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Publications (10 of 236) Show all publications
Liu, Y., Voigt, T., Wirstrom, N. & Hoglund, J. (2019). ECOVIBE: On-Demand Sensing for Railway Bridge Structural Health Monitoring. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 6(1), 1068-1078, Article ID 8445576.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ECOVIBE: On-Demand Sensing for Railway Bridge Structural Health Monitoring
2019 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1068-1078, article id 8445576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy efficient sensing is one of the main objectives in the design of networked embedded monitoring systems. However, existing approaches such as duty cycling and ambient energy harvesting face challenges in railway bridge health monitoring applications due to the unpredictability of train passages and insufficient ambient energy around bridges. This paper presents ECOVIBE (Eco-friendly Vibration), an on-demand sensing system that automatically turns on itself when a train passes on the bridge and adaptively powers itself off after finishing all tasks. After that, it goes into an inactive state with near-zero power dissipation. ECOVIBE achieves these by: Firstly, a novel, fully passive event detection circuit to continuously detect passing trains without consuming any energy. Secondly, combining train-induced vibration energy harvesting with a transistor-based load switch, a tiny amount of energy is sufficient to keep ECOVIBE active for a long time. Thirdly, a passive adaptive off control circuit is introduced to quickly switch off ECOVIBE. Also this circuit does not consume any energy during inactivity periods. We present the prototype implementation of the proposed system using commercially available components and evaluate its performance in real-world scenarios. Our results show that ECOVIBE is effective in railway bridge health monitoring applications.

Keywords
Bridge circuits, Event detection, Internet of Things, Monitoring, on-demand sensing, Sensors, smart transportation., structural health monitoring, Structural panels, vibration energy harvesting, Vibrations, Embedded systems, Energy efficiency, Energy harvesting, Railroad bridges, Railroads, On demands, Smart transportations
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35159 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2018.2867086 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052713646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Hazra, S., Duquennoy, S., Wang, P., Voigt, T., Lu, C. & Cederholm, D. (2019). Handling inherent delays in virtual IoT gateways. In: Proceedings - 15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019: . Paper presented at 15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019, 29 May 2019 through 31 May 2019 (pp. 58-65). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handling inherent delays in virtual IoT gateways
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 58-65Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Massive deployment of diverse ultra-low power wireless devices in different application areas has given rise to a plethora of heterogeneous architectures and communication protocols. It is challenging to provide convergent access to these miscellaneous collections of communicating devices. In this paper, we propose VGATE, an edge-based virtualized IoT gateway for bringing these devices together in a single framework using SDRs as technology agnostic radioheads. SDR platforms, however, suffer from large unpredictable delays. We design a GNU Radio-based IEEE 802.15.4 experimental setup using LimeSDR, where the data path is time-stamped at various points of interest to get a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the delays. Our analysis shows that GNU Radio processing and LimeSDR buffering delays are the major delays. We decrease the LimeSDR buffering delay by decreasing the USB transfer size but show that this comes at the cost of increased processing overhead. We modify the USB transfer packet size to investigate which USB transfer size provides the best balance between buffering delay and processing overhead across two different host computers. Our experiments show that for the best measured configuration the mean and jitter of latency decreases by 37% and 40% respectively for the host computer with higher processing resources. We also show that the throughput is not affected by these modifications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Edge Computing, IEEE 802.15.4, Internet of Things, RAN Virtualization, Software Radio, Distributed computer systems, Gateways (computer networks), IEEE Standards, Lime, Network architecture, Open source software, System buses, Application area, Heterogeneous architectures, Massive deployment, Points of interest, Processing overhead, Processing resources, Ultra low power
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39927 (URN)10.1109/DCOSS.2019.00031 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071950502 (Scopus ID)9781728105703 (ISBN)
Conference
15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019, 29 May 2019 through 31 May 2019
Note

 Funding details: 5G-CORAL; Funding text 1: This work has been partially funded by the H2020 collaborative Europe/Taiwan research project 5G-CORAL (grant num. 761586).

Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-10-15 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Brachmann, M., Duquennoy, S., Tsiftes, N. & Voigt, T. (2019). IEEE 802.15. 4 TSCH in Sub-GHz: Design Considerations and Multi-band Support. In: Proceedings of LCN 44: . Paper presented at LCN 44: 44th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN).October 14-17, 2019, Osnabrück, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IEEE 802.15. 4 TSCH in Sub-GHz: Design Considerations and Multi-band Support
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of LCN 44, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we address the support of TimeSlotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) on multiple frequency bandswithin a single TSCH network. This allows to simultaneously runapplications with different requirements on link characteristicsand to increase resilience against interference. To this end, wefirst enable sub-GHz communication in TSCH, which has beenprimarily defined for the 2.4 GHz band. Thereafter, we proposetwo designs to support multiple physical layers in TSCH on thesame nodes. Our experimental evaluation shows that TSCH isapplicable in a wide range of data rates between 1.2 kbps and1000 kbps. We find that data rates of 50 kbps and below have along communication range and a nearly perfect link symmetry,but also have a 20x higher channel utilization compared to higherdata rates, increasing the risk of collisions. Using these findings,we show the advantages of the multi-band support on the exampleof synchronization accuracy when exchanging TSCH beaconswith a low data rate and application data at a high data rate.Index Terms—Sub-GHz communication, IEEE 802.15.4,TSCH, multi-band support, timeslot duration

Keywords
Sub-GHz communication, IEEE 802.15.4, TSCH, multi-band support, timeslot duration
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40903 (URN)
Conference
LCN 44: 44th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN).October 14-17, 2019, Osnabrück, Germany
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 761586Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Mottola, L., Picco, G. P., Oppermann, F. J., Eriksson, J., Finne, N., Fuchs, H., . . . Voigt, T. (2019). MakeSense: Simplifying the Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Business Processes. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 45(6), 576-596, Article ID 8240710.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MakeSense: Simplifying the Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Business Processes
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 576-596, article id 8240710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wide gap exists between the state of the art in developing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software and current practices concerning the design, execution, and maintenance of business processes. WSN software is most often developed based on low-level OS abstractions, whereas business process development leverages high-level languages and tools. This state of affairs places WSNs at the fringe of industry. The makeSense system addresses this problem by simplifying the integration of WSNs into business processes. Developers use BPMN models extended with WSN-specific constructs to specify the application behavior across both traditional business process execution environments and the WSN itself, which is to be equipped with application-specific software. We compile these models into a high-level intermediate language-Also directly usable by WSN developers-And then into OS-specific deployment-ready binaries. Key to this process is the notion of meta-Abstraction, which we define to capture fundamental patterns of interaction with and within the WSN. The concrete realization of meta-Abstractions is application-specific; developers tailor the system configuration by selecting concrete abstractions out of the existing codebase or by providing their own. Our evaluation of makeSense shows that i) users perceive our approach as a significant advance over the state of the art, providing evidence of the increased developer productivity when using makeSense; ii) in large-scale simulations, our prototype exhibits an acceptable system overhead and good scaling properties, demonstrating the general applicability of makeSense; and, iii) our prototype-including the complete tool-chain and underlying system support-sustains a real-world deployment where estimates by domain specialists indicate the potential for drastic reductions in the total cost of ownership compared to wired and conventional WSN-based solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Business processes, embedded software, internet of things, wireless sensor networks, Abstracting, Application programs, Computer software, Concretes, High level languages, Industry, Mathematical programming, Ventilation, Application behaviors, Application specific, Business process execution, Intermediate languages, Large scale simulations, Real world deployment, System configurations, Total cost of ownership
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40924 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2017.2787585 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040028248 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Seventh Framework Programme, 258351, FP7-ICT-2009-5; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the European Union 7th Framework Programme (FP7-ICT-2009-5) under grant agreement n. 258351 (project makeSense).

Available from: 2019-12-10 Created: 2019-12-10 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Hylamia, S., Yan, W., Rohner, C. & Voigt, T. (2019). Tiek: Two-tier Authentication and Key Distribution for Wearable Devices. In: 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob): . Paper presented at 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob) (pp. 1-6).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tiek: Two-tier Authentication and Key Distribution for Wearable Devices
2019 (English)In: 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wearable devices, such as implantable medical devices and smart wearables, are becoming increasingly popular with applications that vary from casual activity monitoring to critical medical uses. Unsurprisingly, numerous security vulnerabilities have been found in this class of devices. Yet, research on physical measurement-based authentication and key distribution assumes that body-worn devices are benign and uncompromised. Tiek is a novel authentication and key distribution protocol which addresses this issue. We utilize two sources of randomness to perform device authentication and key distribution simultaneously but through separate means. This creates a two-tier authorization scheme that enables devices to join the network while protecting them from each other. We describe Tiek and analyze its security.

Keywords
Authentication, Protocols, Communication system security, Wireless communication, Biomedical monitoring, Physiology
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42601 (URN)10.1109/WiMOB.2019.8923555 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077523014 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Pérez-Penichet, C., Noda, C., Varshney, A. & Voigt, T. (2018). Battery-free 802.15.4 Receiver. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks: . Paper presented at 2018 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN) (pp. 164-175).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery-free 802.15.4 Receiver
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 2018, p. 164-175Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the architecture of an 802.15.4 receiver that, for the first time, operates at a few hundred microwatts, enabling new battery-free applications. To reach the required micro-power consumption, the architecture diverges from that of commodity receivers in two important ways. First, it offloads the power-hungry local oscillator to an external device, much like backscatter transmitters do. Second, we avoid the energy cost of demodulating a phase-modulated signal by treating 802.15.4 as a frequency-modulated one, which allows us to receive with a simple passive detector and an energy-efficient thresholding circuit. We describe a prototype that can receive 802.15.4 frames with a power consumption of 361 μW. Our receiver prototype achieves sufficient communication range to integrate with deployed wireless sensor networks (WSNs).We illustrate this integration by pairing the prototype with an 802.15.4 backscatter transmitter and integrating it with unmodified 802.15.4 sensor nodes running the TSCH and Glossy protocols.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36462 (URN)10.1109/IPSN.2018.00045 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056287378 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Pérez-Penichet, C., Varshney, A., Noda, C. & Voigt, T. (2018). Battery-free 802.15.4 Receiver. In: : . Paper presented at 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, IPSN 2018; Porto; Portugal; 11 April 2018 through 13 April 2018 (pp. 164-175).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery-free 802.15.4 Receiver
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the architecture of an 802.15.4 receiver that, for the rsttime, operates at a few hundred microwatts, enabling new batteryfreeapplications. To reach the required micro-power consumption,the architecture diverges from that of commodity receivers in twoimportant ways. First, it ooads the power-hungry local oscillatorto an external device, much like backscatter transmitters do. Second,we avoid the energy cost of demodulating a phase-modulatedsignal by treating 802.15.4 as a frequency-modulated one, whichallows us to receive with a simple passive detector and an energyecientthresholding circuit. We describe a prototype that canreceive 802.15.4 frames with a power consumption of 361 µW. Ourreceiver prototype achieves sucient communication range to integratewith deployed wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We illustratethis integration by pairing the prototype with an 802.15.4 backscattertransmitter and integrating it with unmodied 802.15.4 sensornodes running the TSCH and Glossy protocols.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34097 (URN)10.1109/IPSN.2018.00045 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056287378 (Scopus ID)9781538652985 (ISBN)
Conference
17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, IPSN 2018; Porto; Portugal; 11 April 2018 through 13 April 2018
Available from: 2018-07-09 Created: 2018-07-09 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Pérez-Penichet, C., Noda, C., Varshney, A. & Voigt, T. (2018). Battery-free 802.15.4 Receiver: Demo Abstract. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks: . Paper presented at 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (pp. 130-131).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery-free 802.15.4 Receiver: Demo Abstract
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 2018, p. 130-131Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the architecture for an 802.15.4 receiver that enables battery-free operation. To reach micro-power consumption, the architecture diverges from that of commodity receivers in the following ways: First, similar to backscatter transmitters, it offloads the power-hungry local oscillator to an external device. Second, we avoid the energy cost of demodulating a phase-modulated signal by treating 802.15.4 as a frequency-modulated one, allowing us to receive with a simple passive detector and an energy-efficient thresholding circuit. We demonstrate an off-the-shelf prototype of our receiver receives 802.15.4 from a distance of 470 cm with the carrier generator 30 cm away. This range is sufficient to integrate with deployed wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We demonstrate this integration by pairing our receiver with a 802.15.4 backscatter transmitter and integrating it with unmodified commodity sensor nodes running the TSCH protocol.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36458 (URN)10.1109/IPSN.2018.00028 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056289842 (Scopus ID)
Conference
17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Giustiniano, D., Varshney, A. & Voigt, T. (2018). Connecting Battery-free IoT Tags Using LED Bulbs. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks: . Paper presented at HotNets '18 Proceedings of the 17th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks Redmond, WA, USA — November 15 - 16, 2018 (pp. 99-105).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connecting Battery-free IoT Tags Using LED Bulbs
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, 2018, p. 99-105Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We introduce BackVLC, a system to connect battery-free IoT tags using LED bulbs. We make use of bulbs beyond illumination. We send data to the tags with visible light communication (VLC), and retrofit the bulbs with simple circuitry to enable the uplink channel current VLC systems lack, using Radio Frequency (RF) backscatter communication from the tags. Tags process and send data, harvesting energy from light and radio. We present our system design and implementation, evaluate it in preliminary simulation studies and experiments, and discuss the research challenges to develop a complete network architecture. BackVLC is the first work that combines VLC with RF backscatter.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36456 (URN)10.1145/3286062.3286077 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058384378 (Scopus ID)
Conference
HotNets '18 Proceedings of the 17th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks Redmond, WA, USA — November 15 - 16, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Hylamia, A., Spanghero, M., Varshney, A., Voigt, T. & Papadimitratos, P. (2018). Demo: Security on Harvested Power. In: : . Paper presented at WiSec ’18, June 18–20, 2018, Stockholm, Sweden (pp. 296-298).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demo: Security on Harvested Power
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Security mechanisms for battery-free devices have to operate un-der severe energy constraints relying on harvested energy. Thisis challenging, as the energy harvested from the ambient environ-ment is usually scarce, intermittent and unpredictable. One of thechallenges for developing security mechanisms for such settingsis the lack of hardware platforms that recreate energy harvest-ing conditions experienced on a battery-free sensor node. In thisdemonstration, we present an energy harvesting security (EHS)platform that enables the development of security algorithms forbattery-free sensors. Our results demonstrate that our platform isable to harvest sufficient energy from indoor lighting to supportseveral widely used cryptography algorithmsSecurity on Harvested Power.

Keywords
Energy-harvesting, battery-free, embedded systems security, plat-forms
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34321 (URN)10.1145/3212480.3226105 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050910546 (Scopus ID)9781450357319 (ISBN)
Conference
WiSec ’18, June 18–20, 2018, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2586-8573

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