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Brooke, R., Freitag, K., Petsagkourakis, I., Nilsson, M. & Andersson Ersman, P. (2023). All-Printed Electrochromic Stickers. Macromolecular materials and engineering, 308(9), Article ID 2300044.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-Printed Electrochromic Stickers
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2023 (English)In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, no 9, article id 2300044Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Displays are one of the most mature technologies in the field of printed electronics. Their ability to be manufactured in large quantities and at low cost has led to their recent uptake into the consumer market. Within this article this technology is extended to electrochromic display stickers. This is achieved using a recent reverse display architecture screen printed on textile and paper sticker substrates. The electrochromic stickers are comparable to plastic control substrates and show little performance difference even when adhered to curved surfaces. The electrochromic display technology is extended to sticker labels for authentication applications by patterning either the dielectric or the graphical layer. A proof-of-concept prototype emulating a wax seal on an envelope is presented to show that other colors can be implemented in this technology. © 2023 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
electrochromic displays, electrochromic stickers, electrochromism, PEDOT:PSS, screen printing, Conducting polymers, Electrochromic devices, Substrates, All-printed, Consumer market, Electrochromic sticker, Electrochromics, Low-costs, PEDOT/PSS, Performance, Printed electronics, Screen-printed
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64726 (URN)10.1002/mame.202300044 (DOI)2-s2.0-85153338202 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Andersson Ersman, P.; Digital Systems, Sweden; email: peter.andersson.ersman@ri.se; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF; Funding text 1: This project was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research.

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson Ersman, P., Freitag, K., Nilsson, M., Åhlin, J., Brooke, R., Nordgren, N., . . . Beni, V. (2023). Electrochromic Displays Screen Printed on Transparent Nanocellulose-Based Substrates. Advanced Photonics Research, Article ID 2200012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochromic Displays Screen Printed on Transparent Nanocellulose-Based Substrates
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Photonics Research, ISSN 2699-9293, article id 2200012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Manufacturing of electronic devices via printing techniques is often considered to be an environmentally friendly approach, partially due to the efficient utilization of materials. Traditionally, printed electronic components (e.g., sensors, transistors, and displays) are relying on flexible substrates based on plastic materials; this is especially true in electronic display applications where, most of the times, a transparent carrier is required in order to enable presentation of the display content. However, plastic-based substrates are often ruled out in end user scenarios striving toward sustainability. Paper substrates based on ordinary cellulose fibers can potentially replace plastic substrates, but the opaqueness limits the range of applications where they can be used. Herein, electrochromic displays that are manufactured, via screen printing, directly on state-of-the-art fully transparent substrates based on nanocellulose are presented. Several different nanocellulose-based substrates, based on either nanofibrillated or nanocrystalline cellulose, are manufactured and evaluated as substrates for the manufacturing of electrochromic displays, and the optical and electrical switching performances of the resulting display devices are reported and compared. The reported devices do not require the use of metals and/or transparent conductive oxides, thereby providing a sustainable all-printed electrochromic display technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2023
Keywords
electrochromic displays, nanocellulose, organic electronics, PEDOT:PSS, printed electronics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59998 (URN)10.1002/adpr.202200012 (DOI)
Note

This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the grant agreement no. 761000—GREENSENSE. Additional financial support was provided by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (grant agreement no. EM16-0002).

Available from: 2022-08-26 Created: 2022-08-26 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Petsagkourakis, I., Freitag, K., Mulla, M. Y., Nilsson, M., . . . Andersson Ersman, P. (2023). Paper Electronics Utilizing Screen Printing and Vapor Phase Polymerization. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 7(7), Article ID 2300058.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paper Electronics Utilizing Screen Printing and Vapor Phase Polymerization
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 7, no 7, article id 2300058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rise of paper electronics has been accelerated due to the public push for sustainability. Electronic waste can potentially be avoided if certain materials in electronic components can be substituted for greener alternatives such as paper. Within this report, it is demonstrated that conductive polymers poly(3,4-ethylenedoxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole, and polythiophene, can be synthesized by screen printing combined with vapor phase polymerization on paper substrates and further incorporated into functional electronic components. High patterning resolution (100 µm) is achieved for all conductive polymers, with PEDOT showing impressive sheet resistance values. PEDOT is incorporated as conductive circuitry and as the active material in all-printed electrochromic displays. The conductive polymer circuits allow for functional light emitting diodes, while the electrochromic displays are comparable to commercial displays utilizing PEDOT on plastic substrates. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
conductive polymers, paper electronics, PEDOT, printed electronics, vapor phase polymerization, Electrochromism, Network components, Polypyrroles, Screen printing, Substrates, Conductive Polymer, Electrochromic displays, Electronic component, Electronics wastes, Paper substrate, Synthesised, Polymerization
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64953 (URN)10.1002/adsu.202300058 (DOI)2-s2.0-85159261879 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Edberg, J.; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden; email: jesper.edberg@ri.se; Funding details: 2016‐05193; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, EM16‐0002; Funding details: Horizon 2020, 101008701;  This work was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (Diary number EM16‐0002), Vinnova for the Digital Cellulose Center (Diary number 2016‐05193) and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement 101008701 (EMERGE).

Available from: 2023-06-09 Created: 2023-06-09 Last updated: 2024-06-10Bibliographically approved
Freitag, K., Brooke, R., Nilsson, M., Åhlin, J., Beni, V. & Andersson Ersman, P. (2023). Screen Printed Reflective Electrochromic Displays for Paper and Other Opaque Substrates. ACS Applied Optical Materials, 1(2), 578-586
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screen Printed Reflective Electrochromic Displays for Paper and Other Opaque Substrates
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2023 (English)In: ACS Applied Optical Materials, ISSN 2771-9855, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 578-586Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Paper electronics is a viable alternative to traditional electronics, leading to more sustainable electronics. Many challenges still require solutions before paper electronics become mainstream. Here, we present a solution to enable the manufacturing of reflective all-printed organic electrochromic displays (OECDs) on paper substrates; devices that are usually printed on transparent substrates, for example, plastics. In order to operate on opaque paper substrates, an architecture for reversely printed OECDs (rOECDs) is developed. In this architecture, the electrochromic layer is printed as the last functional layer and can therefore be viewed from the print side. Square shaped 1 cm2 rOECDs are successfully screen printed on paper, with a high manufacturing yield exceeding 99%, switching times <3 s and high color contrast (ΔE* > 27). Approximately 60% of the color is retained after 15 min in open-circuit mode. Compared to the conventional screen printed OECD architectures, the rOECDs recover approximately three times faster from storage in a dry environment, which is particularly important in systems where storage in low humidity atmosphere is required, for example, in many biosensing applications. Finally, a more complex rOECD with 9 individually addressable segments is successfully screen printed and demonstrated.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64117 (URN)10.1021/acsaom.2c00140 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-03-01 Created: 2023-03-01 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Wijeratne, K., Hübscher, K., Belaineh Yilma, D. & Andersson Ersman, P. (2022). Combining Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing for Printed Electronics on Flexible Substrates. Advanced Materials Technologies, 7(7), Article ID 2101665.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Vapor Phase Polymerization and Screen Printing for Printed Electronics on Flexible Substrates
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 7, article id 2101665Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large area manufacturing of printed electronic components on ~A4-sized substrates is demonstrated by the combination of screen printing and vapor phase polymerization (VPP) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The oxidant layer required for the polymerization process is screen printed, and the resulting conductive polymer patterns are manufactured at high resolution (100 µm). Successful processing of several common oxidant species is demonstrated, and the thickness can be adjusted by altering the polymerization time. By comparing the polymer films of this work to a commercial PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT doped with poly(styrene sulfonate)) screen printing ink shows improved surface roughness (26 vs 69 nm), higher conductivity (500 vs 100 S cm–1) and better resolution (100 vs 200 µm). Organic electrochemical transistors, in which the transistor channel is polymerized into PEDOT through VPP, are also demonstrated to further emphasize on the applicability of this manufacturing approach. The resulting transistor devices are not only functional, they also show remarkable switching behavior with respect to ON current levels (–70 mA at –1 V), ON/OFF ratios (&gt;105), switching times (tens of ms) and transconductance values (&gt;100 mS) in standalone transistor devices, in addition to a high amplification factor (&gt;30) upon integration into a screen printed inverter circuit. © 2022 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022
Keywords
Conducting polymers, Flexible electronics, Polymerization, Screen printing, Styrene, Substrates, Surface roughness, Transistors, Advanced material technologies, Conductive Polymer, Electronic component, Ethylenedioxythiophenes, Flexible substrate, Polymer patterns, Polymerization process, Printed electronics, Screen-printed, Vapor phase polymerization, Oxidants
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59102 (URN)10.1002/admt.202101665 (DOI)2-s2.0-85122392869 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF; Funding details: Horizon 2020, 825339; Funding text 1: This project was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the grant agreement no. 825339 – WEARPLEX.

Available from: 2022-04-13 Created: 2022-04-13 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Makhinia, A., Hübscher, K., Beni, V. & Andersson Ersman, P. (2022). High Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Logic Circuits Manufactured via a Combination of Screen and Aerosol Jet Printing Techniques. Advanced Materials Technologies, 7(10), Article ID 2200153.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Logic Circuits Manufactured via a Combination of Screen and Aerosol Jet Printing Techniques
2022 (English)In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2200153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work demonstrates a novel fabrication approach based on the combination of screen and aerosol jet printing to manufacture fully printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and OECT-based logic circuits on PET substrates with superior performances. The use of aerosol jet printing allows for a reduction of the channel width to ≈15 µm and the estimated volume by a factor of ≈40, compared to the fully screen printed OECTs. Hence, the OECT devices and OECT-based logic circuits fabricated with the proposed approach emerge with a high ON/OFF ratio (103–104) and remarkably fast switching response, reaching an ON/OFF ratio of &gt;103 in 4–8 ms, which is further demonstrated by a propagation delay time of just above 1 ms in OECT-based logic inverter circuits operated at a frequency of 100 Hz. All-printed monolithically integrated OECT-based five-stage ring oscillator circuits further validated the concept with a resulting self-oscillation frequency of 60 Hz. © 2022 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022
Keywords
aerosol jet printing, OECT, PEDOT:PSS, printed electronics, screen printing, Aerosols, Conducting polymers, Delay circuits, Oscillators (electronic), Substrates, Timing circuits, % reductions, Aerosol jet printings, Channel widths, Organic electrochemical transistors, PEDOT/PSS, Performance, PET substrate, Printing techniques, Screen-printed, Computer circuits
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60775 (URN)10.1002/admt.202200153 (DOI)2-s2.0-85130903462 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020, 813863, 825339; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska‐Curie grant agreement No 813863 (BORGES) and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the grant agreement No 825339 (WEARPLEX).

Available from: 2022-10-13 Created: 2022-10-13 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Åhlin, J., Hübscher, K., Hagel, O., Strandberg, J., Sawatdee, A. & Edberg, J. (2022). Large-scale paper supercapacitors on demand. Journal of Energy Storage, 50, Article ID 104191.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale paper supercapacitors on demand
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, article id 104191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Clean, sustainable electrical energy could be the next greatest challenge and opportunity of mankind. While the creation of clean energy has been proven, the storage of such energy requires much more research and development. Battery and energy storage technology today relies heavily on rare metals which cannot support large production needs of society. Therefore, the need for energy storage technology to be created sustainably is of great importance. Recently, conductive polymers, a class of organic materials, have shown impressive results in energy storage but requires further development if this technology is to be implemented in various energy storage applications. Here, we report a new ‘on demand’ design for supercapacitors that allows for individual devices in addition to devices in parallel and in series to increase the capacitance and voltage, respectively. The individual device showed impressive capacity up to 10 F while increasing the area with the large parallel device increased the capacitance to a record 127.8 F (332.8 mF/cm2). The ‘on demand’ design also allows paper supercapacitors to be in series to increase the operating voltage with an example device showing good charging behavior up to 5 V when 4 individual paper supercapacitors were arranged in series. Finally, the paper supercapacitors were incorporated into a prototype titled: ‘Norrkoping Starry Night’ which bridges the gap between art and science. An all-printed electrochromic display showing the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, complete with a touch sensor as an on/off switch and silicon solar cells to charge the paper supercapacitors is presented to bring several printed technologies together, highlighting the possibilities of the new paper supercapacitors within this report. © 2022

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Capacitance, Energy storage, Organic polymers, Storage (materials), Clean energy, Conductive Polymer, Electrical energy, Energy, Energy storage technologies, Individual devices, Large-scales, On demands, Rare metals, Research and development, Supercapacitor
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58770 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2022.104191 (DOI)2-s2.0-85124619801 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 2016–05193; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, GMT14–0058; Funding details: VINNOVA, 05193; Funding text 1: This work was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research ( GMT14–0058 ) and Vinnova through the Digital Cellulose Center (2016–05193). Authors of this manuscript were also supported by Treesearch.; Funding text 2: The authors would like to thank Patrik Arven for the work on the electrical components for the Norrkoping Starry night proof of concept device. This work was financially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (GMT14?0058) and Vinnova through the Digital Cellulose Center (2016?05193). Authors of this manuscript were also supported by Treesearch.

Available from: 2022-03-03 Created: 2022-03-03 Last updated: 2024-03-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson Ersman, P., Freitag, K., Kawahara, J. & Åhlin, J. (2022). The rise of electrochromics through dynamic QR codes and grayscale images in screen printed passive matrix addressed displays. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article ID 10959.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The rise of electrochromics through dynamic QR codes and grayscale images in screen printed passive matrix addressed displays
2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 10959Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronic matrix addressed displays capable of presenting arbitrary grayscale images typically require complex device architectures including switching components to provide unique pixel addressability. Here, we demonstrate high-yield manufacturing of passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays on flexible substrates by solely using screen printing. The simple pixel architecture, obtained by printing only three active layers on top of each other, concurrently provides both the electrochromic functionality and the critical non-linear pixel switching response that enables presentation of arbitrary grayscale images in the resulting passive matrix addressed displays. The all-printed display technology exhibits unprecedented performance and is further verified by dynamic QR codes, to exemplify utilization within authentication, packaging, or other emerging Internet of Things applications requiring a low-cost display for data visualization. © 2022, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Research, 2022
Keywords
article, data visualization, internet of things, printing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59822 (URN)10.1038/s41598-022-14792-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85133687010 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020, 761000; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Strategisk Forskning, SSF, EM16-0002; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 761000. Additional financial support was provided by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (grant agreement No EM16-0002).

Available from: 2022-08-04 Created: 2022-08-04 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7303-6210

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