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Hui, I., Pasquier, E., Solberg, A., Agrenius, K., Håkansson, J. & Chinga Carrasco, G. (2023). Biocomposites containing poly(lactic acid) and chitosan for 3D printing: Assessment of mechanical, antibacterial and in vitro biodegradability properties. Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 147, Article ID 106136.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biocomposites containing poly(lactic acid) and chitosan for 3D printing: Assessment of mechanical, antibacterial and in vitro biodegradability properties
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2023 (English)In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 147, article id 106136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New bone repair materials are needed for treatment of trauma- and disease-related skeletal defects as they still represent a major challenge in clinical practice. Additionally, new strategies are required to combat orthopedic device-related infections (ODRI), given the rising incidence of total joint replacement and fracture fixation surgeries in increasingly elderly populations. Recently, the convergence of additive manufacturing (AM) and bone tissue engineering (BTE) has facilitated the development of bone healthcare to achieve personalized three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. This study focused on the development of a 3D printable bone repair material, based on the biopolymers poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan. Two different types of PLA and chitosan differing in their molecular weight (MW) were explored. The novel feature of this research was the successful 3D printing using biocomposite filaments composed of PLA and 10 wt% chitosan, with clear chitosan entrapment within the PLA matrix confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Tensile testing of injection molded samples indicated an increase in stiffness, compared to pure PLA scaffolds, suggesting potential for improved load-bearing characteristics in bone scaffolds. However, the potential benefit of chitosan on the biocomposite stiffness could not be reproduced in compression testing of 3D printed cylinders. The antibacterial assays confirmed antibacterial activity of chitosan when dissolved in acetic acid. The study also verified the biodegradability of the scaffolds, with a process producing an acidic environment that could potentially be neutralized by chitosan. In conclusion, the study indicated the feasibility of the proposed PLA/chitosan biocomposite for 3D printing, demonstrating adequate mechanical strength, antibacterial properties and biodegradability, which could serve as a new material for bone repair.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
3D printing; Biodegradability; Biopolymers; Compression testing; Injection molding; Lactic acid; Repair; Scaffolds (biology); Scanning electron microscopy; Stiffness; Stiffness matrix; Tensile testing; 3-D printing; 3D-printing; Antibacterials; Biocomposite; Bone repair materials; In-vitro; Mechanical; Poly lactic acid; Poly(lactic acid); Property; Chitosan
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67723 (URN)10.1016/j.jmbbm.2023.106136 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172305781 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Research Council of Norway, 337610
Note

Norges forskningsråd

Available from: 2023-11-03 Created: 2023-11-03 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Kjellin, P., Danielsson, K., Håkansson, J., Agrenius, K., Andersson, T. & Stenlund, P. (2022). Biomechanical and histomorphometric evaluation of skin integration on titanium and PEEK implants with different surface treatments. Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, 33(10), Article ID 68.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomechanical and histomorphometric evaluation of skin integration on titanium and PEEK implants with different surface treatments
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2022 (English)In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 33, no 10, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Percutaneous implants are frequently affected by bacterial growth at the skin-implant interface. Integration between implant and surrounding skin is important to prevent bacteria from spreading to the underlying tissue. The standard method to evaluate skin-implant integration is by histomorphometry on samples which have been placed in tissue grown in vivo or ex vivo. In this study, a biomechanical method was developed and evaluated. The integration of implants into porcine skin was studied in an ex vivo model, where pig skin samples were cultivated in a nutrient solution. Cylindrical shaped implants, consisting of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and titanium (Ti) with different surface treatments, were implanted in the skin tissue and the skin was grown in nutrient solution for 2 weeks. The implants were then extracted from the implantation site and the mechanical force during extraction was measured as a quantitative assessment of skin-implant integration. Implants from each group were also processed for histomorphometry and the degree of epidermal downgrowth (ED) and tissue to implant contact (TIC) was measured. A higher mean pullout force was observed for the PEEK implants compared to the Ti implants. Applying nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) on Ti and PEEK increased the pullout force compared to uncoated controls, 24% for machined and 70% for blasted Ti, and 51% for machined PEEK. Treatment of Ti and PEEK with nanosized zirconium phosphate (ZrP) did not increase the pullout force. The histomorphometry analysis showed correlation between ED and pullout force, where the pullout force was inversely proportional to ED. For TIC, no significant differences were observed between the groups of same material (i.e. Ti, Ti+HA, Ti+ZrP, and PEEK, PEEK + HA, PEEK + ZrP), but it was significantly higher for PEEK compared to Ti. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was done on samples before and after the pullout tests, showing that the ZrP coating was unaffected by the 2 week ex vivo implantation and pullout procedure, no dissolution or detachment of the coating was observed. For the HA coating, a loss of coating was seen on approximately 5% of the total surface area of the implant. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2022, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Bacteria, Biocompatibility, Biomechanics, Coatings, Ethers, Integration, Ketones, Mammals, Nutrients, Scanning electron microscopy, Tissue, Titanium carbide, Bacterial growth, Ex-vivo, Histomorphometry, Implant interfaces, In-vivo, Nutrient solution, Pullout force, Skin implants, Titania, Zirconium phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, nanohydroxyapatite, nanomaterial, polyetheretherketone, titanium, unclassified drug, benzophenone derivative, ether derivative, ketone, macrogol, polymer, animal experiment, animal tissue, Article, bone tissue, coating (procedure), controlled study, dissolution, ex vivo study, force, implantation, morphometry, nonhuman, quantitative analysis, surface area, surface property, Yorkshire pig, animal, osseointegration, pig, tooth implant, Animals, Benzophenones, Dental Implants, Durapatite, Polyethylene Glycols, Polymers, Surface Properties, Swine
National Category
Other Medical Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61212 (URN)10.1007/s10856-022-06687-y (DOI)2-s2.0-85139239686 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 214487; Funding details: Sahlgrenska Akademin; Funding text 1: Toponova AB, Halmstad, Sweden, is acknowledged for the interferometry measurements. Petra Hammarström Johansson at the Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, is acknowledged for the histology processing. The study was partly financed by Region Västra Götaland FoU-card advanced (Dnr 214487); Funding text 2: Toponova AB, Halmstad, Sweden, is acknowledged for the interferometry measurements. Petra Hammarström Johansson at the Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, is acknowledged for the histology processing. The study was partly financed by Region Västra Götaland FoU-card advanced (Dnr 214487)

Available from: 2022-12-02 Created: 2022-12-02 Last updated: 2024-01-02Bibliographically approved
Chinga-Carrasco, G., Johansson, J., Heggset, E. B., Leirset, I., Björn, C., Agrenius, K., . . . Håkansson, J. (2021). Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Autoclaved Carboxylated Wood Nanocellulose.. Biomacromolecules, 22(7), 2779-2789
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Autoclaved Carboxylated Wood Nanocellulose.
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2021 (English)In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 2779-2789Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were obtained by applying a chemical pretreatment consisting of autoclaving the pulp fibers in sodium hydroxide, combined with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl-mediated oxidation. Three levels of sodium hypochlorite were applied (2.5, 3.8, and 6.0 mmol/g) to obtain CNF qualities (CNF_2.5, CNF_3.8, and CNF_6.0) with varying content of carboxyl groups, that is, 1036, 1285, and 1593 μmol/g cellulose. The cytotoxicity and skin irritation potential (indirect tests) of the CNFs were determined according to standardized in vitro testing for medical devices. We here demonstrate that autoclaving (121 °C, 20 min), which was used to sterilize the gels, caused a modification of the CNF characteristics. This was confirmed by a reduction in the viscosity of the gels, a morphological change of the nanofibrils, by an increase of the ultraviolet-visible absorbance maxima at 250 nm, reduction of the absolute zeta potential, and by an increase in aldehyde content and reducing sugars after autoclaving. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering complemented an extensive characterization of the CNF gels, before and after autoclaving. The antibacterial properties of autoclaved carboxylated CNFs were demonstrated in vitro (bacterial survival and swimming assays) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, a mouse in vivo surgical-site infection model on S. aureus revealed that CNF_3.8 showed pronounced antibacterial effect and performed as good as the antiseptic Prontosan wound gel.

National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-55450 (URN)10.1021/acs.biomac.1c00137 (DOI)34185505 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85110932941 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-09 Created: 2021-07-09 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Herzberg, M., Berglin, M., Eliahu, S., Bodin, L., Agrenius, K., Zlotkin, A. & Svenson, J. (2021). Efficient prevention of marine biofilm formation employing a surface-grafted repellent marine peptide. ACS Applied Bio Materials, 4(4), 3360-3373
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient prevention of marine biofilm formation employing a surface-grafted repellent marine peptide
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2021 (English)In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 3360-3373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Creation of surfaces resistant to the formation of microbial biofilms via biomimicry has been heralded as a promising strategy to protect a range of different materials ranging from boat hulls to medical devices and surgical instruments. In our current study, we describe the successful transfer of a highly effective natural marine biofilm inhibitor to the 2D surface format. A series of cyclic peptides inspired by the natural equinatoxin II protein produced by Beadlet anemone (Actinia equine) have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of a mixed marine microbial consortium on polyamide reverse osmosis membranes. In solution, the peptides are shown to effectively inhibit settlement and biofilm formation in a nontoxic manner down to 1 nM concentrations. In addition, our study also illustrates how the peptides can be applied to disperse already established biofilms. Attachment of a hydrophobic palmitic acid tail generates a peptide suited for strong noncovalent surface interactions and allows the generation of stable noncovalent coatings. These adsorbed peptides remain attached to the surface at significant shear stress and also remain active, effectively preventing the biofilm formation over 24 h. Finally, the covalent attachment of the peptides to an acrylate surface was also evaluated and the prepared coatings display a remarkable ability to prevent surface colonization at surface loadings of 55 ng/cm2 over 48 h. The ability to retain the nontoxic antibiofilm activity, documented in solution, in the covalent 2D-format is unprecedented, and this natural peptide motif displays high potential in several material application areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2021
Keywords
Antifouling, Marine biofilm, Nontoxic, Peptide, Reverse osmosis, Surface grafting, Biofilms, Biomimetics, Boat instruments, Coatings, Osmosis membranes, Palmitic acid, Shear stress, Surgical equipment, Biofilm formation, Covalent attachment, Material application, Microbial biofilm, Microbial consortia, Noncovalent surfaces, Surface colonization, Surgical instrument, Peptides
National Category
Medical Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52974 (URN)10.1021/acsabm.0c01672 (DOI)2-s2.0-85103788257 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-21 Created: 2021-04-21 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Knutsen, M., Agrenius, K., Ugland, H., Petronis, S., Haglerod, C., Håkansson, J. & Chinga-Carrasco, G. (2021). Oxygenated Nanocellulose - A Material Platform for Antibacterial Wound Dressing Devices. ACS Applied Bio Materials, 4(10), 7554-7562
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygenated Nanocellulose - A Material Platform for Antibacterial Wound Dressing Devices
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2021 (English)In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 7554-7562Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Both carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and dissolved oxygen (DO) have been reported to possess antibacterial properties. However, the combination for use as wound dressings against biofilm infections in chronic wounds is less known. The present study reports the development of oxygenated CNF dispersions that exhibit strong antibacterial effect. Carboxylated CNF dispersions with different oxidation levels were oxygenated by the OXY BIO System and tested for antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The results reveal that the higher oxidation level of the CNFs, the better antibacterial effect. Scanning electron microscopy of bacterial biofilms revealed that a potential mechanism of action of the CNFs is the formation of a network surrounding and entrapping the bacteria. This effect is further potentiated by the oxygenation process. A CNF sample (concentration 0.6 wt %) that was oxygenated to a DO level of 46.4 mg/L demonstrated a strong antibacterial effect against S. aureus in vivo using a mouse model of surgical site infection. The oxygenated CNF dispersion reduced the bacterial survival by 71%, after 24 h treatment. The potent antibacterial effect indicates that oxygenated nanocellulose is a promising material for antibacterial wound dressings. © 2021 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2021
Keywords
antibacterial properties, biofilm infections, hyperoxia, nanocellulose, topical dressings, wound healing, Biofilms, Dispersions, Dissolved oxygen, Scanning electron microscopy, Antibacterial effects, Antibacterials, Cellulose nanofibrils, Nano-cellulose, Topical dressing, Wound dressings, Bacteria, Diseases, Formation, Oxidation, Processes, Surgical Dressings, Survival
National Category
Biomaterials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56894 (URN)10.1021/acsabm.1c00819 (DOI)2-s2.0-85117321748 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Norges Forskningsråd, 283895, 309178; Funding text 1: This work was partly funded by the MANUNET III program (Project No. MNET17/NMCS-1204) and Research Council of Norway Grant No. 283895, MedIn project (“New functionalized medical devices for surgical interventions in the pelvic cavity”, Grant No. 283895), and the OxyPol project (“Oxygenated biopolymers for biomedical applications”, Grant No. 309178).

Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-22 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0009-0004-4933-6629

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