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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Theuer, L., Randek, J., Junne, S., Neubauer, P., Mandenius, C.-F. & Beni, V. (2020). Single-use printed biosensor for l-lactate and its application in bioprocess monitoring. Processes, 8(3), Article ID 321.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-use printed biosensor for l-lactate and its application in bioprocess monitoring
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2020 (English)In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 321Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a profound need in bioprocess manufacturing for low-cost single-use sensors that allow timely monitoring of critical product and production attributes. One such opportunity is screen-printed enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, which have the potential to enable low-cost online and/or off-line monitoring of specific parameters in bioprocesses. In this study, such a singleuse electrochemical biosensor for lactate monitoring is designed and evaluated. Several aspects of its fabrication and use are addressed, including enzyme immobilization, stability, shelf-life and reproducibility. Applicability of the biosensor to off-line monitoring of bioprocesses was shown by testing in two common industrial bioprocesses in which lactate is a critical quality attribute (Corynebacterium fermentation and mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation). The specific response to lactate of the screen-printed biosensor was characterized by amperometric measurements. The usability of the sensor at typical industrial culture conditions was favorably evaluated and benchmarked with commonly used standard methods (HPLC and enzymatic kits). The single-use biosensor allowed fast and accurate detection of lactate in prediluted culture media used in industrial practice. The design and fabrication of the biosensor could most likely be adapted to several other critical bioprocess analytes using other specific enzymes. This makes this single-use screen-printed biosensor concept a potentially interesting and versatile tool for further applications in bioprocess monitoring. © 2020 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2020
Keywords
At-line measurement, Enzyme electrode, In-line monitoring, Lactate biosensor, Off-line monitoring, Screen-printing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44692 (URN)10.3390/pr8030321 (DOI)2-s2.0-85081985509 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 643056; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sk?odowska-Curie actions grant agreement No. 643056 (BIORAPID). The authors also thank Fujifilm Diosynth Biotechnologies for providing the CHO cell line and the culture media formulation.

Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
Méhes, G., Vagin, M., Mulla, M., Granberg, H., Che, C., Beni, V., . . . Simon, D. (2020). Solar Heat-Enhanced Energy Conversion in Devices Based on Photosynthetic Membranes and PEDOT:PSS-Nanocellulose Electrodes. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 4(1), Article ID 1900100.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar Heat-Enhanced Energy Conversion in Devices Based on Photosynthetic Membranes and PEDOT:PSS-Nanocellulose Electrodes
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2020 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 1900100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting from photosynthetic membranes, proteins, or bacteria through bio-photovoltaic or bio-electrochemical approaches has been proposed as a new route to clean energy. A major shortcoming of these and solar cell technologies is the underutilization of solar irradiation wavelengths in the IR region, especially those in the far IR region. Here, a biohybrid energy-harvesting device is demonstrated that exploits IR radiation, via convection and thermoelectric effects, to improve the resulting energy conversion performance. A composite of nanocellulose and the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is used as the anode in biohybrid cells that includes thylakoid membranes (TMs) and redox mediators (RMs) in solution. By irradiating the conducting polymer electrode by an IR light-emitting diode, a sixfold enhancement in the harvested bio-photovoltaic power is achieved, without compromising stability of operation. Investigation of the output currents reveals that IR irradiation generates convective heat transfer in the electrolyte bulk, which enhances the redox reactions of RMs at the anode by suppressing diffusion limitations. In addition, a fast-transient thermoelectric component, originating from the PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose-electrolyte interphase, further increases the bio-photocurrent. These results pave the way for the development of energy-harvesting biohybrids that make use of heat, via IR absorption, to enhance energy conversion efficiency. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2020
Keywords
bio-photoelectrochemical cells, bio-photovoltaic cells, energy harvesting, infrared, nanocellulose, PEDOT:PSS, thylakoid membranes
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43361 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201900100 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077874472 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 2017-03121; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF; Funding details: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; Funding text 1: Major funding for this project was provided by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. Additional funding was provided by the ?nnesj? Foundation and the Research Institutes of Sweden (project: Bio-based electronics). G.M. was also supported by a grant from the Swedish MSCA Seal of Excellence program. G.M. was also supported by a grant from the Swedish MSCA Seal of Excellence program (Vinnova grant 2017-03121). The authors wish to thank Prof. Hans-Erik ?kerlund for advice on extraction of TMs; Dr. Jesper Edberg and Dr. Zia Ullah Khan for advice on PEDOT:PSS-CNF and PEDOT:PSS films; Dr. Pawel Wojcik for providing electrochemical setups for testing and related advice; Dr. Robert Brooke for providing GL/ITO substrates; Gustav Knutsson, Dr. Daniel Tordera, and Dr. Francesco Milano for providing experimental help and/or advice regarding excitation and heat sources; Thor Balkhed for help with video editing; and Dr. Eliot Gomez, Dr. Iwona Bernacka-Wojcik, Assoc. Prof. Magnus Jonsson, and Johannes Gladisch for fruitful discussions.

Available from: 2020-01-29 Created: 2020-01-29 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
Di Lauro, M., la Gatta, S., Bortolotti, C., Beni, V., Parkula, V., Drakopoulou, S., . . . Biscarini, F. (2019). A Bacterial Photosynthetic Enzymatic Unit Modulating Organic Transistors with Light. Advanced Electronic Materials, Article ID 1900888.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Bacterial Photosynthetic Enzymatic Unit Modulating Organic Transistors with Light
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2019 (English)In: Advanced Electronic Materials, ISSN 2199-160X, article id 1900888Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The photochemical core of every photosynthetic apparatus is the reaction center, a transmembrane enzyme that converts photons into charge-separated states across the biological membrane with an almost unitary quantum yield. A light-responsive organic transistor architecture, which converts light into electrical current by exploiting the efficiency of this biological machinery, is presented. Proper surface tailoring enables the integration of the bacterial reaction center as photoactive element in organic transistors, allowing the transduction of its photogenerated voltage into photomodulation of the output current up to two orders of magnitude. This device architecture, termed light-responsive electrolyte-gated organic transistor, is the prototype of a new generation of low-power hybrid bio-optoelectronic organic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2019
Keywords
biophotonics, electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors, near-infrared light conversion, organic electro-chemical transistors, photosynthetic reaction centers, Bacteria, Biological membranes, Cytology, Electrolytes, Infrared devices, Light, Machinery, Organic field effect transistors, Photonics, Photosynthesis, Quantum theory, Bio photonics, Charge-separated state, Device architectures, Near infrared light, Orders of magnitude, Photoactive elements, Photosynthetic apparatus, Photosynthetic reaction center, Transistors
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42107 (URN)10.1002/aelm.201900888 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075753705 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Amin, S., Tahira, A., Solangi, A., Beni, V., Morante, J., Liu, X., . . . Vomiero, A. (2019). A practical non-enzymatic urea sensor based on NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles. RSC Advances, 9(25), 14443-14451
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A practical non-enzymatic urea sensor based on NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles
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2019 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 25, p. 14443-14451Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a new facile electrochemical sensing platform for determination of urea, based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo 2 O 4 ) nanoneedles. These nanoneedles are used for the first time for highly sensitive determination of urea with the lowest detection limit (1 μM) ever reported for the non-enzymatic approach. The nanoneedles were grown through a simple and low-temperature aqueous chemical method. We characterized the structural and morphological properties of the NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles by TEM, SEM, XPS and XRD. The bimetallic nickel cobalt oxide exhibits nanoneedle morphology, which results from the self-assembly of nanoparticles. The NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles are exclusively composed of Ni, Co, and O and exhibit a cubic crystalline phase. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the enhanced electrochemical properties of a NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle-modified GCE by overcoming the typical poor conductivity of bare NiO and Co 3 O 4 . The GCE-modified electrode is highly sensitive towards urea, with a linear response (R 2 = 0.99) over the concentration range 0.01-5 mM and with a detection limit of 1.0 μM. The proposed non-enzymatic urea sensor is highly selective even in the presence of common interferents such as glucose, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. This new urea sensor has good viability for urea analysis in urine samples and can represent a significant advancement in the field, owing to the simple and cost-effective fabrication of electrodes, which can be used as a promising analytical tool for urea estimation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
Keywords
Ascorbic acid, Cobalt compounds, Cost effectiveness, Cyclic voltammetry, Glass membrane electrodes, Metabolism, Nanoneedles, Nickel oxide, Self assembly, Temperature, Urea, Concentration ranges, Cost-effective fabrication, Cubic crystalline, Electrochemical sensing, Glassy carbon electrodes, Modified electrodes, Nickel cobalt oxides, Structural and morphological properties, Urea electrodes
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38918 (URN)10.1039/c9ra00909d (DOI)2-s2.0-85065663040 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Luleå Tekniska Universitet, ICN2; Funding details: SEV-2013-0295; Funding details: Generalitat de Catalunya, 2014 SGR 1638; Funding details: European Commission, GA 654002; Funding details: Kempestiftelserna; Funding details: MAT2014-59961-C2; Funding text 1: S. A. acknowledges the Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazir abad for nancial support during the study visit at the LuleåUniversity of Technology Sweden as part of her PhD program. A. V. acknowledges the European Commission under grant agreement GA 654002, the Wallen-berg Foundation, the Swedish Foundations, the Kempe Foundation, the LTU Lab fund program and the LTU Seed project for partial funding. The authors are grateful to Prof. I. Lundström for his suggestions and constructive discussions during the preparation of the manuscript. ICN2 and IREC acknowledge funding from Generalitat de Catalunya 2014 SGR 1638 and the Spanish MINECO coordinated projects TNT-FUELS and e-TNT (MAT2014-59961-C2). ICN2 acknowledges support from the Severo Ochoa Programme (MINECO, Grant no. SEV-2013-0295) and is funded by the CERCA Programme/ Generalitat de Catalunya. Part of the present work has been performed in the framework of UniversitatAutònoma de Barcelona Materials Science PhD program.

Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Hernandez, C. A., Beni, V. & Osma, J. F. (2019). Fully Automated Microsystem for Unmediated Electrochemical Characterization, Visualization and Monitoring of Bacteria on Solid Media; E. coli K-12: A Case Study.. Biosensors, 9(4), Article ID E131.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fully Automated Microsystem for Unmediated Electrochemical Characterization, Visualization and Monitoring of Bacteria on Solid Media; E. coli K-12: A Case Study.
2019 (English)In: Biosensors, ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 9, no 4, article id E131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present a non-fluidic microsystem for the simultaneous visualization and electrochemical evaluation of confined, growing bacteria on solid media. Using a completely automated platform, real-time monitoring of bacterial and image-based computer characterization of growth were performed. Electrochemical tests, using Escherichia coli K-12 as the model microorganism, revealed the development of a faradaic process at the bacteria-microelectrode interface inside the microsystem, as implied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectrometry measurements. The electrochemical information was used to determine the moment in which bacteria colonized the electrode-enabled area of the microsystem. This microsystem shows potential advantages for long-term electrochemical monitoring of the extracellular environment of cell culture and has been designed using readily available technologies that can be easily integrated in routine protocols. Complementarily, these methods can help elucidate fundamental questions of the electron transfer of bacterial cultures and are potentially feasible to be integrated into current characterization techniques.

Keywords
automated system, bacteria, bio-electrochemical systems, cyclic voltammetry, direct electron transfer, electrochemical impedance spectrometry, microscopy, microsystem
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42538 (URN)10.3390/bios9040131 (DOI)31689950 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074741651 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-02-07Bibliographically approved
Cherian, D., Armgarth, A., Beni, V., Linderhed, U., Tybrandt, K., Nilsson, D., . . . Berggren, M. (2019). Large-area printed organic electronic ion pumps [Letter to the editor]. Flexible and Printed Electronics, 4(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-area printed organic electronic ion pumps
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2019 (English)In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Biological systems use a large variety of ions and molecules of different sizes for signaling. Precise electronic regulation of biological systems therefore requires an interface which translates the electronic signals into chemically specific biological signals. One technology for this purpose that has been developed during the last decade is the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). To date, OEIPs have been fabricated by micropatterning and labor-intensive manual techniques, hindering the potential application areas of this promising technology. Here we show, for the first time, fully screen-printed OEIPs. We demonstrate a large-area printed design with manufacturing yield >90%. Screen-printed cation- and anion-exchange membranes are both demonstrated with promising ion selectivity and performance, with transport verified for both small ions (Na+, K+, Cl) and biologically-relevant molecules (the cationic neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the anionic anti-inflammatory salicylic acid). These advances open the 'iontronics' toolbox to the world of printed electronics, paving the way for a broader arena for applications.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39699 (URN)10.1088/2058-8585/ab17b1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070647335 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Sensi, M., Berto, M., Candini, A., Liscio, A., Cossarizza, A., Beni, V., . . . Bortolotti, C. A. (2019). Modulating the Faradic Operation of All-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors by Facile in Situ Modification of the Gate Electrode. ACS Omega, 4(3), 5374-5381
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modulating the Faradic Operation of All-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors by Facile in Situ Modification of the Gate Electrode
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2019 (English)In: ACS Omega, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 5374-5381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) operated in the faradic regime were shown as outperforming transducers of bioelectric signals in vitro and in vivo. Fabrication by additive manufacturing techniques fosters OECTs as ideal candidates for point-of-care applications, as well as imposes limitations on the choice of materials and their processing conditions. Here, we address the question of how the response of fully printed OECTs depends on gate electrode material. Toward this end, we investigate the redox processes underlying the operation of OECTs under faradic regime, to show OECTs with carbon gate (C-gate) that exhibit no current modulation gate voltages <1.2 V. This is a hallmark that no interference with the faradic operation of the device enabled by redox processes occurs when operating C-gate OECTs in the low-voltage range as label-free biosensors for the detection of electroactive (bio)molecules. To tune the faradic response of the device, we electrodeposited Au on the carbon gate (Au-C-gate), obtaining a device that operates at lower gate voltage values than C-gate OECT. The presence of gold on the gate allowed further modification of the electrical performances by functionalization of the Au-C-gate with different self-assembled monolayers by fast potential-pulse-assisted method. Moreover, we show that the presence in the electrolyte solution of an external redox probe can be used to drive the faradic response of both C- and Au-C-gate OECTs, impacting on the gate potential window that yields effective drain current modulation. The results presented here suggest possible new strategies for controlling the faradic operation regime of OECTs sensors by chemical modification of the gate surface.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38217 (URN)10.1021/acsomega.8b03319 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062939825 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Berto, M., Diacci, C., Theuer, L., Di Lauro, M., Simon, D. T., Berggren, M., . . . Bortolotti, C. A. (2018). Label free urea biosensor based on organic electrochemical transistors. Flexible and Printed Electronics, 3(2), Article ID 024001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Label free urea biosensor based on organic electrochemical transistors
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2018 (English)In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The quantification of urea is of the utmost importance not only in medical diagnosis, where it serves as a potential indicator of kidney and liver disfunction, but also in food safety and environmental control. Here, we describe a urea biosensor based on urease entrapped in a crosslinked gelatin hydrogel, deposited onto a fully printed PEDOT:PSS-based organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). The device response is based on the modulation of the channel conductivity by the ionic species produced upon urea hydrolysis catalyzed by the entrapped urease. The biosensor shows excellent reproducibility, a limit of detection as low as 1 μM and a response time of a few minutes. The fabrication of the OECTs by screen-printing on flexible substrates ensures a significant reduction in manufacturing time and costs. The low dimensionality and operational voltages (0.5 V or below) of these devices contribute to make these enzymatic OECT-based biosensors as appealing candidates for high-throughput monitoring of urea levels at the point-of-care or in the field.

Keywords
gelatin, OECT, organic bioelectronics, screen-printing, urease, Biosensors, Conducting polymers, Diagnosis, Environmental management, Screen printing, Substrates, Urea, Cross-linked gelatins, Environmental control, Organic electrochemical transistors, Potential indicators, Metabolism
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34442 (URN)10.1088/2058-8585/aac8a8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049806215 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding for CD, VB, DTS and MB was provided by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (Smart Intra-body network; grant RIT15-0119) for the financial support. Funding for LT was provided by the BIORAPID project (EU H2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 643056) for financial support. CAB acknowledges the ‘Fondazione di Vig-nola’ for support. The authors would also like to acknowledge Ms Marie Nilsson for mask design and OECT fabrication.

Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Özgür, E., Parlak, O., Beni, V., Turner, A. P. F. & Uzun, L. (2017). Bioinspired design of a polymer-based biohybrid sensor interface. Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, 251, 674-682
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioinspired design of a polymer-based biohybrid sensor interface
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2017 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 251, p. 674-682Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The key step in the construction of efficient and selective analytical separations or sensors is the design of the recognition interface. Biomimicry of the recognition features typically found in biological molecules, using amino acids, peptides and nucleic acids, provides plausible opportunities to integrate biological molecules or their active sites into a synthetic polymeric backbone. Given the basic role of functional amino acids in biorecognition, we focused on the synthesis of polymerizable amino acid derivatives and their incorporation into a polymer-based biohybrid interface to construct generic bioinspired analytical tools. We also utilized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial polymer to adjust the porosity of these biohybrid interfaces. The surface morphologies of the interfaces on gold electrodes were characterized by using scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. The electrochemical behavior of the polymeric films was systematically investigated using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to demonstrate the high affinity of the biohybrid interfaces for Cu(II) ions. The presence of macropores also significantly improved the recognition performance of the interfaces while enhancing interactions between the target [Cu(II) ions] and the functional groups. As a final step, we showed the applicability of the proposed analytical platform to create a Cu(II) ion-mediated supramolecular self-assembly on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode surface in real time.

Keywords
Amino acid, Biomimicry, Macroporosity, Polymeric film, Supramolecular self-assembly
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30785 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2017.05.030 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019693981 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 629251, EC, European Commission; Funding details: VR-2011-6058357, VR, Vetenskapsrådet; Funding text: The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Research Council (VR-2011-6058357) for generous financial support for this research. L. Uzun thanks to the European Commission for Marie Curie fellowship (MIFs4BioMed) with grant agreement number: 629251.

Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Golabi, M., Kuralay, F., Jager, E. W. H., Beni, V. & Turner, A. P. F. (2017). Electrochemical bacterial detection using poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid)-based imprinted polymer. Biosensors & bioelectronics, 93, 87-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical bacterial detection using poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid)-based imprinted polymer
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2017 (English)In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 93, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biosensors can deliver the rapid bacterial detection that is needed in many fields including food safety, clinical diagnostics, biosafety and biosecurity. Whole-cell imprinted polymers have the potential to be applied as recognition elements in biosensors for selective bacterial detection. In this paper, we report on the use of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) for the electrochemical fabrication of a cell-imprinted polymer (CIP). The use of a monomer bearing a boronic acid group, with its ability to specifically interact with cis-diol, allowed the formation of a polymeric network presenting both morphological and chemical recognition abilities. A particularly beneficial feature of the proposed approach is the reversibility of the cis-diol-boronic group complex, which facilitates easy release of the captured bacterial cells and subsequent regeneration of the CIP. Staphylococcus epidermidis was used as the model target bacteria for the CIP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was explored for the label-free detection of the target bacteria. The modified electrodes showed a linear response over the range of 103–107 cfu/mL. A selectivity study also showed that the CIP could discriminate its target from non-target bacteria having similar shape. The CIPs had high affinity and specificity for bacterial detection and provided a switchable interface for easy removal of bacterial cell.

Keywords
3-Aminophenylboronic acid, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Label-free detection, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Whole-cell imprinted polymers, Bacteria, Biosensors, Complex networks, Polymers, Spectroscopy, Chemical recognition, Clinical diagnostics, Electrochemical fabrication, Imprinted polymers, Rapid bacterial detections, Chemical detection
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29307 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2016.09.088 (DOI)2-s2.0-85001760499 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2020-04-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6889-0351

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