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Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Shafaghat, H., Johansson, A.-C., Wikberg, E., Narvesjö, J., Wagner, J. B. & Öhrman, O. (2024). Customized Atmospheric Catalytic Hydropyrolysis of Biomass to High-Quality Bio-Oil Suitable for Coprocessing in Refining Units. Energy & Fuels, 38(6), 5288-5302
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customized Atmospheric Catalytic Hydropyrolysis of Biomass to High-Quality Bio-Oil Suitable for Coprocessing in Refining Units
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2024 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 5288-5302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to investigate the critical elements of the biomass ex situ catalytic hydropyrolysis (CHP) concept to improve the quality of fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) for further coprocessing in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) refining unit. Generally, the high oxygen and low hydrogen contents of biomass result in a bio-oil with low quality, necessitating its upgrading, which can be performed as integrated in the pyrolysis process via in situ or ex situ configuration. In this work, the quality of stem wood-derived pyrolyzates (520 °C) was improved via ex situ CHP (400 °C) using a continuous bench-scale drop tube pyrolyzer (60 g h-1), and then the produced FPBO was coprocessed with vacuum gas oil (VGO) fossil oil using a lab-scale FCC unit (525 °C). CHP of stem wood was carried out using different metal-acid catalysts such as Ni/HZSM-5, Ni/HBeta, Mo/TiO2, and Pt/TiO2 at atmospheric pressure. FCC runs were performed using an equilibrium FCC catalyst and conventional fossil FCC feedstock cofed with 20 wt % stem wood-derived bio-oil in a fluidized bed reactor. Cofeeding the nonupgraded FPBO with fossil oil into the FCC unit decreased the generation of hydrocarbons in the range of gasoline and naphtha, indicating that bio-oil needs to be upgraded for further coprocessing in the FCC unit. Experimental results showed that different catalysts significantly affected the product composition and yield; Ni-based catalysts were strongly active tending to generate a high yield of gas, while Mo- and Pt-based catalysts seemed better for production of liquid with improved quality. The quality of FPBO was improved by reducing the formation of reactive oxygenates through the atmospheric CHP process. The composition of oil obtained from hydropyrolysis also showed that the yields of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons were enhanced. © 2024 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2024
Keywords
Aromatic hydrocarbons; Atmospheric pressure; Biomass; Catalysts; Chemical reactors; Fluidized beds; Nickel compounds; Platinum compounds; Titanium compounds; American Chemical Society; Bio-oils; Coprocessing; Ex situ; Fast pyrolysis bio-oil; Fluid catalytic cracking unit; High quality; Hydropyrolysis; Refining units; Stemwoods; Fluid catalytic cracking
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72790 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c05078 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187717991 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors would like to thank the Swedish Energy Agency for financially supporting this study via the project P49685-1.

Available from: 2024-05-16 Created: 2024-05-16 Last updated: 2024-05-16Bibliographically approved
Gulshan, S., Shafaghat, H., Yang, H., Evangelopoulos, P. & Yang, W. (2024). Performance analysis and production of aromatics for ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered WEEE. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 179, Article ID 106510.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance analysis and production of aromatics for ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered WEEE
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 179, article id 106510Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) was conducted in a two-stage reactor using HZSM-5 catalyst. The effect of the catalysis temperature and the catalyst-to-feedstock (C/F) ratio on products yield, gas and oil composition, and products characterization were investigated in this study. Results indicated that lower reforming temperature and C/F ratio favored organic fractions production. The highest yield of organic fraction was obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and at a C/F ratio of 0.15, corresponding to 28.5 and 27.4 wt %, respectively. The highest selectivity toward aromatic hydrocarbons and the lowest TAN value of the organic fraction were obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and a C/F ratio of 0.2, respectively. Most of the alkali and transition metals and 23 % of Br remained in the solid residue after the catalytic pyrolysis of low-grade electronic waste (LGEW). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2024
Keywords
Aromatic hydrocarbons; Aromatization; Catalysis; Catalytic reforming; Electronic Waste; Oscillators (electronic); Pyrolysis; Transition metals; Aromatic; Catalyst-to-feedstock ratio; Catalytic pyrolysis; Ex situ; H-ZSM-5; Organic fractions; Performances analysis; Reforming temperatures; Waste electrical and electronic equipment; ]+ catalyst; Catalysts
National Category
Organic Chemistry Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-73282 (URN)10.1016/j.jaap.2024.106510 (DOI)2-s2.0-85190944883 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 51219–1
Note

The authors would like to acknowledge the Swedish Energy Agency(Energimyndigheten) (project number 51219–1) for the financial support. Furthermore, the authors acknowledge the Research Institute of Sweden (RISE) for the help and technical support as well as Boliden Rönnskär for providing the WEEE material.

Available from: 2024-05-24 Created: 2024-05-24 Last updated: 2024-05-27Bibliographically approved
Shafaghat, H., Linderberg, M., Janosik, T., Hedberg, M., Wiinikka, H., Sandström, L. & Johansson, A.-C. (2022). Enhanced Biofuel Production via Catalytic Hydropyrolysis and Hydro-Coprocessing. Energy & Fuels, 36(1), 450-462
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Biofuel Production via Catalytic Hydropyrolysis and Hydro-Coprocessing
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2022 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 450-462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to successfully integrate biomass pyrolysis oils as starting materials for conventional oil refineries, upgrading of the pyrolysis oils is needed to achieve desired properties, something which can be performed either as part of the pyrolysis process and/or by separate catalytic treatment of the pyrolysis intermediate oil products. In this study, the quality of stem wood-derived pyrolysis oil was improved via ex situ catalytic hydropyrolysis in a bench-scale pyrolyzer (stage 1), followed by catalytic hydro-coprocessing with fossil co-feed in a laboratory-scale high pressure autoclave (stage 2). The effect of pyrolysis upgrading conditions was investigated based on the quality of intermediate products and their suitability for hydro-coprocessing. HZSM-5 and Pt/TiO2 catalysts (400 °C, atmospheric pressure) were employed for ex situ pyrolysis, and the NiMoS/Al2O3 catalyst (330 °C, 100 bar H2 initial pressure) was used for hydro-coprocessing of the pyrolysis oil. The application of HZSM-5 in the pyrolysis of stem wood under a N2 atmosphere decreased the formation of acids, ketones, aldehydes, and furans and increased the production of aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolics (guaiacols and phenols). Replacing HZSM-5 with Pt/TiO2 and N2 with H2 resulted in complete conversion of guaiacols and significant production of phenols, with further indications of increased stability and reduced coking tendencies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2022
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57373 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c03263 (DOI)2-s2.0-85122002259 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-12-22 Created: 2021-12-22 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Shafaghat, H., Gulshan, S., Johansson, A.-C., Evangelopoulos, P. & Yang, W. (2022). Selective recycling of BTX hydrocarbons from electronic plastic wastes using catalytic fast pyrolysis. Applied Surface Science, 605, Article ID 154734.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective recycling of BTX hydrocarbons from electronic plastic wastes using catalytic fast pyrolysis
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2022 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 605, article id 154734Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of two waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) fractions, with two different copper contents (low- and medium-grade WEEE named as LGE and MGE, respectively), were performed using micro- and lab-scale pyrolyzers. This research aimed to fundamentally study the feasibility of chemical recycling of the WEEE fractions via pyrolysis process considering molecular interactions at the interfaces of catalyst active sites and WEEE pyrolyzates which significantly influence the chemical functionality of surface intermediates and catalysis by reorganizing the pyrolyzates near catalytic active sites forming reactive surface intermediates. Hence, Al2O3, TiO2, HBeta, HZSM-5 and spent FCC catalysts were used in in-situ micro-scale pyrolysis. Results indicated that HBeta and HZSM-5 zeolites were more suitable than other catalysts for selective production of aromatic hydrocarbons and BTX. High acidity and shape selectivity of zeotype surfaces make them attractive frameworks for catalytic pyrolysis processes aiming for light hydrocarbons like BTX. Meanwhile, the ex-situ pyrolysis of LGE and MGE were carried out using HZSM-5 in micro- and lab-scale pyrolyzers to investigate the effect of pyrolysis configuration on the BTX selectivity. Although the ex-situ pyrolysis resulted in higher formation of BTX from LGE, the in-situ configuration was more efficient to produce BTX from MGE. © 2022 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2022
Keywords
BTX, Catalytic fast pyrolysis, Monoaromatic hydrocarbons, Selective recycling, WEEE, Zeolite solid acids, Alumina, Aluminum oxide, Aromatic hydrocarbons, Catalyst activity, Electronic Waste, Oscillators (electronic), Pyrolysis, Recycling, Titanium dioxide, Catalytic fast pyrolyse, Catalytic pyrolysis, Fast pyrolysis, Monoaromatic hydrocarbon, Pyrolyzers, Solid acid, Waste electrical and electronic equipment, Zeolite solid acid, Zeolites
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60149 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2022.154734 (DOI)2-s2.0-85137170603 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 51219-1; Funding text 1: This research was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency via the project number 51219-1. The authors would like to thank Boliden Rönnskär for providing the raw WEEE fractions for this research.

Available from: 2022-09-29 Created: 2022-09-29 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Weiland, F., Qureshi, M., Wennebro, J., Lindfors, C., Ohra-Aho, T., Shafaghat, H. & Johansson, A.-C. (2021). Entrained flow gasification of polypropylene pyrolysis oil. Molecules, 26(23), Article ID 7317.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrained flow gasification of polypropylene pyrolysis oil
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2021 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 26, no 23, article id 7317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Petrochemical products could be produced from circular feedstock, such as waste plastics. Most plants that utilize syngas in their production are today equipped with entrained flow gasifiers, as this type of gasifier generates the highest syngas quality. However, feeding of circular feedstocks to an entrained flow gasifier can be problematic. Therefore, in this work, a two-step process was studied, in which polypropylene was pre-treated by pyrolysis to produce a liquid intermediate that was easily fed to the gasifier. The products from both pyrolysis and gasification were thoroughly characterized. Moreover, the product yields from the individual steps, as well as from the entire process chain, are reported. It was estimated that the yields of CO and H2 from the two-step process were at least 0.95 and 0.06 kg per kg of polypropylene, respectively, assuming that the pyrolysis liquid and wax can be combined as feedstock to an entrained flow gasifier. On an energy basis, the energy content of CO and H2 in the produced syngas corresponded to approximately 40% of the energy content of the polypropylene raw material. This is, however, expected to be significantly improved on a larger scale where losses are proportionally smaller. © 2021 by the authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Chemical recycling, Gasification, Plastic waste, Pyrolysis, Syngas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57332 (URN)10.3390/molecules26237317 (DOI)2-s2.0-85120819446 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 16 December 2021; Article; CODEN: MOLEF; Correspondence Address: Weiland, F.; RISE Energy Technology Center AB, Box 726, Sweden; email: fredrik.weiland@ri.se; Funding details: Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was funded by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, respectively. Additionally, the gasification part of the work received funding from the B4G node of Swedish Gasification Centre (SFC).

Available from: 2021-12-22 Created: 2021-12-22 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8284-4172

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