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Sandinge, A., Fredriksson, H. & Blomqvist, P. (2023). Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials. Fire and Materials, 47(2), 270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials
2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 270-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Materials used for interior parts in buses are today fire classified according to UNECE Regulation 118, evaluating the horizontal and vertical burning rates and the melting behaviour. However, in recent accidents, the smoke has been identified as the critical parameter for deaths. An evaluation has been made of six materials used as interior parts in busses and is presented in this paper. Fire testing was conducted according to UNECE R 118 and smoke production including smoke gas toxicity was further evaluated with the smoke chamber test, EN ISO 5659-2 and EN 17084. All six tested materials fulfilled the requirements of UNECE R 118; however, most materials showed fire properties which are not desirable, such as dark smoke and melting of large burning pieces. The tests with the smoke chamber showed that all materials gave a very high smoke production, in fact a smoke density value of the highest possible for the equipment to measure. This occurred only after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that this high smoke production will, in case of fire in a bus, reduce the visibility, and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. © 2022 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
Keywords
bus, fire, interior materials, regulation 118, smoke chamber, smoke density, smoke toxicity, Buses, Fires, Melting, Toxicity, Burning rate, Chamber tests, Classifieds, Melting behavior, Smoke production, Smoke
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60067 (URN)10.1002/fam.3095 (DOI)2-s2.0-85135531894 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, MSIP, NRF-2020R1A2C1009041, NRF-2020R1A5A1016518, NRF2021R1A2C1005359; Funding details: National Research Foundation of Korea, NRF; Funding text 1: This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2020R1A2C1009041, NRF2021R1A2C1005359, and NRF-2020R1A5A1016518).

Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2024-03-03Bibliographically approved
Sandinge, A., Blomqvist, P. & Fredriksson, H. (2023). Fire safe bus interior materials – flame retardants and the effect on smoke production and smoke gas toxicity. In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: . Paper presented at Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe bus interior materials – flame retardants and the effect on smoke production and smoke gas toxicity
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demands on bus interior products have increased with increasing sustainability, circularity and a reduction of harmful substances, today’s materials must be improved with regards of additives, such as flame retardants. A comprehensive study was made to evaluate the possibility to use phosphorous flame retardants (FRs) instead of the commonly used halogenated FRs compounded with ABS. The study showed that the fire performance could be improved with phosphorous FRs regarding heat release and smoke production. However, it was noted that the smoke production still was high, and that the smoke density was highest possible, i.e., no visibility through the smoke layer. Further testing of today’s bus interior materials showed that the high smoke density was achieved already after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that, in case of a fire, the visibility in the bus will be reduced and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. The bus fire regulation R118 for interior materials basically deals with burning rate and melting through a fine mesh. Critical fire parameters such as smoke production and smoke toxicity is not dealt with. The R118 regulation need to be improved with these critical parameters in order to have fire safe materials inside the bus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2023
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71490 (URN)
Conference
Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023
Note

The study was supported by the Swedish Centre for Chemical Substitution as well as Sweden’s strategicvehicle research and innovation partnership programme (FFI), via grant agreement 2019-03121.

Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-03-03Bibliographically approved
El Houssami, M., Försth, M., Fredriksson, H., Drean, V., Guillaume, E., Hofmann-Böllinghaus, A. & Sandinge, A. (2023). Fire safety of interior materials of buses. Fire and Materials, 47(7), 910
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safety of interior materials of buses
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2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 910-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study provides an analysis on the fire safety of passengers and the fire protection of coaches and buses. A brief review of major bus fire incidents, an overview of current regulations in Europe, and their limitations are presented. The study finds that the current small-scale fire test methods described in UN ECE Reg No. 118 need to be replaced by test methods that can assess the reaction to fire of materials when exposed to ignition sources of varying sizes. To address these shortcomings, the study proposed an expert recommendation to update the material fire safety requirements and testing for buses. Additional measures are proposed, derived from objectives and strategies applied in other transport sectors, and can be tested through existing European and international standards, which are widely used by several industries. These measures aim to extend the time with tenable conditions for a safe evacuation in case of fire, reduce the degree of damage to buses, reduce the risk for fast and excessive thermal exposure on modern energy carriers needed for a more sustainable transport sector. © 2023 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Fire extinguishers, Fire protection, Risk assessment, Safety testing, 'current, Coach, Current regulations, Fire safety, Interior materials, Regulation, Small scale, Test method, Testing method, Transport sectors, Fires, bus, testing methods
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64227 (URN)10.1002/fam.3134 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149227479 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Correspondence Address:  M. Försth, RISE, Sweden; 

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2024-05-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0009-0004-6100-6518

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