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Bergman, K., Woodhouse, A., Langeland, M., Vidakovic, A., Alriksson, B. & Hornborg, S. (2024). Environmental and biodiversity performance of a novel single cell protein for rainbow trout feed. Science of the Total Environment, 907, Article ID 168018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental and biodiversity performance of a novel single cell protein for rainbow trout feed
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2024 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 907, article id 168018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seafood has an important role to play to achieve a sustainable food system that provides healthy food to a growing world population. Future seafood production will be increasingly reliant on aquaculture where feed innovation is essential to reduce environmental impacts and minimize feed and food competition. This study aimed to investigate whether a novel single cell protein feed ingredient based on Paecilomyces variotii grown on a side stream from the forest industry could improve environmental sustainability of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by replacing the soy protein concentrate used today. A Life Cycle Assessment including commonly addressed impacts but also the rarely assessed biodiversity impacts was performed. Furthermore, feeding trials were included for potential effects on fish growth, i.e., an assessment of the environmental impacts for the functional unit ‘kg feed required to produce 1 kg live-weight rainbow trout’. Results showed that the best experimental diet containing P. variotii performed 16–73 % better than the control diet containing soy protein concentrate in all impact categories except for energy demand (21 % higher impact). The largest environmental benefits from replacing soy protein with P. variotii in rainbow trout diets was a 73 % reduction of impact on biodiversity and halved greenhouse gas emissions. The findings have high relevance for the aquaculture industry as the production scale and feed composition was comparable to commercial operations and because the effect on fish growth from inclusion of the novel ingredient in a complete diet was evaluated. The results on biodiversity loss from land use change and exploitation through fishing suggest that fishery can dominate impacts and exclusion thereof can greatly underestimate biodiversity impact. Finally, a novel feed ingredient grown on side streams from the forest industry has potential to add to food security through decreasing the dependence on increasingly scarce agricultural land resources. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2024
Keywords
Environmental impact; Fish; Fish products; Fisheries; Food supply; Forestry; Gas emissions; Greenhouse gases; Land use; Life cycle; Proteins; Sustainable development; Ecosystem quality; Feed ingredients; Filamentous fungus; Forest industry; LCA; Oncorhynchus mykiss; Paecilomyces variotii; Rainbow trout; Side streams; Single cell proteins; biodiversity; cell; environmental impact; life cycle analysis; performance assessment; protein; Biodiversity
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67952 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.168018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175487605 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work resulted from the SALMONAID project supported by Vinnova (grant number 2016-03351 ) and the Blue Food Center funded by FORMAS (grant number 2020-02834 ). 

Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ziegler, F., Nistad, A. A., Langeland, M., Wocken, Y., Hognes, E. S. & Mehta, S. (2024). Greenhouse gas emission reduction opportunities for the Norwegian salmon farming sector - can they outweigh growth?. Aquaculture, 581, Article ID 740431.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greenhouse gas emission reduction opportunities for the Norwegian salmon farming sector - can they outweigh growth?
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2024 (English)In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 581, article id 740431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon is a nutritious type of food in increasing demand and although production has stagnated and is faced by various challenges, it is likely to continue to expand in the future. We present results from a detailed greenhouse gas emission assessment of the most important Norwegian farmed salmon export products along with improvement measures. By scaling up both baseline results and reduction opportunities, based on growth projections, we estimate current and future emissions of the sector as a whole. We show that export of gutted salmon to Europe by truck dominates Norwegian salmon exports, not only in volume and value, but also in emissions, followed by export of fresh gutted salmon and fillets to Asia and fillets to the US by air. The cumulative greenhouse gas emissions are dominated by feed production followed by emissions from overseas airfreighting of fresh products. The five most important emission reduction measures, based only on existing technology and without particular order were 1) slightly increased feed efficiency, 2) increased utilization of side streams occurring in secondary processing after export, 3) seafreight to market instead of road and air, 4) higher energy efficiency and cleaner energy sources, and 5) changed feed composition. Collectively, they have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of current production by 60%, from 5.2 to 2.1 million tonnes of CO2e, assuming the same relative importance of each supply chain. This implies that a medium growth-scenario, representing more than a doubling of the volume of salmon farmed to 3.3 million tonnes, would be possible while reducing total sector emissions by 16% if the improvement measures were fully implemented. For larger reductions, either lower growth or more ambitious implementation of improvement measures is needed. Although greenhouse gas emissions are often linked to resource efficiency and wider sustainability, this is not always the case, and it is important to avoid shifting burdens from climate to e.g. eutrophication or biodiversity impacts. However, many environmental impacts of salmon farming are centered around feed efficiency, and even problems with welfare, escapees, and in part eutrophication are reflected in lower feed efficiency resulting in higher greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to the systematic collection of robust data for more continuous monitoring of greenhouse gas emission performance over time, we therefore recommend identifying additional indicators to monitor to ensure the sector develops not only towards climate neutrality but also towards broader sustainability. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2024
National Category
Fish and Wildlife Management Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68574 (URN)10.1016/j.aquaculture.2023.740431 (DOI)2-s2.0-85178097476 (Scopus ID)
Note

The Norwegian seafood research fund (FHF) is acknowledged for funding the work.

Available from: 2023-12-13 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Warwas, N., Langeland, M., Roques, J. A. C., Montjouridès, M., Smeets, J., Sundh, H., . . . Sundell, K. (2023). Fish processing side streams are promising ingredients in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) – Effects on growth physiology, appetite, and intestinal health. Journal of Fish Biology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fish processing side streams are promising ingredients in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) – Effects on growth physiology, appetite, and intestinal health
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Due to the growth of aquaculture and the finite supply of fishmeal and oil, alternative marine protein and lipid sources are highly sought after. Particularly promising is the use of side streams from the fish processing industry, allowing for the recovery and retention of otherwise lost nutrients in the food production chain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of three fish processing side streams as fish feed ingredients. The side streams originated from different stages of the production chain, were used without further processing, and included sprat trimmings (heads, frames, viscera), marinated herring (fillets) and mackerel in tomato sauce (fillets and sauce). The three side streams contained moderate levels of protein (28–32% dry matter) and high levels of lipid (34–43%). The sprat trimmings included ca. 29% ash and 1.5% phosphorous which may add value due to the high level of essential minerals but needs to be considered in feed formulations. Three diets were formulated to include 50% of each side stream replacing all fishmeal and ca. 80% of the fish oil of the control diet, which contained 35% fishmeal and 10% fish oil. The diets were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish fed the sprat diet displayed the highest feed intake and growth, and showed no negative effects on the intestinal health. The mackerel side stream displayed a good digestibility but resulted in lower growth rates compared to the sprat trimmings. Fish fed the herring diet, displayed the lowest performance regarding growth, feed intake and digestibility. They further exhibited a reduction in nutrient uptake in both proximal and distal intestine, likely contributing to the observed lower digestibility and growth, and a reduction in plasma ghrelin levels. As part of a circular approach to increase marine lipid and protein production for fish feed, the tested sprat and mackerel side streams are promising raw materials however additional studies using more commercial-like feed formulations are encouraged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67977 (URN)10.1111/jfb.15589 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175495407 (Scopus ID)
Note

We would like to thank the Swedish board of Agriculture (Dnr:3.3.17-17137/2020), The Royal Swedish Academy of Agricultureand Forestry (KSLA, GFS2021-0040), the Swedish MaricultureResearch Center (SWEMARC) and the Blue Food–Center for theseafood of the future (FORMAS, Dnr: 2020–02834) for financingthis project.

Available from: 2023-11-24 Created: 2023-11-24 Last updated: 2023-11-24Bibliographically approved
Langeland, M., Ziegler, F. & Wocken, Y. (2023). Greenhouse gas emissions of rainbow troutfed conventional and novel feeds from Balticregion, evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greenhouse gas emissions of rainbow troutfed conventional and novel feeds from Balticregion, evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aquaculture production set a new record in 2020, with over 120 million tonnes of production, whichcorresponds to about half of the global seafood consumption. However, Swedish aquacultureproduction is currently low, but slowly increasing. The global aquaculture sector is predicted tocontinue to grow but needs to reduce its environmental footprint. In intensive aquaculture in whichfeed is used, feed inputs often account for the largest share of environmental impacts, thus feeddevelopment is a priority to increase the sustainability of fed aquaculture.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental sustainability implications of shiftingto more regional and circular feed inputs for rainbow trout, by, as a first step, estimating thegreenhouse gas emissions – or carbon footprint- of the novel feed and fish raised on it compared toconventional production. Fish were produced in net pens in Sweden and fed either a conventionalfeed (reference), or an experimental feed in which 60% of the protein content derives from novelingredients (insects, blue mussels, sea squirts and fava bean protein isolate) sourced from the Nordiccountries to replace land animal by-products (i.e. blood meal and poultry by product meal) and soyprotein concentrate.Results show that the novel feed reduces greenhouse gas emissions of one kg of rainbow troutby around 63 %. Fish fed the experimental feed maintained the same growth and economic feedconversion ratio (eFCR) as fish fed the control feed. The reduction is mainly due to the almost 70%lower emissions of the experimental feed; 1.6 kg CO2eq./kg feed compared to 5.4 kg CO2eq./kg feedof the conventional feed. Feeding fish insects reared on plant-based waste streams from the foodindustry, increases the circularity and reduces emissions. However, the modelling choice that somefeed inputs based on side streams with no economic value are free of environmental burden, has astrong influence on the results. Despite shorter transport distances no lower impact of transportscould be found for the experimental feed due to the utilisation of more climate intensive transportmeans/modes. Further, the novel feed ingredients used in the study come from pilot or test scaleproduction plants, with potential to further decrease emissions with optimised processing. Atpresent, the available volumes of these feed inputs are limited which prevents a rapid large-scaleshift of the aquaculture industry. Other sources of uncertainty include the fact that the FCR is basedon a four-month growth trial which might not reflect a complete production cycle. This studyindicates that there is a potential to reduce the carbon footprint of intensive aquaculture by usingalternative protein sources, an important step that shows that it is worthwhile to continue expandingthe analysis to cover also other environmental aspects to avoid shifting burdens between differenttypes of environmental impact.

Publisher
p. 32
Series
Mistra Food Futures Report ; 3
Keywords
Rainbow trout, aquaculture, LCA, feed, greenhouse gas emissions, novel proteins
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68605 (URN)978-91-8046-822-0 (ISBN)978-91-8046-821-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2023-12-15 Created: 2023-12-15 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Warwas, N., Veide Vilg, J., Langeland, M., Roques, J., Hinchcliffe, J., Sundh, H., . . . Sundell, K. (2023). Marine yeast (Candida sake) cultured on herring brine side streams is a promising feed ingredient and omega-3 source for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 571, Article ID 739448.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marine yeast (Candida sake) cultured on herring brine side streams is a promising feed ingredient and omega-3 source for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
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2023 (English)In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 571, article id 739448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A major challenge for the aquaculture industry is the supply of sustainable feeds. A promising model to achieve this is to utilize circular flows where feed ingredients, such as single cell protein, are cultivated using side streams of the food industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the marine yeast Candida sake, produced on herring brine side streams, as a source of protein and immune stimulant in feed for salmonid fish. The dry C. sake product contained 54% protein (3.3% lysine and 0.8% methionine) and 13% lipids (1.1% eicosapentaenoic, EPA, and 1% docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Four experimental diets were designed and tested in a 9-week feeding trial using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A control diet containing both fish and plant-based ingredients constituted the base feed to which 20% (to evaluate effects on digestibility, growth and intestinal physiology), 20% heat-treated (to evaluate effects of downstream processing) and 3% (to evaluate immune stimulatory properties, replacing 3% soy protein concentrate) C. sake was added. The apparent digestibility coefficient of C. sake for protein, fat and gross energy was above 80%, and for amino acids above 90% regardless of treatment, suggesting a high bioavailability of C. sake. All three yeast containing diets performed equally to the control regarding specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and functional intestinal health. These results suggest that C. sake is a promising alternative protein source for circular feeds in the salmonid industry. The presence of EPA and DHA represents an added value. The heat treatment increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter by 8% but decreased amino acid digestibility by on average 3%, indicating that heat treatment may not be the optimal downstream processing technique. Furthermore, the inclusion of 3% C. sake increased the intestinal lamina propria width and TGF-β transcription, indicating an immune stimulating effect. Future research is needed to understand these immune modulatory effects of C. sake supplementation. © 2023 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Alternative protein, Aquafeed, Circular economy, Immune stimulation, Intestinal health, aquaculture industry, bioavailability, biostimulation, clupeoid, dry matter, fatty acid, salmonid, yeast
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64309 (URN)10.1016/j.aquaculture.2023.739448 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150515617 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: VINNOVA, 2016–02153; Funding details: Helge Ax:son Johnsons Stiftelse; Funding details: Göteborgs Universitet; Funding text 1: Funding was provided by Vinnova (grant number 2016–02153), the University of Gothenburg through the strategic funding of the centre SWEMARC, Swedish Mariculture Research Centre and partially by The Helge Ax:son Johnsson foundation.

Available from: 2023-04-25 Created: 2023-04-25 Last updated: 2023-04-25Bibliographically approved
Pawar, S. S., Werker, A., Bengtsson, S., Sandberg, M., Langeland, M., Persson, M. & Willquist, K. (2020). MultiBio: Environmental services from a multipurpose biorefinery. Lund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MultiBio: Environmental services from a multipurpose biorefinery
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2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

MultiBio project aimed to establish and demonstrate a novel multipurpose biorefinery cascade concept, producing three renewable biobased products: 1) biohydrogen, 2) biopolymers and 3) protein rich meal ingredients for fish farming. The cascade concept exploits the ability of a bacterium (Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus) to transform nutrients present in low-value waste process waters of the pulp and paper industry, to high-value products hydrogen gas, organic acids and microbial biomass. The organic acid rich effluent will then be managed in an open culture microbial process used to achieve discharge water quality objectives and to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers. Moreover, since C. saccharolyticus protein content is more than 63% of cell dry weight, their potential in formulation of fish feed was evaluated. 

A fiber sludge containing, CTMP residual stream was found to be a possible feedstock for the MultiBio process concept. Due to safety risks the demo-scale experiments of biohydrogen gas technology were moved from Biorefinery demo plant (Örnsköldsvik) of 40 m3 capacity to ATEX classified pilot-scale facility with 0.4 m3 capacity. Hence, bacterial biomass enough for the large-scale fish feed ingredient could not be produced. Lab-scale experiments with Caldicellulosiruptor cells as fish feed ingredient showed promising results as a protein-rich, sustainable fish feed ingredient. In addition, PHA biopolymer also showed favourable results as fish food ingredient for experiments at Gårdsfisk AB. Lab-scale experimental tests showed that the surplus activated sludge from the mills wastewater treatment could currently accumulate PHA to about 20 % of its dry weight. Mass balance evaluations based on realistically achievable expectations indicated a PHA biopolymer production potential of 3 600 tons of PHA per year from available organic residuals and for the two evaluated mills combined. 

The MultiBio concept has a positive climate impact in comparison with current treatment and moves developments in a positive direction to achieve 7 of the 10 Swedish environmental goals. Through a detailed feasibility analysis, a natural progression in next steps in scenarios were suggested for PHA production. The MultiBio cascade process can be implemented with further necessary development with good business potential and a positive effect on climate change. However, biohydrogen technology needs further developments before this cascade process concept can be implemented. Alternatively, a scenario with only biopolymer technology shows already a significant business potential and even larger positive effect on climate change. A successful next step in demonstration of the PHA biopolymer production scenario may lead to it being implemented within the next few years. Furthermore, MultiBio has attracted a lot of attention regionally and nationally but also internationally with a total of 65 media listings. A licentiate thesis and three university degree projects linked to the project have been completed. Overall, the MultiBio project has successfully achieved its goals and objectives.

Abstract [sv]

MultiBio syftade till att etablera och demonstrera ett nytt bioraffinaderi-kaskadkoncept med tre förnybara biobaserade produkter: 1) bioväte, 2) biopolymerer och 3) proteinrika foderingredienser för fiskodling. Kaskadkonceptet utnyttjar förmågan hos en bakterie (Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus) att omvandla näringsämnen som finns i massa- och pappersindustrins lågvärdiga processavloppsvatten till högvärdiga produkter vätgas, organiska syror och mikrobiell biomassa. Det utgående vattnet, rikt på organiska syror, hanteras sedan i en bioprocess med blandad mikrobiell kultur som används för att rena processvattnet och samtidigt producera biopolymerer av typen polyhydroxyalkanoater (PHA). Eftersom C. saccharolyticus proteininnehållet är mer än 63 % av celltorrvikt, utvärderades deras potential för beredning av fiskfoder.

En fiberslam-innehållande CTMP-restström visade sig vara en lämplig råvara för konceptet. På grund av säkerhetsrisker flyttades demoskalaexperimenten av biovätgasteknik från Biorefinery-demoanläggning (Örnsköldsvik) med 40 m3 kapacitet till ATEX-klassificerad pilotskaleanläggning med 0,4 m3 kapacitet. Därför kunde inte tillräckligt med bakteriebiomassa för den storskaliga fiskfoderingrediensen produceras. Experiment i laboratorieskala med Caldicellulosiruptor-celler som fiskfoderingrediens visade lovande resultat som en proteinrik, hållbar fiskfoderingrediens. Dessutom visade PHA-biopolymeren gynnsamma resultat som fiskfoderingrediens för experiment på Gårdsfisk AB. Experimentella test i laboratorieskala visade att bioslammet från bruken kunde ackumulera PHA till cirka 20 % av dess torrvikt. Massbalansbedömningar baserade på realistiska förväntningar indikerade en produktionspotential på 3 600 ton PHA per år från tillgängligt organiskt avfall vid de två ingående bruken. 

MultiBio-konceptet har en positiv klimatpåverkan jämfört med nuvarande behandling och har potential att bidra i rätt riktning för att uppnå 7 av de 10 svenska miljömålen. Genom en detaljerad genomförbarhetsanalys föreslogs scenarier med en stegvis implementering. MultiBio-kaskadprocessen kan implementeras med ytterligare nödvändig utveckling med god affärspotential och en positiv effekt på klimatförändringen. Men bioväte-tekniken behöver vidareutvecklas innan detta kaskad-koncept kan implementeras. Samtidigt visar ett scenario med enbart biopolymerteknologi redan nu en signifikant affärspotential och ännu större positiv effekt på klimatförändringen. En framgångsrik demonstration av det senare scenariot med endast PHA-produktion kan leda till att det genomförs inom de närmaste åren. Dessutom MultiBio har rönt stor uppmärksamhet regionalt och nationellt men även internationellt med totalt 65st medianoteringar. En licentiatavhandling och tre examensarbeten har färdigställts kopplat till projektet. Sammantaget har MultiBio framgångsrikt uppnått sina syften och mål.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: , 2020. p. 23
Keywords
Biohydrogen, Caldicellulosiruptor, polyhydroxyalkanoate, PHA, fishfeed ingredient, pulp and paper mills, residual streams
National Category
Water Treatment Bioprocess Technology Other Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51011 (URN)
Projects
MultiBio (Dnr 2017-03286)
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03286
Note

This report summarizes key developments made within the project MultiBio (Dnr 2017-03286) that was financed by Vinnova. 

Available from: 2020-12-16 Created: 2020-12-16 Last updated: 2023-03-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2473-790X

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