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Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Dahlbom, S. & Mallin, T. (2024). A holistic approach on the transition to fluorine free firefighting foams : Firefighting performance and PFAS decontamination. In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Nordic Fire & Safety: . Paper presented at Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2024 in Lund, Sweden. 18-19 June, 2024 (pp. 137). RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A holistic approach on the transition to fluorine free firefighting foams : Firefighting performance and PFAS decontamination
2024 (English)In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Nordic Fire & Safety, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2024, p. 137-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2024
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2024:149
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-73669 (URN)10.23699/yns7-3n56 (DOI)978-91-89971-08-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2024 in Lund, Sweden. 18-19 June, 2024
Available from: 2024-06-25 Created: 2024-06-25 Last updated: 2024-06-25Bibliographically approved
Dahlbom, S., Bjarnemark, F., Nguyen, B., Petronis, S. & Mallin, T. (2024). Analysis of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) extraction from contaminated firefighting materials: Effects of cleaning agent, temperature, and chain-length dependencies. Emerging Contaminants, 10(3), 100335-100335, Article ID 100335.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) extraction from contaminated firefighting materials: Effects of cleaning agent, temperature, and chain-length dependencies
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2024 (English)In: Emerging Contaminants, ISSN 2405-6650, E-ISSN 2405-6642, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 100335-100335, article id 100335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This investigation delves into the extraction dynamics of 22 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances from PFAS contaminated firefighting materials. Two distinct test sets were executed: one contrasting a commercial product with water following an elaborate decontamination procedure, and the other assessing seven washing agents on materials from firefighting installations, with one agent examined at 22 °C and 50 °C. A general tendency for improved desorption at the higher temperature was observed. Furthermore, a discernible influence of the cleaning agent's pH on the extraction of specific PFAS species was observed, elucidating the role of chemical environment in the extraction process. PFAS rebound was studied for a period of up to 157 days, this unveiled a gradual escalation in PFAS22 levels, indicative of a protracted desorption mechanism. Intriguingly, PFAS with abbreviated carbon chains (C4–C6) exhibit superior desorption efficiency compared to their elongated congeners, suggesting a chain-length-dependent decontamination potential. A comparative scrutiny between a commercially available cleaning product, featuring multiple washing and flushing steps, and a water-only treatment regimen underscores the potential efficacy of the former. This exhaustive investigation furnishes nuanced insights into PFAS extraction complexities, offering a foundation for informed decontamination strategies

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72463 (URN)10.1016/j.emcon.2024.100335 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Defence Materiel AdministrationSwedish Armed Forces
Note

We express gratitude to the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and the Swedish Armed Forces for their financial support in the Testbed PFAS project

Available from: 2024-04-02 Created: 2024-04-02 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Hynynen, J., Quant, M., Willstrand, O. & Mallin, T. (2023). Analysis of combustion gases and fire water run-offs from passenger vehicle fires. In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: . Paper presented at Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of combustion gases and fire water run-offs from passenger vehicle fires
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of the transport sector has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. Fires in electric vehicles are reported almost daily in the media and social media channels. However, fires starting in an electric vehicle traction battery (i.e., lithium-ion battery) are rare. If the traction battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery pack in an electric vehicle is generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This results in the use of large amounts of water, that potentially could carry pollutants into the environment. In this work, the analysis of extinguishing water from passenger vehicle fires are reported. Three large-scale vehicle fire tests were performed, the vehicles used were both conventional petrol fuelled and battery electric. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås and the test setup allowed analysis of both combustion gases and extinguishing water. Results show that all analysed extinguishing water was highly contaminated. Additionally, the ecotoxicity analysis of the extinguishing water showed that the extinguishing water was highly toxic towards the tested aquatic species, independent of the traction energy of the vehicle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2023
Keywords
electric vehicle, large-scale fire test, extinguishing water, ecotoxicity
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71492 (URN)
Conference
Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023
Note

This work was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (grant no. 48193-2). 

Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Kumlin, H., Lönnermark, A., Dahlbom, S., Blomqvist, P. & Mallin, T. (2023). Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker
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2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 93
Series
Avfall Sverige ; 2023:15
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67496 (URN)
Available from: 2023-10-05 Created: 2023-10-05 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Quant, M., Willstrand, O., Mallin, T. & Hynynen, J. (2023). Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Fire-Extinguishing Water from Large-Scale Battery and Battery Electric Vehicle Fire Tests. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(12), 4821
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Fire-Extinguishing Water from Large-Scale Battery and Battery Electric Vehicle Fire Tests
2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 12, p. 4821-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrified transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns, for example, the flammable formulations used in lithium-ion batteries. Fires in traction batteries can be difficult to extinguish because the battery cells are well protected and hard to reach. To control the fire, firefighters must prolong the application of extinguishing media. In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicles and one battery pack fire test were analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants, including particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot content. Additionally, the acute toxicity of the collected extinguishing water on three aquatic species was determined. The vehicles used in the fire tests were both conventional petrol-fueled and battery electric. For all of the tests, the analysis of the extinguishing water showed high toxicity toward the tested aquatic species. Several metals and ions were found in concentrations above the corresponding surface water guideline values. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances were detected in concentrations ranging between 200 and 1400 ng L–1. Flushing the battery increased the concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to 4700 ng L–1. Extinguishing water from the battery electric vehicle and the battery pack contained a higher concentration of nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese, and fluoride compared with the water samples analyzed from the conventional vehicle.

Keywords
battery electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, fire test, extinguishing water, ecotoxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry Materials Chemistry Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64247 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.2c08581 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 48193-2
Note

Funding: Energimyndigheten 48193-2

Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2024-05-23Bibliographically approved
Dahlbom, S., Mallin, T. & Bobert, M. (2022). Fire Test Performance of Eleven PFAS-Free Class B Firefighting Foams Varying Fuels, Admixture, Water Types and Foam Generation Techniques. Fire technology, 58(3), 1639-1665
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Test Performance of Eleven PFAS-Free Class B Firefighting Foams Varying Fuels, Admixture, Water Types and Foam Generation Techniques
2022 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 1639-1665Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The firefighting performance of eleven PFAS-free firefighting foams was evaluated using different fuels (Jet A1, commercial heptane and diesel) and types of water (freshwater and synthetic sea water). Moreover, different firefighting foam generation techniques and application methods were evaluated. The firefighting foams were generated as aspirated foams or as compressed air foams (CAFs). The results for CAF showed a higher performance, with respect to extinction time and burn-back resistance, compared to the foam generated using a UNI 86 nozzle. The CAF was not optimised, indicating a further potential of this foam generation technique. The results indicate that the time to fire knockdown decreases with decreasing foam viscosity. The heat flux was shown to be small, although the entire fuel surface was involved in the fire. The tests showed a dependence on fuel type; different products performed differently depending on the fuel. Tests using sea water showed that addition of salt to the foam solution generally prolonged the extinction time, although for one of the firefighting foams a shorter extinction time was observed. Out of the eleven evaluated PFAS-free products there was no product that outperformed the rest. None of the products in the study met the fire test performance requirements in all the referenced standards. Instead, the products seem to have different niches where they perform best e.g., with different types of fuel or water.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58576 (URN)10.1007/s10694-022-01213-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85124406875 (Scopus ID)
Note

Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. This research has been conducted within the project Testbed PFAS and is funded by the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, the Swedish Armed Forces and RISE. Firefighting foams were provided by the different firefighting foam manufacturers.

Available from: 2022-02-21 Created: 2022-02-21 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6583-3247

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