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Holmberg, J., Berglund, J., Stormvinter, A., Andersson, P. & Lundin, P. (2024). Influence of Local Electropolishing Conditions on Ferritic–Pearlitic Steel on X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Profiling. Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), 33, 3682
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Local Electropolishing Conditions on Ferritic–Pearlitic Steel on X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Profiling
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2024 (English)In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 33, p. 3682-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Layer removal with electropolishing is a well-established method when measuring residual stress profiles with lab-XRD. This is done to measure the depth impact from processes such as shot peening, heat treatment, or machining. Electropolishing is used to minimize the influence on the inherent residual stresses of the material during layer removal, performed successively in incremental steps to specific depths followed by measurement. Great control of the material removal is critical for the measured stresses at each depth. Therefore, the selection of size of the measurement spot and electropolishing parameters is essential. The main objective in this work is to investigate how different electrolytes and electropolishing equipment affect the resulting surface roughness, geometry, microstructure, and consequently the measured residual stress. A second objective has been to establish a methodology of assessing the acquired electropolished depth. The aim has been to get a better understanding of the influence of the layer removal method on the accuracy of the acquired depth. Evaluation has been done by electropolishing one ground and one shot peened sample of a low-alloy carbon steel, grade 1.1730, with different methods. The results showed a difference in stresses depending on the electrolyte used where the perchloric acid had better ability to retain the stresses compared to the saturated salt. Electropolishing with saturated salt is fast and results in evenly distributed material removal but has high surface roughness, which is due to a difference in electropolishing of the two phases, ferrite, and pearlite. Perchloric acid electropolishing is slower but generates a smooth surface as both ferrite and pearlite have the same material removal rates but may cause an increased material removal for the center of the electropolished area. In this work, it is suggested to use perchloric acid electropolishing for the final layer removal step. © 2023, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
electrolytical polishing, perchloric acid, profile, residual stress, saturated salt, Electrolytes, Electrolytic polishing, Ferrite, Pearlite, Salt removal, Shot peening, Surface roughness, Condition, Electropolished, Ferritic, Layer removal, Material removal, Pearlitic steels, Perchloric acids, Saturated salts, Residual stresses
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65665 (URN)10.1007/s11665-023-08525-w (DOI)2-s2.0-85165702085 (Scopus ID)

Correspondence Address: J. Holmberg; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Sweden; email:; 

The authors would like to thank RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB and Stresstech OY for the support of this study.

Available from: 2023-08-09 Created: 2023-08-09 Last updated: 2024-05-27Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J., Palosaari, M., Hosseini, S., Larjosuo, H. & Andersson, P. (2018). Round Robin Study on Residual Stresses Using X-RayDiffraction for Shot-Peened Tool Steel Specimens. In: : . Paper presented at 10th European Conference on Residual Stresses (ECRS10), Leuven, Belgium, 11-14th September, 2018. (pp. 51-55).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Round Robin Study on Residual Stresses Using X-RayDiffraction for Shot-Peened Tool Steel Specimens
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Residual stress measurements using x-ray diffraction is a well established methodused within the industrial and academic community to verify the performance of differentprocesses for metallic materials. The measurement gives an absolute value of the stress statewhich can be used to design and optimize the process route to induce beneficial compressiveresidual stresses and avoid detrimental tensile stresses. Investigating the uncertainty andaccuracy of the measurement system, operator and the material is therefore of high relevanceboth from an industrial and scientific point of view. Round robin testing is an important way toquantify the uncertainties that could affect the quality of the measured results and hence how aprocess is optimized and tuned. Such an investigation allows the operator to understand andreduce variations. Current round robin test includes results from five different laboratories usingcomparable equipments located in Sweden, Finland, Germany and United States. This workfocuses on five shot-peened tool steel specimens produced with identical process settings.Additionally, an investigation of the repeatability of the system, influence of the operator,variations within the specimen, and the long time stability of the specimens has been measured.

X-Ray Diffraction, Residual Stress, Round Robin, Measurement System
National Category
Natural Sciences
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36348 (URN)10.21741/9781945291890-9 (DOI)
10th European Conference on Residual Stresses (ECRS10), Leuven, Belgium, 11-14th September, 2018.
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2024-02-27Bibliographically approved

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