storage value cycles. Current Battery and WEEE directives do not promote the recycling of materials that are critical or have a high environmental burden, which in practice results in loss of those materials, not least due to lack of economy in recycling processes. Moreover, the legislation needs to be adapted in order to meet innovative development in the area. It can be relevant to introduce a cross-sectoral category ‘Biobased energy storage solutions’ in the upcoming legislation with the aim to encourage use of more abundant, biobased materials and thus decouple energy storage applications from use of critical raw materials.

Publisher
p. 50
Keywords
Energy storage, biobased battery, printed supercapacitor, intelligent packaging, circular economy, recycling, environmental assessment, hotspots, biobased electronics, R&D, cellulose, MET matrix, ecodesign.
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58959 (URN)
Available from: 2022-03-28 Created: 2022-03-28 Last updated: 2023-06-09Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Åhlin, J., Hübscher, K., Hagel, O., Strandberg, J., Sawatdee, A. & Edberg, J. (2022). Large-scale paper supercapacitors on demand. Journal of Energy Storage, 50, Article ID 104191.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale paper supercapacitors on demand
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, article id 104191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Clean, sustainable electrical energy could be the next greatest challenge and opportunity of mankind. While the creation of clean energy has been proven, the storage of such energy requires much more research and development. Battery and energy storage technology today relies heavily on rare metals which cannot support large production needs of society. Therefore, the need for energy storage technology to be created sustainably is of great importance. Recently, conductive polymers, a class of organic materials, have shown impressive results in energy storage but requires further development if this technology is to be implemented in various energy storage applications. Here, we report a new ‘on demand’ design for supercapacitors that allows for individual devices in addition to devices in parallel and in series to increase the capacitance and voltage, respectively. The individual device showed impressive capacity up to 10 F while increasing the area with the large parallel device increased the capacitance to a record 127.8 F (332.8 mF/cm2). The ‘on demand’ design also allows paper supercapacitors to be in series to increase the operating voltage with an example device showing good charging behavior up to 5 V when 4 individual paper supercapacitors were arranged in series. Finally, the paper supercapacitors were incorporated into a prototype titled: ‘Norrkoping Starry Night’ which bridges the gap between art and science. An all-printed electrochromic display showing the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, complete with a touch sensor as an on/off switch and silicon solar cells to charge the paper supercapacitors is presented to bring several printed technologies together, highlighting the possibilities of the new paper supercapacitors within this report. © 2022

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Capacitance, Energy storage, Organic polymers, Storage (materials), Clean energy, Conductive Polymer, Electrical energy, Energy, Energy storage technologies, Individual devices, Large-scales, On demands, Rare metals, Research and development, Supercapacitor
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58770 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2022.104191 (DOI)2-s2.0-85124619801 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 2016–05193; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, GMT14–0058; Funding details: VINNOVA, 05193; Funding text 1: This work was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research ( GMT14–0058 ) and Vinnova through the Digital Cellulose Center (2016–05193). Authors of this manuscript were also supported by Treesearch.; Funding text 2: The authors would like to thank Patrik Arven for the work on the electrical components for the Norrkoping Starry night proof of concept device. This work was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (GMT14?0058) and Vinnova through the Digital Cellulose Center (2016?05193). Authors of this manuscript were also supported by Treesearch.

Available from: 2022-03-03 Created: 2022-03-03 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Belaineh Yilma, D., Brooke, R., Sani, N., Say, M., Håkansson, K. M., Engquist, I., . . . Edberg, J. (2022). Printable carbon-based supercapacitors reinforced with cellulose and conductive polymers. Journal of Energy Storage, 50, Article ID 104224.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printable carbon-based supercapacitors reinforced with cellulose and conductive polymers
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, article id 104224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable electrical energy storage is one of the most important scientific endeavors of this century. Battery and supercapacitor technologies are here crucial, but typically the current state of the art suffers from either lack of large-scale production possibilities, sustainability or insufficient performance and hence cannot match growing demands in society. Paper and cellulosic materials are mature scalable templates for industrial roll-to-roll production. Organic materials, such as conducting polymers, and carbon derivatives are materials that can be synthesized or derived from abundant sources. Here, we report the combination of cellulose, PEDOT:PSS and carbon derivatives for bulk supercapacitor electrodes adapted for printed electronics. Cellulose provides a mesoscopic mesh for the organization of the active ingredients. Furthermore, the PEDOT:PSS in combination with carbon provides superior device characteristics when comparing to the previously standard combination of activated carbon and carbon black. PEDOT:PSS acts as a mixed ion-electron conducting glue, which physically binds activated carbon particles together, while at the same time facilitating swift transport of both electrons and ions. A surprisingly small amount (10%) of PEDOT:PSS is needed to achieve an optimal performance. This work shows that cellulose added to PEDOT:PSS-carbon enables high-performing, mechanically stable, printed supercapacitor electrodes using a combination of printing methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Cellulose, Energy storage, PEDOT, Printed electronics, Screen printing, Supercapacitor, Activated carbon, Carbon black, Conducting polymers, Electrodes, 'current, Carbon-based, Cellulose polymers, Conductive Polymer, Electrical energy storages, PEDOT/PSS, State of the art, Supercapacitor electrodes, Organic Materials, Polymers, Production, Silk Screen Printing
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59014 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2022.104224 (DOI)2-s2.0-85124628899 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, GMT14-0058; Funding text 1: This work was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (GMT14-0058). The work was also supported by Treesearch (treesearch.se).

Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Isacsson, P., Jain, K., Fall, A., Chauve, V., Hajian, A., Granberg, H., . . . Wågberg, L. (2022). Production of energy-storage paper electrodes using a pilot-scale paper machine. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 10(40), 21579-21589
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of energy-storage paper electrodes using a pilot-scale paper machine
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 40, p. 21579-21589Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global efforts in electrifying our society drive the demand for low-cost and sustainable energy storage solutions. In the present work, a novel material concept was investigated to enable fabrication of several 10 meter-long rolls of supercapacitor paper electrodes on a pilot-scale paper machine. The material concept was based on cationized, cellulose-rich wood-derived fibres, conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, and activated carbon filler particles. Cationic fibres saturated with anionic PEDOT:PSS provide a conducting scaffold hosting the activated carbon, which functions as the active charge-storage material. The response from further additives was systematically investigated for several critical paper properties. Cellulose nanofibrils were found to improve mechanical properties, while carbon black enhanced both the conductivity and the storage capacity of the activated carbon, reaching a specific capacitance of 67 F g−1. This pilot trial shows that “classical” papermaking methods are fit for the purpose and provides valuable insights on how to further advance bio-based energy storage solutions for large-scale applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
Keywords
Activated carbon, Carbon black, Cellulose, Conducting polymers, Electrodes, Energy storage, Filled polymers, Fillers, Paper products, Papermaking, Papermaking machinery, Storage (materials), Wood, Carbon fillers, Cationized, Low-cost energy, Material concepts, Novel materials, Paper machine, PEDOT/PSS, Pilot scale, Storage solutions, Sustainable energy, Additives
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61214 (URN)10.1039/d2ta04431e (DOI)2-s2.0-85140059550 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: This work has been carried out in the Digital Cellulose Center, in which Agfa has kindly supplied PEDOT:PSS and Ahlstrom-Munksjö has kindly put their pilot paper machine to the project's disposal as well as offered analytical services (TGA, ionic demand and cross-section SEM/EDX). A special thanks to Robert Brooke at Research Institutes of Sweden who has created the conceptual visualization in Fig. 1B. We also acknowledge support from Treesearch, a collaboration platform for Swedish forest industrial research.

Available from: 2022-12-02 Created: 2022-12-02 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2904-7238

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