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Williams, H., Lindström, A., Trischler, J., Wikström, F. & Rowe, Z. (2020). Avoiding food becoming waste in households: The role of packaging in consumers’ practices across different food categories. Journal of Cleaner Production, 265, Article ID 121775.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Avoiding food becoming waste in households: The role of packaging in consumers’ practices across different food categories
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2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 265, artikel-id 121775Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Food wastage in households remains a sustainability challenge that poses both environmental and social problems. Among the many factors contributing to this problem, the packaging, including its design and functions, can either leverage or reduce food waste. Yet packaging is often considered an environmental villain, which can lead to missed opportunities for reducing food waste. Against this background, this study explored and quantified the packaging–food waste relationship in households. To explore this relationship, a multi-step method was applied to grasp the role of packaging in consumers’ everyday practices and routines. The method incorporated a questionnaire, food waste diary and in-depth interview to measure food waste across different food categories and explore the underlying reasons for food wastage. According to an analysis of 37 households, packaging played a significant role especially in bread, dairy, meat and staple food wastage. For countering this problem, the most important factors related to packaging are its size and display of detailed information about product safety and storage. This study's theoretical contribution lies in offering a service lens and an ‘outside-in’ approach for exploring the consumer's value creation process and providing a context for better understanding why food wastage occurs in households. For policymakers and packaging designers, this study provides new insights into the relationship between consumer food practices and packaging, thus informing future food waste reduction initiatives.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Nyckelord
Behaviour, Food waste, Household, Packaging, Packaging function, Service, Chemical contamination, Surveys, Sustainable development, In-depth interviews, Multi step methods, Packaging designers, Policy makers, Product safety, Social problems, Value creation process, Waste reduction
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44992 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121775 (DOI)2-s2.0-85084076200 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Funding details: International Communication Association, ICA; Funding text 1: The authors are very grateful to the families that answered our questions and took the time to complete the diaries about their food waste. We also thank ICA Sweden for providing financial support for the gift to the participating households.; Funding text 2: This research was funded by research grant FR2016/0005 ( Formas , Sweden).

Tillgänglig från: 2020-06-01 Skapad: 2020-06-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
Lindström, A., Lind, A.-K., Anna, R. & Kihlstedt, A. (2020). Få ett gott djuröga med hjälp av eyetracking: en pilotstudie.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Få ett gott djuröga med hjälp av eyetracking: en pilotstudie
2020 (Svenska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Can eyetracking as a tool be used to educate new staff at a farm?

This pilot project evaluates the potential of eyetracking as a tool for training new staff on a farm in practical knowledge about animal welfare.

A basic prerequisite for economically profitable animal production is healthy animals with good growth. Detecting animals in need of extra care during rounds is a challenge when there are many animals that need to be checked in a short time. The experience of the staff is an important component, but access to qualified staff is a scarce commodity. The experience of the skilled staff is rarely written down but constitutes a tacit knowledge that is very sensitive to whether staff quit or fall ill. Hiring foreign labor is becoming more common, in which case the potential to take part in the workforce's overall competence will determine how well the new workers will succeed in their tasks.

By using technical tools such as eyetracking, you can record what a person is looking at in a certain environment. With this technology one could easily show and educate, e.g. staff, new employees, and students, what it is an experienced caretaker looks at when minding the animals. The technology makes it possible to visualize what an experienced caretaker is observing. In that way eyetracking has the potential to improve the working environment by streamlining the work of training new staff and getting everyone in the work team (experienced or not) to perform the tasks at the same high level as the most experienced.

Förlag
s. 6
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2020:57
Nyckelord
agriculture, animal welfare, knowledge transfer, eyetracking
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45139 (URN)978-91-89167-41-4 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-06-25 Skapad: 2020-06-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-03-15
Jensen, C., Edo, M., Lindberg, S. & Lindström, A. (2020). Hinder och möjligheter för att öka källsortering av plastavfall från tillverkningsindustrin.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hinder och möjligheter för att öka källsortering av plastavfall från tillverkningsindustrin
2020 (Svenska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The consumption of plastics and the management of the generated amounts of plastic waste are two issues that have been some of the most prominent in the environmental debate in recent years. Today, large quantities of plastic waste from the Swedish manufacturing industry is generated that are not sorted for recycling but end up in combustible residual waste going to energy recovery, which means a significant waste of resources. Although large quantities of plastic waste originate from the manufacturing industry, the vast majority of initiatives related to a more resource-efficient management of plastic waste have focused on the plastic waste generated related to consumption. Relatively little focus has been on the primary plastic waste generated from the manufacturing industry.

The purpose of this project has been to contribute to increase the source sorting and recycling of plastic waste from the Swedish manufacturing industry. The goals were to identify and evaluate significant barriers faced by the Swedish manufacturing industry to increase the sorting of plastic in Sweden and to propose how the sorting of the plastic waste can increase.

The project and its results were based on a survey answered by manufacturing companies, which was supplemented by interviews with waste and recycling actors.

The results and conclusions of the project can be summarized as follows:

▪ There is considerable potential to increase the source sorting of generated plastic waste from the manufacturing industry

Of the companies that responded to the survey, 12 percent answered that no source sorting of plastic waste occurs. Although the number of responses was small and not representative of Sweden as a whole, the figures give an indication that the number of manufacturing companies and the amount of plastic waste that is not sorted out can be significant. Of the companies that stated that plastic packaging is generated, as many as 19 percent have no source sorting of plastic packaging. For plastic production waste and other process material containing plastic, a large proportion responded that no source sorting occurs, 26 and 53 percent, respectively.

▪ Manufacturing companies sorting out plastic waste have a high source sorting efficiency

The results from the project show that the companies that sort their waste also have high source sorting levels, ire. there is a small proportion of plastic waste generated that end up in combustible waste fractions. Almost 80 percent of manufacturing companies sort out at least 70 percent of the generated plastic packaging waste. For plastic production waste, about 78 percent sort out at least 70 percent of plastic waste generated. For other process materials containing plastics, the source sorting rate is considerably lower, 44 percent of the companies sort out at least 70 percent of the generated amounts.

▪ Existing barriers to increased sorting of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry are estimated to be relatively small

For each barrier, a majority of manufacturing companies indicated that the current barriers are not relevant or had a minor impact on the sorting of plastic waste. However, it should be pointed out that there are major differences between individual companies where some experience major barriers to increase their source sorting of plastic waste.

The technical barriers are the most important ones in increasing the source sorting of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry

For all three plastic waste streams studied, the technical barriers were the most significant to overcome in order to increase the source sorting and recycling of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry. For plastic packaging, the most important technical obstacle was that plastic packaging was contaminated. For production waste, a complex material composition, contamination and the fact that a sufficiently high quality cannot be guaranteed, were the major obstacles. For other process materials, small amounts of waste were considered to be the most important barrier. Other technical barriers for other process materials containing plastics were the presence of contaminants and that a sufficiently high quality of the waste cannot be guaranteed.

▪ The incentives to increase the source sorting of plastic waste are small

Although the barriers to increased source sorting are relatively small, the incentives to increase source sorting for manufacturing companies are also small. Overall, the responses to the survey indicate that the costs related to waste management constitute a small proportion of the total production cost of manufacturing companies. This means that the financial incentives to reduce their production costs through better source sorting are small. Although several source sorted plastic fractions have a material value, the cost associated with the collection of the plastic waste is considerable and may also exceed the revenue a manufacturing company receives for the material itself. A significant proportion (21 percent) of respondents also stated that the cost of source sorted plastics is in the same order of magnitude as for combustible and sorted waste fractions.

▪ A large proportion of manufacturing companies use secondary plastic raw materials in their production

Of the respondents, around half of them use secondary plastic raw material in their production. Although a majority of these use smaller quantities (<10%), reported figures indicate that there is a demand for recycled plastic raw materials in the manufacturing industry. Limitations in quality as well as large variations in the quality of recycled plastic raw materials are considered to be the main reasons why manufacturing companies use more secondary plastics in their production. The quality aspect and that secondary raw material does not meet the set quality requirements is the major reason why half of the responding companies do not use any secondary plastic raw material in their production. This shows the importance of high quality of the source sorted plastics but also sorting and recycling techniques which can handle quality deviations in collected plastic waste.

Recommendations for increasing the source sorting and recycling of the generated plastic waste from the manufacturing industry can be summarized as follows:

▪ Utilize conventional goods transport for reverse logistics of plastic waste to a greater extent

Plastic waste is often bulky, which means that costs associated with collection are significant in relation to the material value of the plastic waste and can also exceed the revenue generated for the material. Since conventional goods transport often goes back empty after delivery, there is a potential to transport the generated plastic waste to a greater extent. In a future project, the opportunities and barriers exist should be explored to realize this on a large scale, where differences between different industries also exist.

Increased collaboration between waste and recycling actors in the collection of plastic waste

Waste and recycling companies which collect waste from businesses and industries operate in a competitive market. This can hamper an efficient collection of plastic waste from industries as several waste and recycling companies have customers located in the same geographical area. Through increased collaboration, improved logistics could be obtained together with a reduced environmental impact at the collection. If the costs of collection can be reduced, the manufacturing companies can be offered a higher price for source sorted plastics and thus increase the financial incentives of source sorting.

▪ Increased collaboration between actors in the value chain

Increased collaboration, communication and transparency between actors in the value chain (manufacturing industry, waste and recycling companies, material manufacturers to suppliers), are also necessary to achieve increased source sorting and recycling of plastic waste. Material recycling is a much more sensitive process in terms of contamination, quality, etc. compared to energy recycling which today receives large amounts of plastic waste. Therefore, it is important that quality requirements and measures to achieve these are stated and communicated by each actor in the value chain in order to enable high quality of recycled plastic raw material. Requirements and measures to reach sufficiently high quality is something the actors in the value chain have great experience and know-how in the manufacture of products, why much of this could be applied to the plastic waste generated from the production.

▪ Utilize the possibilities of chemical recycling of plastic waste

A limitation with the mechanical recycling that exists today is that it is relatively sensitive to contaminants, lack of quality and when materials other than plastic are present. These aggravating circumstances can be mitigated by chemical and/or thermal recycling processes which are significantly less sensitive compared to the mechanical recycling processes. These technologies are not fully developed but have great potential to be alternatives for recycling the plastic waste that is not possible to be recycled mechanically.

▪ Reduce the number of plastic types for plastic packaging and other process materials

A significant barrier is the large number of types of plastics used, which makes source sorting difficult and expensive. For plastic packaging but also other process materials containing plastics, the possibilities of reducing the number of different types of plastic are considerably easier compared to plastic production waste whose content and quality are affected by the industry and product being manufactured. One tool to achieve this is to develop guidelines and set requirements for material content in packaging and recyclability at procurement. By reducing the number of plastic types, the source sorting process is simplified and larger quantities of different types of plastic waste are obtained.

▪ Continuous information efforts and feedback to production personnel

Providing employees with continuous feedback through KPIs etc. is fundamental and something that many manufacturing companies use as a tool for their continuous improvement. This is also something that should be applied when handling waste, where production personnel should receive continuous feedback on waste sorting and the importance of source sorting. There is still a widespread perception that source sorted plastics are still being incinerated, which is important to prevent to get a motivated production staff. In this work, it is also important to highlight why a source sorting of plastics is important from a global and environmental perspective that extends beyond the business economic perspective.

▪ Goal monitoring of the company's waste management

Although the two barriers lack of target follow-up and feedback on source sorting of plastic waste and the absence of directives from the management were considered to be of minor importance overall, there were individual manufacturing companies that considered these barriers to be significant. A recommendation is therefore to set up recycling targets within organizations, follow up, revise these and communicate these to employees.

Förlag
s. 85
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2020:28
Nyckelord
material recycling, plastic waste, production waste, process waste, other process material, manufacturing, plastic packaging, survey
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44704 (URN)978-91-89167-10-0 (ISBN)
Anmärkning

Innehåller även bilagor.

Tillgänglig från: 2020-04-07 Skapad: 2020-04-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-05-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Löfgren, C., Jensen, C., Lindström, A. & Wickholm, K. (2020). Ökat resursutnyttjande av plastförpackningar från on-the-go produkter.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ökat resursutnyttjande av plastförpackningar från on-the-go produkter
2020 (Svenska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [sv]

Projektet har identifierat behov, hinder och möjligheter för on-the-go förpackningar i hela värdekedjan. Aktuella krav och konsekvenser i gällande förpackningslagstiftning (Förordningen (2018:1462) om producentansvar för förpackningar, förordning (2016:1041) om plastbärkassar) och Avfallsförordning (2011:927) har inkluderats.

Förslag på nya möjliga lösningar för minskad nedskräpning och för incitament att samla in och återvinna och återbruka fler förpackningar har arbetats fram genom workshops med relevanta aktörer i olika delar av värdekedjan.

Tre koncept för en ökad materialåtervinning samt tre koncept för ökat återbruk av plastförpackningar från ”on-the-go”-produkter arbetades fram.

Efter en urvalsprocess valdes ett koncept för ökad materialåtervinning (”Recycling generation and cities”) och ett koncept för ökat återbruk (Reuse generation) av plastförpackningar från ”on-the-go”-produkter för utvärdering.

Det slutliga konceptet som togs fram för ökad materialåtervinning ger möjlighet till insamling och källsortering on-the-go, inom rimligt avstånd och med tydlig information om hur förpackningarna ska sorteras. Med pant som sporre för att återvinna. Det möjliggörs genom en app som dessutom underlättar för konsumenter att göra rätt. Appen laddas ner till konsumentens mobiltelefon i kombination med ett väl utbyggt källsorteringssystem på allmänna platser och med tydlig information på källsorteringsstationerna om hur förpackningarna ska sorteras. Ett digitalt pantsystem är förhållandevis billigt jämfört med dagens konventionella pantsystem, det skapar ekonomiska incitament för konsumenten att gå till en källsorteringsstation och som dessutom underlättar för konsument att göra rätt. Ett väl utbyggt källsorteringssystem med tydliga sorteringsinstruktioner ger också konsumenten möjlighet att inom rimligt avstånd kunna materialåtervinna sina förpackningar med höga materialåtervinningsnivåer och bra kvalitet på insamlat material som följd.

Det slutliga konceptet för ökat återbruk bygger även den på en app som laddas ner till konsumentens mobiltelefon. Därefter registrerar konsumenten sig i appen och kan inhandla on-the-go mat i en flergångsförpackning i de restauranger och caféer etc som är anslutna till systemet och erbjuder dessa återbrukbara förpackningar. Efter förtäring ges information via appen till konsumenten om på vilka platser förpackningen kan återlämnas. Vid dessa platser scannas förpackningen med hjälp av mobiltelefonen och panten som betalades vid köptillfället betalas tillbaka.

Under utvärderingen av koncepten analyserades:

• Möjligheter för respektive koncept samt hur de kan realiseras

• Hinder och hot för respektive koncept samt hur de kan övervinnas

• Konsekvenser och ansvarsfrågan för respektive koncept

• Potential för respektive koncept 

Utvärderingen resulterade i att ett antal ”knutar" identifierades som kan uppstå i de olika delarna av värdekedjan. Lösningar som behövs för att konceptet ska fungera enligt aktörerna i värdekedjan identifierades samt potentialen med respektive koncept.

Utvärderingen visar att det finns en stor potential för att konceptet för ökad materialåtervinning ska fungera då konceptet leder till:

• Att förpackningar ses som en resurs

• Minskad nedskräpning

• Positiv PR för Varumärkesägare (inget skräp med namn)

• Ökad resurseffektiv användning av råvaror

• Ökad cirkularitet

• Ökad materialåtervinning med renare fraktioner

 

Vissa förutsättningar som krävs är t.ex. nytt sätt att samarbeta för olika aktörer, ändrade beteenden hos konsumenter, information, utbildning och ny digital lösning av pantsystem.

 

För konceptet med återbruk finns en potential under vissa förutsättningar. Något som rekommenderas för att underlätta en uppstart av konceptet är t.ex. att starta konceptet inom ett begränsat område såsom en nöjespark. Ett sätt att börja bygga en beteendeförändring och en ökad acceptans för återbruk.

 

Innan dessa koncept kan implementeras krävs att de testas i verklig miljö, vilket vi planerar göra i Örnsköldsviks stadskärna under sommaren 2020.

Förlag
s. 35
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2020:49
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-48881 (URN)978-91-89167-32-2 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-09-22 Skapad: 2020-09-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-05-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Lorentzon, A., Lindström, A., Wickholm, K., Williams, H. & Wikström, F. (2017). Förpackningssystem för minskat matsvinn: Slutrapportering del 2 : samverkansprojekt.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Förpackningssystem för minskat matsvinn: Slutrapportering del 2 : samverkansprojekt
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2017 (Svenska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [sv]

Matsvinn är en stor global samhällsutmaning. Det är ett komplext problem som kräver samverkan och en mängd lösningar för att lösas. Samverkansprojektet har tittat på hur förpackningssystem kan bidra till att minska det globala samhällsproblemet med matsvinn. Resultatet från projektet manifesteras i de nya förpackningslösningar som tagits fram för projektets tre produkter salsa, salladsmix och risgröt. Lösningarna är utvecklade för att minska matsvinn genom hela kedjan, från fyllning till konsument. Inledande konsumenttester indikerar att lösningarna skulle tas väl emot på marknaden. En förenklad klimatanalys visar på att lösningarna medför minskad miljöpåverkan. Utöver förpackningslösningarna, som tagits fram i fysiska prototyper, har projektet lett till att deltagande parter – genom projektets frekventa samverkan i workshopar, uppföljningsmöten samt studiebesök – fått nya kunskaper och fördjupad förståelse kring utmaningar längs produkternas hela värdekedja.

Förlag
s. 44
Nyckelord
food packaging, food package, food waste
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31877 (URN)
Projekt
Förpackningssystem för minskat matsvinn 2
Forskningsfinansiär
VINNOVA, 2015-00478
Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-18 Skapad: 2017-10-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-22Bibliografiskt granskad
Williams, H., Wikström, F., Lindström, A., Wickholm, K. & Lorentzon, A. (2017). Investigation of consumer attitudes, practices and food waste for three food items, to use as input in new packaging designs that aim to reduce food waste. In: 28th iapri symposium on packaging: Proceedings. Paper presented at 28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging 2017 : Unlocking the full potential of packaging across the value-chain, from 9th to 12th of May 2017, in Lausanne, Switzerland (pp. 337-344).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Investigation of consumer attitudes, practices and food waste for three food items, to use as input in new packaging designs that aim to reduce food waste
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: 28th iapri symposium on packaging: Proceedings, 2017, s. 337-344Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

A wide range of measures is required to tackle the global food waste problem. Innovative packaging, which helps to reduce food waste, is one important measure. The data for food waste is often presented in a summarised way. However, different food products are wasted for different reasons. In a Swedish project, actors along the entire value chain collaborated to develop new packaging solutions to reduce food waste of three products: salsa in glass jars, mixed lettuce in plastic packaging and rice pudding in plastic packaging. Waste levels and reasons for waste were examined in waste audits of the businesses, in ethnographic studies and in interviews with consumers at retail stores. This study showed that consumers wasted the products to a much higher extent than the waste which occurred during filling, transport and retail. Waste levels among consumers varied from 0-75%, which is notably high, given that consumers tend to underestimate or not admit to wasting food. The mixed lettuce and rice pudding are both intended to be packaged in appropriate serving sizes; however, only 27% of the mixed lettuce and 50% of the rice pudding was consumed in one sitting. Respondents mentioned some material features and several handling functions of packaging, but very few commented on the protection that the packaging provides. Few, if any, expressed any recognition of packaging attributes, which helped to avoid food waste. The respondents mentioned that wasting food was a waste of money and that it can have a negative effect on conscience; despite that, respondents also said that they wanted a variety of meals and to not have the same food several days during the same week.

Nyckelord
packaging, food package, food waste, sustainable development
Nationell ämneskategori
Livsmedelsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32951 (URN)978-2-8399-2120-6 (ISBN)
Konferens
28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging 2017 : Unlocking the full potential of packaging across the value-chain, from 9th to 12th of May 2017, in Lausanne, Switzerland
Tillgänglig från: 2018-01-02 Skapad: 2018-01-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-22Bibliografiskt granskad
Wickholm, K., Williams, H., Lindström, A., Lorentzon, A. & Wikström, F. (2016). Innovative packaging for reduction of food waste from producer to consumer. In: IAPRI 2016 - 20th World Conference on Packaging: Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging. Paper presented at 20th World Conference on Packaging: Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging (IAPRI 2016), June 12-15, 2016, Campinas, Brazil.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Innovative packaging for reduction of food waste from producer to consumer
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: IAPRI 2016 - 20th World Conference on Packaging: Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging, 2016Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Increasing population and environmental changes poses a significant pressure on the global food supply chain. With the large quantities of food waste that’s been reported over the past couple of years packaging can play a more significant role in reducing the food wastage. Together with actors along the entire value chain we are developing new innovative packaging solutions to reduce food waste throughout the value chain, from food producers to consumers. The purpose of the study is to design and optimize new packaging system solutions so that no part of the chain is optimized at the expense of any other part. In the fall of 2015 the food wastage was examined in three supply chains, salsa in glass jar (A), rice pudding in plastic packaging (B) and lettuce in plastic packaging (C), by using waste audits in the businesses, collecting, comparing and analyzing data. For consumer insights ethnographic studies was used in ten Swedish households. Interviews have also been conducted with consumers in retail stores. The supply chain study indicates little wastage for A and B and higher for C. Consumer report some handling difficulties with the food packaging and reasons why food is wasted. The main reasons being that the food gets bad, difficulties to empty the packaging and that the amount of food is higher than their needs. A majority of the consumer state that they often view packaging as something unnecessary. Consumers do not give packaging functions many thoughts in general and many have difficulties in judging the packaging functions.

Nyckelord
food packaging, waste, sustainable development, consumer, supply
Nationell ämneskategori
Pappers-, massa- och fiberteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29254 (URN)
Konferens
20th World Conference on Packaging: Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging (IAPRI 2016), June 12-15, 2016, Campinas, Brazil
Anmärkning

Slides only

Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-06 Skapad: 2017-04-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
Berg, H., Söderlund, M. & Lindström, A. (2015). Spreading joy: examining the effects of smiling models on consumer joy and attitudes. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 32(6), 459-469
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Spreading joy: examining the effects of smiling models on consumer joy and attitudes
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Consumer Marketing, ISSN 0736-3761, E-ISSN 2052-1200, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 459-469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer response to pictures of smiling models in marketing, focusing on the roles of emotional contagion from the smiling models and the perceived typicality of marketing with smiling models. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports the findings from three experimental studies, comparing consumer response to two versions of an advertisement (Study 1) and a packaging design (Study 2 and 3), including either a picture of a smiling or a non-smiling model. To measure consumer response, a combination of self-report questionnaires and eye-tracking methodology was used. Findings – The pictures of smiling models produced more consumer joy and more positive attitudes for the marketing. The positive effects on attitudes were mediated by consumer joy, and the effects on consumer joy were mediated by the perceived typicality of the marketing with smiling models. Originality/value – Despite the ubiquity of photos of smiling faces in marketing, very few studies have isolated the effects of the smile appeal on consumer response to marketing objects. By comparing marketing where the same model is shown smiling or with a neutral facial expression, the positive effects were isolated. The roles of emotional contagion and perceived typicality in this mechanism were also examined and implications of the findings for research and practitioners are discussed.

Nyckelord
typicality, advertising and packaging design, affect transfer, consumer joy, emotional contagion, smile appeal
Nationell ämneskategori
Företagsekonomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-118 (URN)10.1108/JCM-03-2015-1356 (DOI)2-s2.0-84941109599 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-05-23 Skapad: 2016-05-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
Kihlstedt, A., Lindberg, S. M., Lindström, A. & Pousette, S. (2014). Material identity in a packaging context (ed.). In: : . Paper presented at 19th IAPRI World Conference on Packaging, Melbourne, Australia, 15 - 18 June 2014 (pp. 396-403).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Material identity in a packaging context
2014 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Package design includes a number of considerations ranging from protecting the content to conveying the brand image. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding on how Swedish consumes perceive product packaging attributes, with a special emphasis on in which way packaging material (carton, paper plastic), and structural design (folding carton, paper bag, standing pouch and plastic bag), have an emotional impact on consumers' evaluation of the product and packaging. Assessing the appearance and effectiveness of a packaging system is often confounded by branding, why it is important to separate the brand influence from the attributes of the packaging system. Thus, in the experimental part, packaging prototypes of different structural design and materials were manufactured in order to present commercial cereal brands in different types of packaging. The research involved a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, comprising (i) focus groups on cereal (muesli) packaging; (ii) a mock-up study of four muesli packaging types: transparent plastic bag, carton box, paper bag, and a resalable stand-up plastic pouch; and (iii) a questionnaire on environmental attitudes to packaging materials. Fourteen respondents participated in the focus groups and 20 in the mock-up study. Result show that the paper bag and the carton box were perceived to be the most environmentally friendly packaging material. Heavy ink usage on paper bags and carton boxes can however raise concern regarding the environmental impact. Introducing functionality and good print quality can cause preferences to divert to an alternative packaging material. In the mock-up study the standing pouch was the most liked package type regardless of brands. Functional reasons (protect, re-closable etc.) and appearance reasons (nice print, nice colours) was claimed for giving this package high ratings.

Förlag
s. 8
Nationell ämneskategori
Pappers-, massa- och fiberteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-9542 (URN)2-s2.0-85009211729 (Scopus ID)
Konferens
19th IAPRI World Conference on Packaging, Melbourne, Australia, 15 - 18 June 2014
Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-12 Skapad: 2016-09-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-03-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Lindberg, S. M., Lindström, A., Cederström, C., From, A. & Westerlind, C. (2013). Shoppers' attention to packaging and in-store media (ed.). In: : . Paper presented at 26th IAPRI symposium on packaging, proceedings, Espoo, Finland, June 10-13, 2013.
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2013 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Förlag
s. 8
Nationell ämneskategori
Kommunikationsvetenskap Pappers-, massa- och fiberteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-9509 (URN)
Konferens
26th IAPRI symposium on packaging, proceedings, Espoo, Finland, June 10-13, 2013
Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-12 Skapad: 2016-09-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5152-972x

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