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Skilbred, E. S., Sæter Bøe, A., Holmvaag, O. A., Jiang, L. & Fjærestad, J. S. (2023). Brannsikkerhet i semiautomatiske parkeringsanlegg.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brannsikkerhet i semiautomatiske parkeringsanlegg
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2023 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fire safety in semi-automatic parking facilities

The main goal of this study is to contribute to increased safety in semi-automatic parking facilities. Semi-automatic parking facilities are parking facilities with a system for automatic stacking of cars, but in contrast to fully automatic parking facilities, these are not closed, compact, and unavailable for the public. The study is financed by The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK). A fire simulation was conducted to compare fire spread in a semi-automatic parking facility to fire spread in an ordinary parking facility. The results indicate that the spread of fire from the car that was first ignited to another car happens approximately equally fast in the two scenarios. Thereafter, the fire spread faster in the semi-automatic parking facility compared to the ordinary parking facility. Although these results should only be considered as indicative, they do show that decreasing the distance between rows of cars can lead to a much faster fire spread. The simulation also shows that the size of a fire in a relatively closed-off parking facility is not necessarily controlled by the number of cars but by the access to air. Hence, the number of openings and properties of ventilation systems in such facilities are important factors to consider when assessing fire safety. A study of regulations and experiences with semi-automatic parking facilities in Norway and other countries as well as aspects that increase risks in semi-automatic parking facilities was conducted. No specific fire-related experiences were discovered, but this is not surprising when considering that fires in parking facilities are relatively rare and there are relatively few semiautomatic parking facilities. In addition, these types of facilities are relatively new. The study found regulations for fully automatic parking facilities in Norway, but semiautomatic parking facilities are not covered by the same regulations. The current regulations do not ensure that the authorities are informed when automatic car-stacking systems are installed in existing parking facilities that are open to the public. There are no regulations ensuring that a fire safety assessment is conducted when an automatic car-stacking system is installed in an existing building regulated for parking that is accessible to the public. It is our opinion that there is a need for a new assessment of fire safety when a system for car stacking is established in an existing parking facility.

Publisher
p. 46
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:37
Keywords
Parking, semi-automatic parking facilities, car-stacking systems, fleet parking, fire safety, fire and rescue services., Parkering, semiautomatiske parkeringsanlegg, bilstablingssystem, flåteparkering, brannsikkerhet, brannvesen.
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64924 (URN)978-91-89757-83-7 (ISBN)
Note

Finansiert av: Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap og Direktoratet for byggkvalitet

Available from: 2023-06-07 Created: 2023-06-07 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Fjærestad, J. S., Meraner, C., Jiang, L. & Stølen, R. (2023). Brannsikkerhet ved oppføring og rehabilitering av bygg.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brannsikkerhet ved oppføring og rehabilitering av bygg
2023 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fire safety during construction and rehabilitation of buildings. This study deals with how the covering of buildings during the construction or rehabilitation of buildings affects fire safety and to what extent the regulations take this into account. The main focus has been mapping relevant requirements, recommendations, and performances related to the covering of buildings, mapping available materials, investigating the material’s fire properties, and modelling the spread of smoke within the covering. A mapping of the relevant laws and regulations applied for constructing and rehabilitating buildings has been carried out. The mapping has shown that demands are placed on owners, users, project owners, builders, businesses, employers, planners and contractors through many different laws and regulations. The people involved can have several roles, and similar roles have different names in the various regulations. For buildings in use, fire safety must be ensured for both the users and workers. It also applies that both the owner and the users are responsible for ensuring fire safety. It requires good communication and cooperation between different actors to ensure that fire safety is maintained for all involved, during the construction and rehabilitation of buildings. When covered scaffolding is used, the Regulations concerning the performance of work, use of work equipment and related technical requirements [10] require that the covering satisfy the fire requirements for materials used in escape routes (§17-20). The guideline to the Norwegian Regulations on technical requirements for construction works, TEK10, (Veiledningen til TEK10) §11-9, provides pre-accepted performance levels. For escape routes, class B-s1,d0 (In 1) is specified for walls and ceilings. There is no requirement for fire classification of the walkways in the scaffolding under the applicable laws and regulations. We believe there should be requirements for fire classification of the walkways, in the same way as for the covering, i.e., B-s1,d0 (In 1) for surfaces on walls and ceilings and Dfl-s1 (G) for surfaces on floors. The simulations of the spread of smoke from a fire inside a building during construction or rehabilitation show that the spread of smoke is affected when the scaffolding around the building is covered. Covering around the sides leads to a greater horizontal spread of smoke in the scaffolding than without covering. When the cover also has a roof, the smoke first accumulates underneath the cover's roof before it eventually also fills up with smoke down the floors of the scaffolding. The simulations showed that establishing an open field in the upper part of the cover would ventilate the smoke gases effectively, and the spread of smoke was essentially the same as for a cover without a roof. In addition, the simulation indicated that the air flow through the walkways in the scaffold could be an important factor in reducing the covering's negative effect on the spread of smoke. Of the 64 different products used for covering found in the survey, 35% had full classification according to EN 13501-1 (such as B,s1-d0). About 6% stated that the product was not flame retardant. Of the remainder, it was evenly distributed between those who stated a fire classification according to other test methods, those who did not provide any information on the fire properties and those who stated that the product was flame retardant without further specification. The mapping also indicates that the products from market leaders used by large general contractors provide products with documented fire properties. Conversations with two of Norway’s largest fire and rescue services shed light on several challenges connected to covering scaffolding and construction during firefighting activities. They pointed out that the covering could cause challenges and delays throughout their efforts. The covering gives a reduced visual overview of the spread of smoke and the location of doors and windows. This information is important for planning both extinguishing and smoke diver efforts. In addition, the covering can be an obstacle to the actual extinguishing effort, the use of an extinguishing agent and smoke divers and rescue efforts.

Publisher
p. 96
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:130
Keywords
Smoke spread, CFD simulation, review of regulations, scaffolding, covering, construction, fire safety, construction site, fire and rescue service., Røykspredning, CFD-simulering, gjennomgang av regelverk, stillas, tildekking, konstruksjon, brannsikkerhet, byggeplass, brann- og redningstjeneste
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68680 (URN)978-91-89896-17-8 (ISBN)
Note

Finansiert av: Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB) og Direktoratet forbyggkvalitet (DiBK)

Available from: 2023-12-27 Created: 2023-12-27 Last updated: 2023-12-27Bibliographically approved
Jiang, L., Olofsson, A., Ingason, H., Evegren, F. & Mindykowski, P. (2023). Effect of opening geometries on fire development in a ro-ro space. Ships and Offshore Structures, 272-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of opening geometries on fire development in a ro-ro space
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2023 (English)In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, p. 272-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of model scale experiments were conducted to study the fire development in a ro-ro deck with various opening geometries. The experiments were performed in a 1/8 reduced scale model with a heptane pool fire as fire source. Experimental results show that both the ventilation factor and the opening position affect the fire development. The critical opening ratio for the fire to self-extinguish is 4%, with the opening locating at the bottom of the side walls while no self-extinction is found for other tests. A higher opening position and a larger opening height provide better flow exchange between the deck and the ambient, but this effect is only obvious for 4% opening. Numerical study shows that Fire Dynamic Simulator used with default simple settings underestimates the fire development and yields an early extinction when fire self-extinction occurs. For freely developed fire with large openings, FDS gives more close results to experiments.

Keywords
Ro-ro space; fire development; opening; ventilation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58834 (URN)10.1080/17445302.2022.2038467 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationThe Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation
Note

The tests and simulations constitute parts of the research project RO5 (ro-ro spacefire ventilation) which isfinanced by Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) and The Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation (Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus).

Available from: 2022-03-18 Created: 2022-03-18 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Y., Yao, Y., Ren, F., Zhu, H., Zhang, S. & Jiang, L. (2023). Effects of ambient pressure on smoke propagation in inclined tunnel fires under natural ventilation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30, 65074-65085
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of ambient pressure on smoke propagation in inclined tunnel fires under natural ventilation
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, p. 65074-65085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper systematically studied the coupling effect of ambient pressure and tunnel slope on temperature distribution and smoke propagation in full-scale tunnel fires under natural ventilation by FDS. The downstream length (longitudinal length from fire source center to tunnel downstream exit) was also considered. The concept of “height difference of stack effect” was put forward when analyzing the mutual effect of tunnel slope and downstream length on smoke movement. The results show that the maximum smoke temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing ambient pressure or tunnel slope. The longitudinal smoke temperature decays faster with the decreasing ambient pressure or slope in inclined tunnel. The induced inlet airflow velocity increases with the increasing height difference of stack effect, while decreases with the increasing ambient pressure. And the smoke backlayering length decreases with the increasing height difference of stack effect. Taking heat release rate (HRR), ambient pressure, tunnel slope and downstream length into account, the prediction models of dimensionless induced inlet airflow velocity and smoke backlayering length in inclined tunnel fires at high altitude were developed, which agree well with our and others’ results. The outcomes of current study are great meaningful to fire detection and smoke control in inclined tunnel fires at high altitude. © 2023, The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Keywords
Ambient pressure, Downstream length, Inclined tunnel fires, Induced inlet airflow velocity, Smoke backlayering length, Temperature distribution, Tunnel slope
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64413 (URN)10.1007/s11356-023-26774-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85153111029 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: HZ2020-KF02; Funding details: National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC, 52206186; Funding details: Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, 2022JCCXAQ05; Funding text 1: This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China [No. 52206186], Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities [No. 2022JCCXAQ05] and Opening Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Fire Science [No. HZ2020-KF02].

Available from: 2023-05-03 Created: 2023-05-03 Last updated: 2024-06-07Bibliographically approved
Yao, Y., Wang, J., Jiang, L., Wu, B. & Qu, B. (2023). Numerical study on fire behavior and temperature distribution in a blind roadway with different sealing situations. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30, 36967-36978
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical study on fire behavior and temperature distribution in a blind roadway with different sealing situations
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, p. 36967-36978Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blind roadways have only one portal which connects with other types of mine roadways. Sealing the fire area in a blind roadway is an effective method of disaster relief in a mine. To understand the effect of sealing ratio and sealing distance on fire behavior, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS 6.6) was used to study blind roadway fires with different fire scenarios. Results indicate that the smoke flow velocity increases significantly with the increase of sealing distance. The fire in the blind roadway is ventilation-controlled. When the sealing ratio reaches 80%, the fire self-extinguishes completely. Otherwise, the fire experiences an extinguishing-reburning cycle periodically. Besides, an empirical model is proposed to predict the downstream temperature distribution beneath the ceiling in the region from fire source to sealing position. The predictions by the proposed model comply well with the simulation and experimental results from our and others’ studies. This study provides new insights into the sealing strategies in blind roadway fires, and the outcomes of the current study are of guiding significance for the fire rescue in the blind roadways or similar structures. © 2022, The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Keywords
Blind roadway fire, Downstream temperature distribution, Fire behavior, Sealing distance, Sealing ratio, Smoke movement
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62610 (URN)10.1007/s11356-022-24896-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85144694114 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: HZ2020-KF02; Funding details: National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC, 52206186; Funding details: Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, 2022JCCXAQ05; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 52206186), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2022JCCXAQ05), and Opening Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (No. HZ2020-KF02).

Available from: 2023-01-20 Created: 2023-01-20 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Ingason, H., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Jiang, L. (2022). Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel. Fire safety journal, 129, Article ID 103567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel
2022 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 129, article id 103567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of 1:3 intermediate scale tunnel fire tests was performed to investigate the performance of a fully automatic sprinkler system in a road tunnel. The experiments were carried in a container tunnel with scaled geometry, using wood pallets as the fire source to simulate HGV fires. The activation of the sprinklers was simulated by using thermocouples that corresponded to a given Thermal Response Index (RTI) of a sprinkler bulb or a link. A total of 12 tests were carried out with varying longitudinal velocities (0.8–1.7 m/s), sprinkler activation temperatures (68–141 °C), water densities (2.9–8.7 mm/min) and types of arrangement of the fuel. The activation times, number of activated sprinklers, maximum heat release rates and other key parameters are presented and analyzed. The results show that the water density plays a key role in the performance of the automatic sprinkler systems tested. A high tunnel ventilation velocity, low water density and low sprinkler activation temperature are not recommended. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Activation, Automatic sprinkler, Model scale, Tunnel fire, Tunnel velocity, Chemical activation, Fires, Flammability testing, Sprinkler systems (irrigation), Thermocouples, Activation temperatures, Fire tests, Performance, Road tunnel, Sprinkler activation, Tunnel fires, Water density, Hose
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58999 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103567 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127092273 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering, SKB; Funding details: Trafikverket; Funding text 1: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundstr?m at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.; Funding text 2: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) . The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundström at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, A., Evegren, F., Mindykowski, P., Jiang, L., Ukaj, K., Zawadowska, A. & Ingason, H. (2020). RO5 ro-ro space fire ventilation: Summary report. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RO5 ro-ro space fire ventilation: Summary report
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2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is the final report from the research project RO5. The report summarises the results from the research project RO5. The report consists of summary from a literature study, from computer simulations and from model scale tests. This, together with results from full scale demonstrational test (documented only in this report) leads to the conceptional solutions and recommendations presented in this report. The project focused aim was to investigate the effects of ventilation on fire development in ro-ro spaces with different ventilation conditions.

Important conclusion from the literature study is that ventilation is primary to prevent flammable and other harmful gases from accumulating in the spaces, and the mechanical ventilation is not designed to be functional in case of fire. It is a must for the crew to gain knowledge about the ventilation system (i.e. fans, inlets and outlets) and its capacity from tests and experiences. It is important that guidelines, rules and routines are established for using the ventilation system in typical conditions (loading/unloading etc.) and that it is documented and passed on to provide guidance for the ship's crew.

One of the most important conclusions from the model scale tests and numerical simulation study is that distinct limitation is found for 4% opening of space sides (natural ventilation) for the fire self-extinction to occur. This is dependent on the height and shape of the opening. For the mechanical ventilation case, in case of fire, stopping the ventilation is the best way to reduce the fire intensity. The tests show that mechanical ventilation is vital for the fire to continue to burn. The recommendations aim at giving advise concerning ventilation in case of fire and how to deal with the ventilation at different ro-ro spaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2020. p. 55
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2020:06
Keywords
ro-ro space, ro-ro deck, weather deck, water cannon, ventilation, SOLAS, fire accident, fire test, model scale tests, guidance, open ro-ro space, closed ro-ro space, water monitor
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44425 (URN)978-91-89049-86-4 (ISBN)
Funder
The Swedish Mercantile Marine FoundationSwedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Jiang, L. & Ingason, H. (2020). Use of mobile fans during tunnel fires. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 106, Article ID 103618.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of mobile fans during tunnel fires
2020 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 106, article id 103618Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smoke control is a key issue in tunnel fire accidents. While jet fans have been widely used in road tunnels, mobile fans provide a good complement, due to its flexibility to operate, especially if there are no fixed jet fans present. To confirm the feasibility of a mobile fan system, full scale fire tests were conducted in Kalldal tunnel in Sweden, with fire size in the range of 1–2.6 MW and a mobile fan placed at the tunnel portal. In the tests, it takes about 4–5 min to establish full flow in the opposite direction and the final flow velocity can reach 1.5–1.9 m/s. To describe the transient behavior of flow development inside tunnel, a one-dimensional lumped theoretical model has been developed. The model takes into account the pressure losses of external wind, the stack effect of fire and friction losses over tunnel walls and two portals. The model is validated using the data from Kalldal tunnel fire tests. Results show that the model can well predict the initial and final steady state velocity, but underestimates the flow development. The model gives prediction on the safe side.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Flow development, Full-scale tests, Mobile fan, Theoretical model, Tunnel fire, Fire protection, Flow velocity, Smoke, Smoke abatement, Full scale fire test, Pressure loss, Smoke control, Steady-state velocity, Theoretical modeling, Transient behavior, Tunnel portals, Fires, fire management, numerical model, prediction, theoretical study, transient flow, tunnel, Sweden
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-48920 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2020.103618 (DOI)2-s2.0-85091026936 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: The work was funded by the Swedish Road Administration . Acknowledgements to B I G Germany who provided with the mobile fan and to RISE Tunnel and Underground Safety Centre (TUSC) for the financial support to the project.

Available from: 2020-10-14 Created: 2020-10-14 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, A., Mindykowski, P., Jiang, L., Rakovic, A. & Ingason, H. (2019). Model scale tests of a ro-ro space fire ventilation. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model scale tests of a ro-ro space fire ventilation
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The report contains results from a parametric study using model scale tests with natural and mechanical ventilation on ro-ro ship. Two types of fuels were used, heptane liquid fire and wood cribs. The heptane fire was used for the test series using natural ventilation and wood cribs were used in the test series using mechanical ventilation. The tests were carried out in a scale model 1:8 made of steel covered with 6 mm thick gypsum boards. The size of the model was 14.4 m long, 2.8 m wide and 0.6 m high. For natural ventilation different opening sizes (0, 1, 4 and 10% of the area of the walls along the sides) and shapes were located at different hull sides and sill heights. For mechanical ventilation both inlets supply, and outlets extracts were attached to the model and external fans combined with opening or closing of one end side. The air change per hours (ACPH) were set at 0, 10 and 20.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2019
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:94
Keywords
fire test, model scale test, ro-ro space, ro-ro deck, ventilation, SOLAS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44401 (URN)978-91-89049-24-6 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationThe Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation
Note

One of three RISE reports from the project RO5

Available from: 2020-03-06 Created: 2020-03-06 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H. & Jiang, L. (2018). Influence of tunnel slope on smoke control.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of tunnel slope on smoke control
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The critical velocity and backlayering length in sloped tunnels are investigated by numerical simulations using FDS. Simulation in two full-scale tunnels, with negative slopes ranging up to -18 % and heat release rates from 5 to 100 MW were carried out.

The results show that NFPA 502 equation significantly overestimates the effect of negative slopes.

The equation proposed by Atkinson and Wu is found to be in closer agreement with the results. A simplified correlation, i.e. Eq. (12), is proposed and recommended for practical use.

The previous correlation for dimensionless backlayering length, Eq. (3), is valid for tunnels of various slopes and aspect ratios, and can be used for prediction of backlayering length.

Publisher
p. 22
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:50
Keywords
critical velocity, tunnels, sloped tunnel, FDS
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36626 (URN)978-91-88695-92-5 (ISBN)
Note

In the previous version there were misprints that have been corrected in the present version. The report/full text has been updated 2019-04-23 according to following corrections:

Equation (8) was given for two equations. The equation number sequence after Equation (8) has been corrected as well as references in text and graphs (2,4 and 6) to the corresponding equations.

In the previous version, Equations (8) on page 9, Equation (9) on page 11, Equation (10) on page 12 and Equation (13) on page 15 there was a misprint in the exponents for the boundaries given; a negative sign has been changed to positive sign in these equations.

Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9468-4586

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