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Edberg, J., Boda, U., Mulla, Y., Brooke, R., Pantzare, S., Strandberg, J., . . . Armgarth, A. (2023). A Paper‐Based Triboelectric Touch Interface: Toward Fully Green and Recyclable Internet of Things. Advanced Sensor Research, 2(1), Article ID 2200015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Paper‐Based Triboelectric Touch Interface: Toward Fully Green and Recyclable Internet of Things
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Sensor Research, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 2200015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transition to a sustainable society is driving the development of green electronic solutions designed to have a minimal environmental impact. One promising route to achieve this goal is to construct electronics from biobased materials like cellulose, which is carbon neutral, non‐toxic, and recyclable. This is especially true for internet‐of‐things devices, which are rapidly growing in number and are becoming embedded in every aspect of our lives. Here, paper‐based sensor circuits are demonstrated, which use triboelectric pressure sensors to help elderly people communicate with the digital world using an interface in the form of an electronic “book”, which is more intuitive to them. The sensors are manufactured by screen printing onto flexible paper substrates, using in‐house developed cellulose‐based inks with non‐hazardous solvents. The triboelectric sensor signal, generated by the contact between a finger and chemically modified cellulose, can reach several volts, which can be registered by a portable microcontroller card and transmitted by Bluetooth to any device with an internet connection. Apart from the microcontroller (which can be easily removed), the whole system can be recycled at the end of life. A triboelectric touch interface, manufactured using printed electronics on flexible paper substrates, using cellulose‐based functional inks is demonstrated. These metal‐free green electronics circuits are implemented in an “electronic book” demonstrator, equipped with wireless communication that can control remote devices, as a step toward sustainable and recyclable internet‐of‐things devices.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63313 (URN)10.1002/adsr.202200015 (DOI)
Note

The authors would like to acknowledge funding from Vinnova through theD igital Cellulose Competence Center (DCC), Diary number 2016–05193, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (Smart Intra-body network; grant RIT15-0119), and the Norrköping municipality fund for research and development (Accessibility and remembering – storytelling and innovative media use in elderly care homes, 2020. Grant: KS 2020/0345). The work was also supported by Treesearch.se. The authors thank Patrik Isacsson and co-workers at Ahlstrom Munksjö for providing the paper substrates and for valuable know-how as part of the collaboration within DCC, as well as Erik Gabrielsson, Daniel Simon, Elisabet Cedersund, and Lars Herlogsson for their involvement in the work on the original Mediabook platform.

Available from: 2023-01-30 Created: 2023-01-30 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Sudheshwar, A., Beni, V., Malinverno, N., Hischier, R., Nevo, Y., Dhuiège, B., . . . Som, C. (2023). Assessing sustainability hotspots in the production of paper-based printed electronics. Flexible and Printed Electronics, 8(1), Article ID 015002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing sustainability hotspots in the production of paper-based printed electronics
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2023 (English)In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 015002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Novel printed electronics are projected to grow and be manufactured in the future in large volumes. In many applications, printed electronics are envisaged as sustainable alternatives to conventional (PCB-based) electronics. One such application is in the semi-quantitative drug detection and point-of-care device called ‘GREENSENSE’ that uses paper-based printed electronics. This paper analyses the carbon footprint of GREENSENSE in order to identify and suggest means of mitigating disproportionately high environmental impacts, labeled ‘sustainability hotspots’, from materials and processes used during production which would be relevant in high-volume applications. Firstly, a life cycle model traces the flow of raw materials (such as paper, CNCs, and nanosilver) through the three ‘umbrella’ processes (circuit printing, component mounting, and biofunctionalization) manufacturing different electronic components (the substrate, conductive inks, energy sources, display, etc) that are further assembled into GREENSENSE. Based on the life cycle model, life cycle inventories are modeled that map out the network of material and energy flow throughout the production of GREENSENSE. Finally, from the environmental impact and sustainability hotspot analysis, both crystalline nanocellulose and nanosilver were found to create material hotspots and they should be replaced in favor of lower-impact materials. Process hotspots are created by manual, lab-, and pilot-scale processes with unoptimized material consumption, energy use, and waste generation; automated and industrial-scale manufacturing can mitigate such process hotspots. © 2023 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2023
Keywords
carbon footprint, life cycle assessment, printed electronics, sustainability hotspots, Environmental impact, Life cycle, Substrates, Sustainable development, Drug detection, Hotspots, Large volumes, Life cycle model, Nano silver, PCB-based, Point of care, Sustainability hotspot, Electronics, Energy, Paper, Production, Raw Materials
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63978 (URN)10.1088/2058-8585/acacab (DOI)2-s2.0-85146865282 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020, 761000; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement No. 761000 GREENSENSE.

Available from: 2023-02-16 Created: 2023-02-16 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson Ersman, P., Freitag, K., Nilsson, M., Åhlin, J., Brooke, R., Nordgren, N., . . . Beni, V. (2023). Electrochromic Displays Screen Printed on Transparent Nanocellulose-Based Substrates. Advanced Photonics Research, Article ID 2200012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochromic Displays Screen Printed on Transparent Nanocellulose-Based Substrates
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Photonics Research, ISSN 2699-9293, article id 2200012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Manufacturing of electronic devices via printing techniques is often considered to be an environmentally friendly approach, partially due to the efficient utilization of materials. Traditionally, printed electronic components (e.g., sensors, transistors, and displays) are relying on flexible substrates based on plastic materials; this is especially true in electronic display applications where, most of the times, a transparent carrier is required in order to enable presentation of the display content. However, plastic-based substrates are often ruled out in end user scenarios striving toward sustainability. Paper substrates based on ordinary cellulose fibers can potentially replace plastic substrates, but the opaqueness limits the range of applications where they can be used. Herein, electrochromic displays that are manufactured, via screen printing, directly on state-of-the-art fully transparent substrates based on nanocellulose are presented. Several different nanocellulose-based substrates, based on either nanofibrillated or nanocrystalline cellulose, are manufactured and evaluated as substrates for the manufacturing of electrochromic displays, and the optical and electrical switching performances of the resulting display devices are reported and compared. The reported devices do not require the use of metals and/or transparent conductive oxides, thereby providing a sustainable all-printed electrochromic display technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2023
Keywords
electrochromic displays, nanocellulose, organic electronics, PEDOT:PSS, printed electronics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59998 (URN)10.1002/adpr.202200012 (DOI)
Note

This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the grant agreement no. 761000—GREENSENSE. Additional financial support was provided by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (grant agreement no. EM16-0002).

Available from: 2022-08-26 Created: 2022-08-26 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Moon, R. J., Hensdal, C. L., Beck, S., Fall, A., Costa, J., Kojima, E., . . . Batchelor, W. (2023). Setting priorities in CNF particle size measurement: What is needed vs. what is feasible. TAPPI Journal, 22(2), 116-137
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Setting priorities in CNF particle size measurement: What is needed vs. what is feasible
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2023 (English)In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 116-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measuring the size of cellulose nanomaterials can be challenging, especially in the case of branched and entangled cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). The International Organization for Standardization, Technical Committee 6, Task Group 1—Cellulosic Nanomaterials, is exploring opportunities to develop standard methods for the measurement of CNF particle size and particle size distribution. This paper presents a summary of the available measuring techniques, responses from a survey on the measurement needs of CNF companies and researchers, and outcomes from an international workshop on cellulose nanofibril measurement and standardization. Standardization needs differed among groups, with Japanese companies mostly requiring measurements for product specification and production control, and other companies mostly needing measurements for safety/regula-tory purposes and for grade definitions in patents. Among all the companies, average length and width with percen-tiles (D(10), D(50), D(90)) were the most desired measurands. Workshop participants concurred that defining the location(s) on the CNF at which to measure the width and the length is an urgent and complex question. They also agreed that methods are needed for rapid particle size measurement at the nanoscale. Our recommendation within ISO is to start work to revise the definition of CNFs and develop sample preparation and measurement guidelines. It was also recommended that further research be done to reproducibly prepare hierarchical branched CNF structures and characterize them, develop automated image analysis for hierarchical branched CNF structures, and develop a classification system encompassing measurements at multiple size ranges from micro-to nanoscale to fully characterize and distinguish CNF samples. 00327-2022 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Technical Assoc. of the Pulp and Paper Industry Press, 2023
Keywords
Cellulose, Nanofibers, Particle size, Production control, Standardization, Cellulose nanofibrils, International organization for standardizations, Measurements of, Measuring technique, Nano scale, Particle size measurement, Particles sizes, Particles-size distributions, Task groups, Technical committees, Particle size analysis, ISO, Measurement, Standards, Structures
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64329 (URN)10.32964/TJ22.2.116 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150051138 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Benselfelt, T., Kummer, N., Nordenström, M., Fall, A., Nyström, G. & Wågberg, L. (2023). The Colloidal Properties of Nanocellulose. ChemSusChem, 16(8), e202201955
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Colloidal Properties of Nanocellulose
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2023 (English)In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 16, no 8, p. e202201955-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanocelluloses are anisotropic nanoparticles of semicrystalline assemblies of glucan polymers. They have great potential as renewable building blocks in the materials platform of a more sustainable society. As a result, the research on nanocellulose has grown exponentially over the last decades. To fully utilize the properties of nanocelluloses, a fundamental understanding of their colloidal behavior is necessary. As elongated particles with dimensions in a critical nanosize range, their colloidal properties are complex, with several behaviors not covered by classical theories. In this comprehensive Review, we describe the most prominent colloidal behaviors of nanocellulose by combining experimental data and theoretical descriptions. We discuss the preparation and characterization of nanocellulose dispersions, how they form networks at low concentrations, how classical theories cannot describe their behavior, and how they interact with other colloids. We then show examples of how scientists can use this fundamental knowledge to control the assembly of nanocellulose into new materials with exceptional properties. We hope aspiring and established researchers will use this Review as a guide. © 2023 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
Nanocellulose, Sols, Anisotropic nanoparticles, Aspect-ratio, Classical theory, Colloidal behaviours, Colloidal interaction, Colloidal properties, Nano-cellulose, Network, Property, Semicrystallines, Aspect ratio, assembly, colloidal interactions, networks
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64228 (URN)10.1002/cssc.202201955 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149045814 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors would like to thank Prof. Emily D. Cranston for sharing and discussing the definition of CNFs and CNCs. The authors acknowledge the funding from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation via the Wallenberg Wood Science Center (WWSC) and an individual fellowship for Tobias Benselfelt (KAW 2019.0564). The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Digital Cellulose Centre, an excellence center partly funded by the Swedish Innovation Agency VINNOVA (Grant number 2016‐05193).

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ul Hassan Alvi, N., Mulla, Y., Abitbol, T., Fall, A. & Beni, V. (2023). The Fast and One-Step Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Cellulose Nanofibers for Highly Sensitive Photosensors. Nanomaterials, 13(18), Article ID 2611.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Fast and One-Step Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Cellulose Nanofibers for Highly Sensitive Photosensors
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2023 (English)In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 13, no 18, article id 2611Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cellulose is the most abundant organic material on our planet which has a key role in our daily life (e.g., paper, packaging). In recent years, the need for replacing fossil-based materials has expanded the application of cellulose and cellulose derivatives including into electronics and sensing. The combination of nanostructures with cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) is expected to create new opportunities for the development of innovative electronic devices. In this paper, we report on a single-step process for the low temperature (<100 °C), environmentally friendly, and fully scalable CNF-templated highly dense growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs). More specifically, the effect of the degree of substitution of the CNF (enzymatic CNFs and carboxymethylated CNFs with two different substitution levels) on the ZnO growth and the application of the developed ZnO NRs/CNF nanocomposites in the development of UV sensors is reported herein. The results of this investigation show that the growth and nature of ZnO NRs are strongly dependent on the charge of the CNFs; high charge promotes nanorod growth whereas with low charge, ZnO isotropic microstructures are created that are not attached to the CNFs. Devices manufactured via screen printing/drop-casting of the ZnO NRs/CNF nanocomposites demonstrate a good photo-sensing response with a very stable UV-induced photocurrent of 25.84 µA. This also exhibits excellent long-term stability with fast ON/OFF switching performance under the irradiance of a UV lamp (15 W). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67710 (URN)10.3390/nano13182611 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172775433 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 761000Vinnova, 2016–05193
Note

The authors would like to acknowledge the Linköping University for the access to its laboratory facilities. The authors would like to acknowledge funding from Vinnova (Digital Cellulose Competence Center, Diary number 2016–05193) and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (GREENSENSE, Grant Agreement No. 761000). Niklas Nordgren is acknowledged for the capturing the nice AFM images.

Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Isacsson, P., Jain, K., Fall, A., Chauve, V., Hajian, A., Granberg, H., . . . Wågberg, L. (2022). Production of energy-storage paper electrodes using a pilot-scale paper machine. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 10(40), 21579-21589
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of energy-storage paper electrodes using a pilot-scale paper machine
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 40, p. 21579-21589Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global efforts in electrifying our society drive the demand for low-cost and sustainable energy storage solutions. In the present work, a novel material concept was investigated to enable fabrication of several 10 meter-long rolls of supercapacitor paper electrodes on a pilot-scale paper machine. The material concept was based on cationized, cellulose-rich wood-derived fibres, conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, and activated carbon filler particles. Cationic fibres saturated with anionic PEDOT:PSS provide a conducting scaffold hosting the activated carbon, which functions as the active charge-storage material. The response from further additives was systematically investigated for several critical paper properties. Cellulose nanofibrils were found to improve mechanical properties, while carbon black enhanced both the conductivity and the storage capacity of the activated carbon, reaching a specific capacitance of 67 F g−1. This pilot trial shows that “classical” papermaking methods are fit for the purpose and provides valuable insights on how to further advance bio-based energy storage solutions for large-scale applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
Keywords
Activated carbon, Carbon black, Cellulose, Conducting polymers, Electrodes, Energy storage, Filled polymers, Fillers, Paper products, Papermaking, Papermaking machinery, Storage (materials), Wood, Carbon fillers, Cationized, Low-cost energy, Material concepts, Novel materials, Paper machine, PEDOT/PSS, Pilot scale, Storage solutions, Sustainable energy, Additives
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61214 (URN)10.1039/d2ta04431e (DOI)2-s2.0-85140059550 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: This work has been carried out in the Digital Cellulose Center, in which Agfa has kindly supplied PEDOT:PSS and Ahlstrom-Munksjö has kindly put their pilot paper machine to the project's disposal as well as offered analytical services (TGA, ionic demand and cross-section SEM/EDX). A special thanks to Robert Brooke at Research Institutes of Sweden who has created the conceptual visualization in Fig. 1B. We also acknowledge support from Treesearch, a collaboration platform for Swedish forest industrial research.

Available from: 2022-12-02 Created: 2022-12-02 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Fall, A., Hagel, F., Edberg, J., Malti, A., Larsson, P. A., Wågberg, L., . . . Håkansson, K. M. (2022). Spinning of Stiff and Conductive Filaments from Cellulose Nanofibrils and PEDOT:PSS Nanocomplexes. ACS Applied Polymer Materials, 4(6), 4119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spinning of Stiff and Conductive Filaments from Cellulose Nanofibrils and PEDOT:PSS Nanocomplexes
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2022 (English)In: ACS Applied Polymer Materials, ISSN 2637-6105, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 4119-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research in smart textiles is growing due to the increased demand from the healthcare sector and people's urge to keep track of and analyze the signals and metrics from their bodies. Electrically conductive filaments are the most fundamental material for smart textiles. These filaments can be imbued with functionalities and useful in fields like energy storage, sensing, and actuation. To be able to meet the requirements that the latter applications require, fabrication techniques must be developed to provide better processability and sustainability in a cost-effective manner. Here, a mixture of a conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and biobased cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) was used to spin filaments utilizing a water-based process. These filaments show electrical conductivities up to 150 S/cm and tensile stiffness of 20 GPa. Interestingly, the PEDOT aligned to a similar degree as the CNFs during the spinning process without a drawing step, which is hypothesized to be caused by the attachment of PEDOT on the CNFs. Lastly, the filaments were tested in an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) configuration, which resulted in a working device with an on/off ratio approaching 1500. Furthermore, the OECT exhibited stable behavior when changing temperature (20-80 °C) and relative humidity (40-80%). This aqueous spinning method, resulting in filaments with robust electronic properties in different temperature and humidity environments, show greats promise for future innovative smart textiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2022
Keywords
cellulose nanofibrils, filament, PEDOT:PSS, smart textile, spinning, water-based, Conducting polymers, Cost effectiveness, Electronic properties, Nanocellulose, Smart textiles, Spinning (fibers), Conductive filaments, Ethylenedioxythiophenes, Healthcare sectors, Nanocomplexes, Organic electrochemical transistors, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):PSS, Water based, Nanofibers
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59766 (URN)10.1021/acsapm.2c00073 (DOI)2-s2.0-85131674019 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was funded by the Swedish Foundation for StrategicResearch (GMT14-0058) and the Digital Cellulose Center(2016−05193), a competence center set up by the SwedishInnovation Agency VINNOVA and a consortium of Swedishforest industries. L.W. also acknowledges the financial supportfrom the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Research Foundation viathe Wallenberg Wood Science Centre (WWSC).

Available from: 2022-07-08 Created: 2022-07-08 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
González-Gil, R., Borràs, M., Chbani, A., Abitbol, T., Fall, A., Aulin, C., . . . Martínez-Crespiera, S. (2022). Sustainable and Printable Nanocellulose-Based Ionogels as Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Supercapacitors. Nanomaterials, 12(2), Article ID 273.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable and Printable Nanocellulose-Based Ionogels as Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Supercapacitors
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2022 (English)In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 273Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) based supercapacitor with an ionic conductivity up to 0.32–0.94 mS cm−2 has been synthesized from a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) with nanocellulose (NC). The new NC-ionogel was prepared by combining the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate (EMIMP) with carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibers (CNFc) at different ratios (CNFc ratio from 1 to 4). The addition of CNFc improved the ionogel properties to become easily printable onto the electrode surface. The new GPE based supercapacitor cell showed good electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 160 F g−1 and an equivalent series resistance (ESR) of 10.2 Ω cm−2 at a current density of 1 mA cm−2. The accessibility to the full capacitance of the device is demonstrated after the addition of CNFc in EMIMP compared to the pristine EMIMP (99 F g−1 and 14.7 Ω cm−2). © 2022 by the authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
Gel polymer electrolyte, Ionic liquid, Ionogel, Nanocellulose, Renewable energy storage, Supercapacitors
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58438 (URN)10.3390/nano12020273 (DOI)2-s2.0-85122848431 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020, 761000; Funding details: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, UAB; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was funded by European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 761000 (GREENSENSE project).; Funding text 2: This research was funded by European Union?s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 761000 (GREENSENSE project). Authors thank to Thermal Analysis Lab at the University of Alicante?s Technical Research Services (SSTTI) for your support in TGA Analysis. They also thank to Electron Microscopy Services from Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) for the FE-SEM and EDS mapping experiments; and to X-ray Diffraction Facility from Institut Catal? de Nanoci?ncia i Nanotecnologia (ICN2) for their support on XRD analysis.

Available from: 2022-01-28 Created: 2022-01-28 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Fall, A., Henriksson, M., Karppinen, A., Opstad, A., Heggset, E. B. & Syverud, K. (2022). The effect of ionic strength and pH on the dewatering rate of cellulose nanofibril dispersions. Cellulose, 29(14), 7649-7662
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of ionic strength and pH on the dewatering rate of cellulose nanofibril dispersions
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2022 (English)In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 29, no 14, p. 7649-7662Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cellulose nanofibrils, CNFs, show great potential in many application areas. One main aspect limiting the industrial use is the slow and energy demanding dewatering of CNF suspensions. Here we investigate the dewatering with a piston press process. Three different CNF grades were dewatered to solid contents between approx. 20 and 30%. The CNF grades varied in charge density (30, 106 and 604 µmol/g) and fibrillation degree. The chemical conditions were varied by changing salt concentration (NaCl) and pH and the dewatering rates were compared before and after these changes. For the original suspensions, a higher charge provides slower dewatering with the substantially slowest dewatering for the highest charged CNFs. However, by changing the conditions it dewatered as fast as the two lower charged CNFs, even though the salt/acid additions also improved the dewatering rate for these two CNFs. Finally, by tuning the conditions, fast dewatering could be obtained with only minor effect on film properties (strength and oxygen barrier) produced from redispersed dispersion. However, dewatering gives some reduction in viscosity of the redispersed dispersions. This may be a disadvantage if the CNF application is as e.g. rheology modifier or emulsion stabilizer. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2022
Keywords
Cellulose nanofibrils, Dewatering, Nanocelluloses, Redispersion, Rheology, Dispersions, Elasticity, Emulsification, Ionic strength, Nanofibers, Sodium chloride, Application area, Condition, Effect of ionic strength, Energy, Industrial use, Nano-cellulose, Press process, Redispersions, Solids content, Nanocellulose
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59856 (URN)10.1007/s10570-022-04719-y (DOI)2-s2.0-85134482558 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Syverud, K.; RISE PFI, Høgskoleringen 6b, Norway; email: kristin.syverud@rise-pfi.no; Funding details: Norges Forskningsråd, 245300, 274975; Funding text 1: Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. This work was a part of the project NanoVisc: “Development of high-performance viscosifiers and texture ingredients for industrial applications based on Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF)” financed by the Research Council of Norway through the Nano2021 programme (Grant No. 245300), and the companies Borregaard, Mercer, and Stora Enso. Part of the work has also been funded through the project NanoPlasma: Nanofibril production using plasma (Grant No. 274975) and from RISE.

Available from: 2022-08-02 Created: 2022-08-02 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9816-5270

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