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Makoundou, ChristinaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1565-1554
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Makoundou, C., Fathollahi, A., Kleiven, S., Coupe, S. & Sangiorgi, C. (2023). Mechanical and leaching characterisation of impact-absorbing rubberised asphalts for urban pavements. Materials and Structures, 56(3), Article ID 55.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical and leaching characterisation of impact-absorbing rubberised asphalts for urban pavements
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2023 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 56, no 3, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new impact-absorbing material is being developed to protect vulnerable road users in urban areas and has been produced and tested, mechanically and environmentally in the laboratory. The main constituent of this innovative material is the rubber recycled from end-of-life tyres to foster a circular use of resources and exploit rubber’s elastic properties. The study aims to provide a complete Uniaxial Compression Test (UCT) and leaching analysis of the material to propose and optimise a mix that is mechanically sound, durable, and respectful of the environment, in view of in-situ applications. Therefore, the UCT and Dynamic Surface Leaching Test (DSLT) were carried out on rubberised asphalt specimens with different mix designs. The 64 days cumulative concentrations of leached heavy metals and trace elements from unit surface of specimens were calculated and quantified, according to the CEN/TS 16637 standard. In parallel, thanks to a specific mechanical characterisation, compressive stress–strain curves were obtained, and the relaxation and elastic modulus were evaluated. The results from the compression tests showed that the A-mixes have the best elastic and absorbing behaviour, especially those made with an SBS-modified bituminous emulsion (A4). The results from DSLT showed that the cumulative concentration of released elements, per unit surface of specimens were lower than the Dutch Soil Quality Decree (SQD) thresholds, taken as a reference. The low and early release of leachant observed for the mixtures, especially A4 as the most promising one, leave the possibility to handle the leaching with several solutions, including rubber coating treatment or water washing before their incorporation into the mix to limit and prevent their leaching while permitting very high injury reduction performances. © 2023, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2023
Keywords
Cold and warm mixtures, Crumb rubber, Dynamic surface leaching, Impact-absorbing pavement, Rubberised asphalt mixtures, Uniaxial compression tests, Asphalt mixtures, Compaction, Compression testing, Dynamics, Emulsification, Heavy metals, Leaching, Rubber, Rubber coatings, Soil testing, Trace elements, Cold and warm mixture, Dynamic surface, Impact-absorbing, Rubberized asphalt, Rubberized asphalt mixture, Uni-axial compression tests, Warm mixtures, Pavements
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64321 (URN)10.1617/s11527-022-02078-5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150932407 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, MSCA, 765057; Funding details: Università di Bologna, UNIBO; Funding text 1: The authors are grateful to the crumb rubber (through the participation of Svensk Däckåtervinning AB) and bituminous binders’ suppliers used during this study and to Ing. Filippo Venturucci for his contribution to the testing phase.; Funding text 2: Open access funding provided by Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna within the CRUI-CARE Agreement. This research was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No 765057 through SAFERUP! Project.

Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Makoundou, C., Johansson, K., Wallqvist, V. & Sangiorgi, C. (2023). Rubber- and emulsion-based impact-absorbing paving material produced with cold and dry processes: Laboratory and in-situ study. Construction and Building Materials, 408, Article ID 133496.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rubber- and emulsion-based impact-absorbing paving material produced with cold and dry processes: Laboratory and in-situ study
2023 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 408, article id 133496Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Impact-absorbing pavements (IAPs) may be used as novel sidewalks and bike lanes surface layers to decrease fall-related injuries among vulnerable road users (VRUs). Therefore, a cold-made, highly rubberised asphalt mixture (56% recycled rubber in the total volume of the mix) was developed in the laboratory, and the process was then upscaled, permitting its construction on a trial site. Both laboratory and on-site tests facilitated the evaluation of the material’s mechanical properties, impact-absorption capabilities, and frictional behaviour. The field trial enabled a comprehensive assessment of the material’s performance after six months of usage by pedestrians and cyclists on a hybrid segment. Additionally, evaluations were conducted after six, fifteen, and twenty months. The results confirmed the possibility to produce and lay a cold, highly rubberised paving material with valuable impact-attenuation performances. The mechanical analysis has shown the material’s elastic behaviour and its capability to carry uniaxial compression stress leading to a 5% strain of the total height without losing its properties. Furthermore, the critical fall height (CFH) values exhibited a sixfold increase compared to conventional asphalt, thereby reducing the severity of potential injuries. In terms of durability, the pavement’s overall effectiveness remained significant even after six, fifteen, and twenty months of use. The study demonstrated the capability to cover and fill holes and damaged portions using the same rubberised and cold mixture, a crucial aspect concerning the material’s future and maintenance considerations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Asphalt mixtures; Emulsification; Rubber; Cold process; Crumb rubber; Dry process; Fall-related injury; Impact-absorbing; Impact-absorbing pavement; In-Situ Study; Road users; Surface layers; Vulnerable road user; Pavements
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67678 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.133496 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173287049 (Scopus ID)
Note

The acknowledgements are gratefully given to: Ing. Filippo Venturucci, Prof. Svein Kleiven and the Neuronic KTH group in Sweden who helped to conduct a part of this study, the crumb rubber supplier through the participation of Svensk Däckåtervinning AB and the binders’ suppliers Valli Zabban and Iterchimica whose products were used during this project. The acknowledgement also goes to the city of Imola, Area Blu and C.T.I. for their contribution to the trial site. This research was funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement N° 765057 through the SAFERUP! Project.

Available from: 2023-11-14 Created: 2023-11-14 Last updated: 2023-11-14Bibliographically approved
Sahandifar, P., Makoundou, C., Fahlstedt, M., Sangiorgi, C., Johansson, K., Wallqvist, V. & Kleiven, S. (2022). A rubberized impact absorbing pavement can reduce the head injury risk in vulnerable road users: A bicycle and a pedestrian accident case study. Traffic Injury Prevention, 23(5), 315-320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A rubberized impact absorbing pavement can reduce the head injury risk in vulnerable road users: A bicycle and a pedestrian accident case study
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2022 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Vulnerable Road Users (VRU), including pedestrians and cyclists, are generally the least protected road users and are frequently missed in the planning process of preventive measures. Rubberized asphalt mixtures were originally developed as a possible environmentally friendly solution to recycle the End-of-Life Tires while making the pavements more durable. The objective of the current study was to explore the effects of increasing the rubber content of the common rubberized asphalt mixtures in reducing the head injuries risk for VRUs. Method: To achieve this purpose, four different sample series with 0, 14, 28, and 33 weight percent rubber in each were tested. A compressive test without permanent deformation and one with failure were performed on each sample series. The mechanical behavior of each set was modeled using a MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER material model in LS-Dyna and validated against a standard Head Injury Criterion (HIC) drop test. Ultimately, previously low-speed accident reconstructed cases, a bicycle and a pedestrian one, were used to assess the effect of varying the rubber content on reducing the head injury risk. Results: In the bicycle accident case, the risk of skull fracture was reduced from 0.99 to 0.29 when comparing the non-rubberized asphalt mixture with the 33% rubber mixture. In the same accident case, the risk of concussion, evaluated using the logistic regression method, was reduced from 0.97 in the non-rubberized mixture to 0.81 in the 33% rubber mixture. The initial conditions, linear and rotational velocities, were lower for the pedestrian case compared to the bicycle case (the bicycle case was more severe compared to the pedestrian case), which led to lower strains in the pedestrian case. In the pedestrian accident case, the risk of skull fracture was reduced from 1.00 in the non-rubberized mixture to 0.63 in the 33% rubber mixture, while the risk of concussion was reduced from 0.64 to 0.07. Conclusion: The rubberized asphalt mixtures could reduce the head injury risk for the studied cases when the rubber content in the asphalt mixture increases. © 2022 The Author(s). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2022
Keywords
bicycle accident, head injury, pedestrian accident, recycled rubber, Rubberized pavement, vulnerable road users, brain concussion, cycling, human, injury, pedestrian, prevention and control, skull fracture, traffic accident, Accidents, Traffic, Bicycling, Craniocerebral Trauma, Humans, Pedestrians, Skull Fractures
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60695 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2022.2067990 (DOI)2-s2.0-85130924758 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 765057; Funding details: VINNOVA, 2013-04465; Funding text 1: This work was supported by “BVFF–Bana väg för framtiden” under Grant number 2016-02; Sweden’s innovation agency, Vinnova under Grant number: D.nr.: 2013-04465); the SAFERUP! Project through the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation program Marie Skłodowska-Curie under Grant number 765057. Authors are grateful to the suppliers of the recycled crumb rubber (Ragn-sells through SDAB, Sweden) and bitumen used in this project.

Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Siverio Lima, M. S., Makoundou, C., Sangiorgi, C. & Gschösser, F. (2022). Life Cycle Assessment of Innovative Asphalt Mixtures Made with Crumb Rubber for Impact-Absorbing Pavements. Sustainability, 14(22), Article ID 14798.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment of Innovative Asphalt Mixtures Made with Crumb Rubber for Impact-Absorbing Pavements
2022 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 22, article id 14798Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study applies the life cycle assessment methodology to evaluate the environmental impacts of shock-absorbing pavements fabricated with recycled materials (crumb rubber and a colored pigment called ferrotone), employing the “cradle-to-grave” approach, in which the impacts of all life cycle phases (from materials’ acquisition to the end-of-life of the pavement) are included. The analysis compares the impacts of standard and innovative asphalt materials, considering cold and hot production processes. In addition, three different lifespans are simulated for the pavement structures: the reference service life until the first intervention is considered to be 5 years, and the following scenarios consider that the alternative asphalt materials may last 20% less (4 years) or 20% longer (6 years) than the reference service life. The analysis uses non-renewable cumulative energy demand (nr-CED) and global warming potential (GWP) as main indicators to determine the environmental impacts over a 45-year analysis period. The results show that adopting the “dry process” (consisting of adding the rubber as a partial substitution for aggregates) increases the overall impacts due to the need for higher contents of binder. However, if the alternative pavement structures last 20% longer than the reference, they would generate lower impacts in terms of nr-CED and GWP. © 2022 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
asphalt mixtures, crumb rubber, life cycle assessment, sustainability, urban pavements
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61376 (URN)10.3390/su142214798 (DOI)2-s2.0-85142723569 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, MSCA, 765057; Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 765057.; Funding text 2: The authors appreciate the support given by the European Union by funding the SAFERUP! Project, an innovative training network devoted to develop safe, accessible, and urban pavements.

Available from: 2022-12-08 Created: 2022-12-08 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Makoundou, C., Sangiorgi, C., Johansson, K. & Wallqvist, V. (2021). Development of functional rubber-based impact-absorbing pavements for cyclist and pedestrian injury reduction. Sustainability, 13(20), Article ID 11283.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of functional rubber-based impact-absorbing pavements for cyclist and pedestrian injury reduction
2021 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 20, article id 11283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cyclists, pedestrians and elderly people’s specific needs in urban road infrastructures are often neglected. They rarely benefit from safety measures or innovations. Inspired by playgrounds and aiming to reduce vulnerable road users (VRUs) injuries, the development of the rubber-based Impact-Absorbing Pavements (IAP) offers a possibility to rethink the design of urban pavements and address safety on roads, which constitutes a major challenge in terms of attaining more sustain-able, resilient, and safe cities. Therefore, bituminous mixtures with four different crumb rubber con-tents, 0%, 14%, 28%, and 33% (in total weight), were produced by partial aggregates substitution using the dry process. After the assessment of the geometrical and volumetric properties, the mechanical performances were evaluated. Finally, the samples were tested to measure the abrasion and impact attenuation with the well-known Head Injury Criterion (HIC), at different temperatures from −10 to 40 °C, to obtain a wide range of values referring to possible weather conditions. A significant effect of the rubber percentage and layer thickness on impact attenuation was observed. All observations and results confirm the feasibility of the IAP concept and its positive effect on future injury-prevention applications. © 2021 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Bituminous mixtures, Critical fall height (CFH), Crumb rubber, End-of-life tyres, Head injury criterion (HIC), Impact-absorbing pavements (IAPs), Pavement surfac-ing, Vulnerable road users (VRUs), feasibility study, injury, pavement, pedestrian, reduction, rubber
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56924 (URN)10.3390/su132011283 (DOI)2-s2.0-85117216683 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020, 765057; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement Nº 765057 through the SAFERUP! Project.

Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-22 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Makoundou, C., Johansson, K., Wallqvist, V. & Sangiorgi, C. (2021). Functionalization of crumb rubber surface for the incorporation into asphalt layers of reduced stiffness: An overview of existing treatment approaches. Recycling, 6(1), Article ID 19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functionalization of crumb rubber surface for the incorporation into asphalt layers of reduced stiffness: An overview of existing treatment approaches
2021 (English)In: Recycling, E-ISSN 2313-4321, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The substitution of mineral aggregates with crumb rubber (CR) from waste end‐of‐life tires (ELTs) in the asphalt concretes, has been considered a sustainable paving industry approach. The rubber has been used to construct pavements with proven enhanced resilience and improved durability. However, some issues related to the rubber’s surface adhesion or swelling may arise with these practices and generate complications (binder consumption, temperatures, mixing times). One possible solution to overcome the materials’ compatibility problems is to pre‐treat the CR’s surface before its incorporation into the asphalt mixes to allow a surface functionalization that can enhance coverage and cohesion inside the mixes. The physical treatments using radiations‐based beam are already exploited in the plastic recycling industries avoiding the use of chemicals in con-siderable amounts. Such treatments permit the recovering of large quantities of polymer‐based materials and the enhancement of interfacial properties. This article provides an overview of existing surface treatments of polymers and especially rubber, including gamma ray, UV‐ozone, micro-waves, and plasma. Several studies have shown an overall improvement of the rubber surface’s reactive properties due to contaminant removal or roughness enhancement attributed to cross‐link-ing or scission reactions occurring on the rubber’s surface layer. With those properties, the asphalt mixes’ phase stability properties are increased when the pre‐treated rubber is incorporated. The treatments would permit to increase the CR quantities, yet reduce the layer stiffness, and improve the durability and the sustainability of future advanced road pavements. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2021
Keywords
Asphalt binder, Crumb rubber, Dry process, End‐of‐life tires, Functionalization, Low‐stiffness asphalt concretes, Pavements, Surface treatment
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52638 (URN)10.3390/recycling6010019 (DOI)2-s2.0-85102892311 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020, 765057; Funding text 1: This research was funded by the European Union?s Horizon 2020 research and innova-tion program under the Marie Sk?odowska?Curie grant agreement N? 765057 through SAFERUP! Project.

Available from: 2021-03-30 Created: 2021-03-30 Last updated: 2024-01-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1565-1554

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