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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Viallon, J., Meyer, C., Moussay, P., Schmidt, J., Maxwell, S., Arrhén, F. & Wielgosz, R. I. (2023). A high accuracy reference facility for ongoing comparisons of CO2 in air standards. Metrologia, 60(6), Article ID 065014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A high accuracy reference facility for ongoing comparisons of CO2 in air standards
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2023 (English)In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 60, no 6, article id 065014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design, performance characteristics and validation of a next generation reference facility for carbon dioxide (CO2) in air standards based on manometry is presented. Novel attributes of the facility include automated operation, avoidance of significant pressure corrections for measurements on extracted CO2, fully characterized trapping efficiencies, and reduced measurement uncertainty. Improvements in system performance have been achieved using specific materials, notably Silconert®-treated stainless-steel, providing increased mechanical stability whilst minimizing carbon dioxide adsorption on surfaces, and avoiding use of elastomer O-rings, which would lead to losses of CO2. Full automation of the cryogenic extraction process of CO2 from air has been achieved, avoiding any manual intervention within the temperature stabilized section of the facility, and allowed full characterization and correction for trapping efficiencies and trace water measurement. The facility has been validated across the CO2 in air amount fraction range of (380-800) µmol mol−1 using standards with values traceable to the reference value of the CCQM−K120 (2018) comparison. It was demonstrated to operate with a standard measurement uncertainty of 0.09 µmol mol−1 at 400 µmol mol−1. The automation allows five measurement results per day to be produced with a typical standard deviation of the mean at or below 0.02 µmol mol−1. The facility will be used as a stable reference in the future BIPM.QM−K2 ongoing comparison, to compare consistency of amount fraction values in different CO2 in air standards. The CO2 amount fraction in two ensembles of nine BIPM standards covering the same range will also be measured with the facility to provide their SI-traceable values, and further monitored on a longer time scale. Each ensemble will constitute a CO2 in air scale to be compared with other available scales such as WMO.CO2.X2019 through the BIPM.QM−K5 comparison.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2023
Keywords
Automation; Efficiency; Extraction; Gas adsorption; Mechanical stability; Uncertainty analysis; Accuracy; Comparison; Design performance; High-accuracy; Manometry; Measurement uncertainty; Performance characteristics; Performance validation; Reference facility; Trapping efficiencies; Carbon dioxide
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68585 (URN)10.1088/1681-7575/ad0abe (DOI)2-s2.0-85177780666 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding sponsor: National oceanic and atmospheric administration (NOAA)

Available from: 2023-12-13 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Svete, A., Amer, E., Jönsson, G., Kutin, J. & Arrhén, F. (2023). A method for correcting the high-frequency mechanical vibration effects in the dynamic calibration of pressure measurement systems using a shock tube. Mechanical systems and signal processing, 193, Article ID 110246.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for correcting the high-frequency mechanical vibration effects in the dynamic calibration of pressure measurement systems using a shock tube
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2023 (English)In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 193, article id 110246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The extremely rapid reflection of a shock wave from the end wall generated in the shock tube, in addition to the high-frequency content of pressure, inevitably also excites mechanical vibrations. These can potentially produce acceleration-induced spurious signals as part of the dynamic output of the pressure measurement system being calibrated. This paper proposes and evaluates a method for correcting the frequency response of a pressure measurement system obtained with a calibration using a shock tube for the acceleration-induced errors due to vibrations. The proposed method is based on the predetermined frequency response of the pressure measurement system to the accelerations and simultaneous measurements of the vibration accelerations of the pressure sensor during its calibration in the shock tube. The acceleration-induced errors were corrected for a piezoelectric pressure measurement system calibrated in a diaphragmless shock tube developed at the National laboratory for pressure and vacuum at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, where different vibrational conditions were induced by changing the initial driver pressure, while keeping the initial driven pressure constant. The uncertainty of the correction of the frequency response of the piezoelectric pressure measurement system being calibrated was determined by considering the uncertainty contributions of the measured acceleration frequency response of the pressure measurement system, the measured acceleration of the pressure sensor during its calibration in the shock tube, the generated reference end-wall step pressure and the repeatability of the correction. The results show that the proposed method effectively eliminates acceleration-induced errors in the sensitivity and phase frequency responses of an acceleration-sensitive piezoelectric pressure measurement system being calibrated with a shock tube.

Keywords
Shock tube, Piezoelectric pressure measurement system, Vibration, Acceleration-induced error, Frequency response, Uncertainty analysis
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64167 (URN)10.1016/j.ymssp.2023.110246 (DOI)1-s2.0-S0888327023X00053 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Slovenian Research Agency for the project Advanced shock tube system for high-frequency primary dynamic pressure calibration (project No. J2-3054), in addition to the research core funding (No. P2-0223).

Available from: 2023-03-06 Created: 2023-03-06 Last updated: 2024-05-23Bibliographically approved
Amer, E., Jönsson, G. & Arrhén, F. (2022). Towards traceable dynamic pressure calibration using a shock tube with an optical probe for accurate phase determination. Metrologia, 59(3), Article ID 035001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards traceable dynamic pressure calibration using a shock tube with an optical probe for accurate phase determination
2022 (English)In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 3, article id 035001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we introduce a robust method for dynamic characterization of pressure measuring systems used in time-varying pressure applications. The dynamic response of the pressure measuring systems in terms of sensitivity and phase as a function of frequency at various amplitudes of the measurand can be provided. The shock tube which is the candidate primary standard for dynamic pressure calibration at the National Laboratory for pressure, Sweden, was used to realize the dynamic pressure. The shock tube setup used in this study can realize reference pressure with amplitudes up to 1.7 MPa in the frequency range from below a kilohertz up to a megahertz. The amplitude of the realized step pressure was calculated using the Rankine–Hugoniot step relations. In addition, the accurate time of arrival of the generated shock at the device under test (DUT) was measured using an optical probe based on shadowgraphy. The optical detector has a response time in nanosecond time scale which is several orders of magnitude faster than the response time of any pressure measuring system. Hereby, the latency between physical stimuli and response of the DUT can be measured. By the knowledge of the amplitude and the accurate time of arrival of the reference step pressure, the transfer function of the DUT can be calculated and presented in Bode diagrams of sensitivity and phase response versus frequency. The uncertainty in sensitivity and phase measurements was estimated. The information provided by this work is useful for developing reliable models of dynamic pressure measuring system and provide accurate information about their dynamic response. That in turn will contribute to establish a traceability chain for dynamic pressure calibration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing, 2022
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58975 (URN)10.1088/1681-7575/ac5db5 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-04-11 Created: 2022-04-11 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Amer, E., Wozniak, M., Jönsson, G. & Arrhén, F. (2021). Evaluation of Shock Tube Retrofitted with Fast-Opening Valve for Dynamic Pressure Calibration. Sensors, 21(13), Article ID 4470.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Shock Tube Retrofitted with Fast-Opening Valve for Dynamic Pressure Calibration
2021 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 13, article id 4470Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are increasingly important. While traceability is lacking, several National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and calibration laboratories are currently establishing calibration capacities. Shock tubes generating pressure steps with rise times below 1 µs are highly suitable as standards for dynamic pressures in gas. In this work, we present the results from applying a fast-opening valve (FOV) to a shock tube designed for dynamic pressure measurements. We compare the performance of the shock tube when operated with conventional single and double diaphragms and when operated using an FOV. Different aspects are addressed: shock-wave formation, repeatability in amplitude of the realized pressure steps, the assessment of the required driver pressure for realizing nominal pressure steps, and economy. The results show that using the FOV has many advantages compared to the diaphragm: better repeatability, eight times faster to operate, and enables automation of the test sequences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
dynamic pressure, shock tube, fast-opening valve, repeatability
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-55130 (URN)10.3390/s21134470 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-07-02 Created: 2021-07-02 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Altlntaş, A., Koçaş, I., Durgut, Y., Bartolo, J., Bergoglio, M., Bermanec, L. G., . . . Arrhén, F. (2020). Final report on key comparison EURAMET.M.P-K1.c in the range 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa of gas gauge pressure. Metrologia, 57(1), Article ID 07022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Final report on key comparison EURAMET.M.P-K1.c in the range 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa of gas gauge pressure
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2020 (English)In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1, article id 07022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A EURAMET key comparison of the national pressure standards in the range 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa of gas gauge pressure was carried out. The circulation of the transfer standard began in November 2011 and lasted until November 2016. The measurand of the comparison was the effective area of the piston-cylinder assembly determined by gauge pressure measurements in the range from 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa. As the comparison reference value, the weighted mean of the results of the laboratories with primary pressure standards was used. With this reference value, all the participants who delivered the results demonstrated equivalence respective to the reference value within expanded uncertainties (k = 2) on all the range. The results of this comparison were linked to CCM key comparison CCM.P-K1.c. Also in relation to the reference values of CCM.P-K1.c, all participants demonstrated agreement within expanded uncertainties (k = 2) at all pressure points.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020
Keywords
Engineering, Metallurgical engineering, Effective area, Key comparison, Piston-cylinder assembly, Pressure standards, Primary pressure standards, Reference values, Transfer standard, Weighted mean, Gages
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45644 (URN)10.1088/0026-1394/57/1A/07022 (DOI)2-s2.0-85088290693 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-13 Created: 2020-08-13 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Saxholm, S., Högström, R., Sarraf, C., Sutton, G. J. .., Wynands, R., Arrhén, F., . . . Oster, A. (2018). Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (DynPT): Background and objectives of the 17IND07 DynPT project in the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Paper presented at 22nd World Congress of the International Measurement Confederation, IMEKO 2018, 3 September 2018 through 6 September 2018. Institute of Physics Publishing, 1065(16)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (DynPT): Background and objectives of the 17IND07 DynPT project in the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR)
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2018, Vol. 1065, no 16Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This project has five specific objectives: To provide traceability for dynamic pressure and temperature through development of measurement standards and validated calibration procedures; To quantify the effects of influencing quantities on the response of dynamic pressure and temperature sensors, in order to determine the appropriate calibration procedures and measurement uncertainties for industrial measurements; To develop new measurement methods and sensors for measuring dynamic pressure and temperature in demanding industrial applications, and to demonstrate the improved accuracy and reliability obtained with those; To validate all of the methods and sensors developed in this project through demonstrations in selected industrial applications; and To ensure by close engagement with industry, that the developed calibration and measurement techniques and technology are adopted by them. The challenge is that in many industrial applications pressure and temperature measurements are performed under dynamically changing conditions. The aim of this project is to improve the accuracy and reliability of pressure and temperature measurements in these challenging conditions. A European joint research project named Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (shortname DynPT) started in the summer 2018.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing, 2018
Keywords
Calibration, Temperature measurement, Calibration and measurements, Calibration procedure, Calibration techniques, Industrial measurements, Measurement standards, Measurement uncertainty, New Measurement Method, Pressure and temperature, Uncertainty analysis
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37279 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1065/16/162015 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057450512 (Scopus ID)
Conference
22nd World Congress of the International Measurement Confederation, IMEKO 2018, 3 September 2018 through 6 September 2018
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Zelan, M., Arrhén, F., Jarlemark, P., Mollmyr, O. & Johansson, H. (2015). Characterization of a fiber-optic pressure sensor in a shock tube system for dynamic calibrations (ed.). Metrologia, 52(1), 48-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of a fiber-optic pressure sensor in a shock tube system for dynamic calibrations
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2015 (English)In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 48-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurements of mechanical quantities such as pressure often take place under dynamic conditions, yet no traceable standards for the primary dynamic calibration of pressure sensors currently exist. In theory, shock tubes can provide a close to perfect step-function ideal for the calibration of pressure transducers. In this paper we investigate a system consisting of a shock tube and an ultra-fast fiber-optical sensor that is designed to be a future primary system for dynamic pressure calibrations. For reference, the fiber-optical sensor is compared to a piezoelectric sensor, and their corresponding frequency spectra are calculated. Furthermore, an investigation of the repeatability of the fiber-optical sensor, as well as a comparison with a second shock tube, is performed.

Keywords
dynamic pressure, shock tube, optical sensor
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6773 (URN)10.1088/0026-1394/52/1/48 (DOI)2-s2.0-84922041621 (Scopus ID)19211 (Local ID)19211 (Archive number)19211 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Matthews, C. E., Pennecchi, F. R., Eichstädt, S., Malengo, A., Esward, T. J., Smith, I. M., . . . Lakka, A. (2014). Mathematical modelling to support traceable dynamic calibration of pressure sensors (ed.). Metrologia, 51(3), 326-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical modelling to support traceable dynamic calibration of pressure sensors
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2014 (English)In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 326-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the mathematical modelling required to support the development of new primary standard systems for traceable calibration of dynamic pressure sensors. We address two fundamentally different approaches to realizing primary standards, specifically the shock tube method and the drop-weight method. Focusing on the shock tube method, the paper presents first results of system identification and discusses future experimental work that is required to improve the mathematical and statistical models. We use simulations to identify differences between the shock tube and drop-weight methods, to investigate sources of uncertainty in the system identification process and to assist experimentalists in designing the required measuring systems. We demonstrate the identification method on experimental results and draw conclusions.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6706 (URN)10.1088/0026-1394/51/3/326 (DOI)2-s2.0-84901652388 (Scopus ID)23704 (Local ID)23704 (Archive number)23704 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Silander, I., Zelan, M., Axner, O., Arrhén, F., Pendrill, L. & Foltynowicz, A. (2013). Optical measurement of the gas number density in a Fabry-Perot cavity. Measurement science and technology, 24(10), Article ID 105207.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical measurement of the gas number density in a Fabry-Perot cavity
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2013 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 24, no 10, article id 105207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An optical method for measuring the gas density by monitoring the refractive index inside a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity is presented. The frequency of a narrow linewidth Er:fiber laser, locked to a mode of the cavity, is measured with the help of an optical frequency comb while the gas density inside the cavity changes. A resolution of 1.4 × 10-6 mol m-3 is achieved in 3 s for nitrogen, which allows measurement of a relative gas density change of 3.4 × 10-8 at atmospheric pressure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing, 2013
Keywords
Fabry-Perot cavity, gas density measurement, Laser refractometry, metrology, optical frequency comb, Atmospheric pressure, Cavity resonators, Density measurement (optical), Fabry-Perot interferometers, Fiber lasers, Fiber optic sensors, Gases, Measurements, Natural frequencies, Nitrogen, Optical data processing, Optical materials, Refractive index, Gas number density, Narrow-line width, Optical frequency combs, Optical measurement, Optical methods, Refractometry, Density of gases
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-47574 (URN)10.1088/0957-0233/24/10/105207 (DOI)2-s2.0-84884898517 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-09-02 Created: 2020-09-02 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Zelan, M., Arrhén, F., Pendrill, L., Foltynowicz, A., Silander, I. & Axner, O. (2013). Optical measurement of the gas number density in a Fabry–Perot cavity (ed.). Meas. Sci. Technol., 24, art nr 105207
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical measurement of the gas number density in a Fabry–Perot cavity
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2013 (English)In: Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 24, p. art nr 105207-Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

An optical method for measuring the gas density by monitoring the refractive index inside a high-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity is presented. The frequency of a narrow linewidth Er:fiber laser, locked to a mode of the cavity, is measured with the help of an optical frequency comb while the gas density inside the cavity changes. A resolution of 1.4 × 10-6 mol m-3 is achieved in 3 s for nitrogen, which allows measurement of a relative gas density change of 3.4 × 10-8 at atmospheric pressure.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6489 (URN)15778 (Local ID)15778 (Archive number)15778 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9309-9262

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