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Stølen, R., Li, T., Wingdahl, T. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2024). Large- and small-scale fire test of a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) facade system. Fire safety journal, 144, Article ID 104083.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Large- and small-scale fire test of a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) facade system
2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 144, artikel-id 104083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The number of installed photovoltaic (PV) modules has increased significantly over the last years, and using available building surfaces to generate electricity by integrating PV modules in the construction is an attractive option. Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) or other vented claddings can spread fires rapidly to large parts of a building if the fire is allowed to propagate. To investigate this hazard, a large-scale SP FIRE 105 façade fire test was conducted. A façade measuring 4000 mm × 6000 mm covered with BIPV modules was exposed to flames that represent the fire plume from a window in a room at flashover. The results from the test show that critical failures, like falling objects and vertical flame propagation, can be expected in such constructions. These results highlight the importance of details in mounting of BIPV-façades and to require proper documentation from relevant fire tests of such systems. Small-scale cone calorimeter tests were conducted on the studied BIPV module to provide material properties of the combustible parts of the installation. These aspects should be considered when planning new or when retrofitting façades, to prevent escalation of fires. The results presented are, however, only valid for the configuration that was tested. Other BIPV-façades should also be investigated to study how these constructions can be built safely in the future with regard to critical details.

Nyckelord
Facade, BIPV, Full-scale fire test, Reaction to fire, Cavity, Cone calorimeter
Nationell ämneskategori
Samhällsbyggnadsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-69351 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.104083 (DOI)
Forskningsfinansiär
Norges forskningsråd, 294649
Anmärkning

This research is supported by the Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC), funded by the Research Council of Norway (Project no. 294649) and project partners. The authors would also thank the C40 Urban Village project led by OBOS with support from Multiconsult, Hunton and Innovation Norway for initiating, planning and financing the test and sharing data. 

Tillgänglig från: 2024-01-10 Skapad: 2024-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-01-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Aamodt, E., Steen-Hansen, A., Holmvaag, O. A., Olsen, V. E., Hermansen, A.-K., Hermansen, A., . . . Hagen, B. C. (2023). Analyse av brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Bergen 7. august 2021.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Analyse av brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Bergen 7. august 2021
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2023 (Norska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Förlag
s. 76
Serie
FRIC RAPPORT D1.2-2023.01
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64223 (URN)978-91-89757-18-9 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-03-13 Skapad: 2023-03-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-05-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Steen-Hansen, A. & Aamodt, E. (2023). Fire in a municipal housing in Norway, 7th August 2021.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fire in a municipal housing in Norway, 7th August 2021
2023 (Engelska)Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Förlag
s. 23
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65511 (URN)
Anmärkning

FRIC webinar D1.2-2023.13

Tillgänglig från: 2023-06-13 Skapad: 2023-06-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-06-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Sæter Bøe, A., Friquin, K. L., Brandon, D., Steen-Hansen, A. & Ertesvåg, I. (2023). Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-01 – Exposed ceiling. Fire safety journal, 140, Article ID 103869.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-01 – Exposed ceiling
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, artikel-id 103869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposing cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures in buildings is increasingly popular in modern buildings. However, large timber surfaces, window facades, and different geometries can change the fire dynamics in a compartment. The effect of those parameters, therefore, needs to be studied. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) have consequently been performed. The experiments were designed to represent a modern office building with an open-plan space and large window openings. In this experiment, #FRIC-01, the ceiling was exposed. The wood crib fire developed slowly and travelled approximately 1.5 m before the ceiling ignited at 32.5 min. Thereafter the fire spread rapidly across the ceiling and wood crib before it shortly after retracted. Three such cycles of rapid spread followed by a retraction occurred within 13 min, whereby the wood crib fire grew larger for each cycle. After the flames extended through the compartment for the fourth time, the fire remained fully developed. After a short period of intense burning, the CLT self-extinguished while the wood crib fire was still burning. The compartment withstood full burnout, and no reignition occurred despite some delamination and using an adhesive that lacks a demonstrated resistance against glue-line integrity failure. © 2023 The Authors

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Nyckelord
CLT, Compartment fire, Fire spread, Large-scale, Self-extinction, Adhesives, Fires, Laminating, Office buildings, Timber, Compartment fires, Condition, Cross laminated, Cross-laminated timber, Laminated timber, Large-scales, Timber structures, Wood crib fire, Ceilings
Nationell ämneskategori
Husbyggnad
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65967 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.103869 (DOI)2-s2.0-85166625665 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

The compartment in the experiment was built of CLT elements in three walls and the ceiling, while the fourth wall was almost entirely open with four large openings. The CLT elements in the roof rested on the three CLT walls. They were supported on the fourth wall by a 140 mm × 315 mm glulam beam resting into a pre-cut hole in the CLT end walls and supported by three aerated concrete columns. The inner geometry of the compartment was 18.80 m × 5.00 m x 2.52 m (L x W x H). Deviations up to ±0.05 m were present for the ceiling height caused by a slightly tilted floor, with the highest level by the window wall. The deviations are not included in the drawings. A sketch of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1, and pictures of the compartment are given in Figs. 2 and 3.The experiments were conducted at RISE Fire Research in Norway as part of the Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC) (www.fric.no). The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Research Council of Norway through the program BRANNSIKKERHET, project number 294649, and by partners of the research centre FRIC. A special thanks to the FRIC partners StoraEnso, Rockwool, Hunton, and to Saint-Gobain AS and Byggmakker Handel AS for providing building materials. The authors also wish to thank Panos Kotsovinos and David Barber at ARUP, David Lange and Juan P. Hidalgo at The University of Queensland, and Johan Sjöström at RISE for valuable discussions in the planning phase of the experiments.

Tillgänglig från: 2023-08-23 Skapad: 2023-08-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Sæter Bøe, A., Friquin, K. L., Brandon, D., Steen-Hansen, A. & ErtesvÃ¥g, I. S. (2023). Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-02 - Exposed wall and ceiling. Fire safety journal, 141, Article ID 103986.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-02 - Exposed wall and ceiling
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 141, artikel-id 103986Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is becoming increasingly popular due to its many advantages. However, it has been shown that exposed CLT can have a significant effect on fire dynamics and spread rates. Further studies are therefore needed to better understand the impact of CLT to fire safety. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) representing a modern office building have been performed, #FRIC-01 and #FRIC-02. This paper presents the second experiment, #FRIC-02, with exposed CLT on the back wall and the ceiling. The fire developed fast and spread across the room in less than 3.5 min from ignition of the wood crib on the floor and in 1.5 min after the ignition of the ceiling. Large external flames were observed, despite the compartment being well-ventilated. The 5-layer CLT, which comprised a 40 mm thick exposed outer layer and was face-bonded using a common European polyurethane adhesive, exhibited glue-line integrity failure and led to a second flashover after a significant period of decay. Subsequent layers of 20 mm also delaminated before the fire was manually extinguished after 3 h. Compared to #FRIC-01, the fire spread rate was faster, and temperatures, charring rates, heat release rates and external flames were higher. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Nyckelord
Adhesives; Ceilings; Flashover; Laminating; Office buildings; Timber; Walls (structural partitions); Compartment fires; Condition; Cross laminated; Cross-laminated timber; External flame; Facade fire; Fire spread; Laminated timber; Large-scales; Second flashover; Fires
Nationell ämneskategori
Samhällsbyggnadsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67660 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.103986 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173336165 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Research Council of Norway through the program BRANNSIKKERHET, project number 294649, and by partners of the research centre FRIC.

Tillgänglig från: 2023-11-29 Skapad: 2023-11-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Steen-Hansen, A. & Aamodt, E. (2023). FRIC webinar: Brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Norge, 7. august 2021.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>FRIC webinar: Brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Norge, 7. august 2021
2023 (Norska)Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64381 (URN)
Anmärkning

ID nummer: FRIC webinar D1.2-2023.04

Tillgänglig från: 2023-05-03 Skapad: 2023-05-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-05-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Stølen, R., Li, T., Wingdahl, T. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2023). Large-scalefire test of a BIPV façadesystem.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Large-scalefire test of a BIPV façadesystem
2023 (Engelska)Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Förlag
s. 38
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72087 (URN)
Anmärkning

The presentation was held at IAFSS 2023. Published with permission.

ID: FRIC D4.4-2023.11

Tillgänglig från: 2024-02-29 Skapad: 2024-02-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Steen-Hansen, A., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. & Ehrlenspiel, R. (2023). Smouldering fire test methods – Documenting the potential for smouldering fires in thermal insulation.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Smouldering fire test methods – Documenting the potential for smouldering fires in thermal insulation
2023 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

In this FRIC report, fire test methods to document smouldering in thermal insulation are presented. Standardized test methods from Europe, USA and Canada are presented, describing the test principles and assessment criteria. In addition, a selection of non-standardized experimental methods for smouldering fire documentation used in research and investigations are presented. Finally, factors impacting the outcome of tests as well as knowledge gaps are discussed. The overview presented in this report may be used as a guideline to the reader on benefits and challenges with different methods. Industry, researchers, fire investigators and others may benefit from this overview, to ensure that a relevant method is chosen for each end-use.

Förlag
s. 39
Serie
FRIC Report D3.1-2023.06
Nationell ämneskategori
Husbyggnad
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67742 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-11-09 Skapad: 2023-11-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-20Bibliografiskt granskad
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2022). FRIC - General Introduction.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>FRIC - General Introduction
2022 (Engelska)Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61170 (URN)
Anmärkning

This is a short information video about The Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC).   

The Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC) started in spring 2019. The main objective of the centre is to increase knowledge within the field of fire science in order to support decisions and develop better solutions providing increased fire safety in buildings. FRIC shall strengthen cooperation and lead to a long-term increase of competence and dissemination of knowledge within the fire safety field. 

The research is organized into four work packages: 1. Evidence-based decision-making within fire safety 2. Fire dynamics and modeling  3. Building technology and design  4. Fire safety measures and new technology 

FRIC is led by RISE Fire Research in Trondheim, with NTNU and SINTEF as research partners. FRIC has partners from the fire and rescue service, public sector, consultancy engineers, manufacturers of building materials and building installations, as well as within real estate development and management

Tillgänglig från: 2022-11-17 Skapad: 2022-11-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-06-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Lein Aalberg, A., Holen, S. M., Aamodt, E. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2022). FRIC webinar: LEARNING FROM FIRES IN NORWAY: Preconditions, barriers and enabling factors.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>FRIC webinar: LEARNING FROM FIRES IN NORWAY: Preconditions, barriers and enabling factors
2022 (Engelska)Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Husbyggnad
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58916 (URN)
Anmärkning

FRIC webinar D1.2-2022.08

Tillgänglig från: 2022-03-28 Skapad: 2022-03-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-05-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4831-7563

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