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Lindberg, U. (2020). Research for the retail grocery context: A systematic review on display cabinets. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 100, 19-34
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Research for the retail grocery context: A systematic review on display cabinets
2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Trends in Food Science & Technology, ISSN 0924-2244, E-ISSN 1879-3053, Vol. 100, s. 19-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Cabinet and in-store layout design impose high demands on supermarket refrigeration systems, due to temperature requirements and interactions between the ambient environment and the display. It is clear that views diverge on how different barriers should be investigated, and there are reasons to believe that energy efficiency measurements, with regards to both energy efficiency in buildings and energy efficiency in the operations, have weak points. The energy efficiency situation is a paradox that needs to be elaborated on. Scope and approach: The paper presents a systematic literature review of research on open (no doors) or closed refrigerated cabinets (with doors) energy efficiency, chilled groceries and the consumer behavior, followed by an analysis of the contemporary research. The paper draws on findings and collects peer-reviewed articles from databases in order to examine how research has reported on this issue. As a result, 31 articles were framed, with different variables, to form a body of this article. Key findings and conclusions: Empirical research is needed that uses actual data, such as perceptions, behavioral research with lab experiments, and field measurements. Consumers shopping situation, for chilled groceries, is an extensive and complex topic, and a single study cannot provide a complete overview of all its related aspects. The results focus on two objectives. Firstly to present the review and secondly to analyze and identify knowledge gaps within the energy efficiency and store installations in the grocery context.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Nyckelord
Barrier, Consumer behavior, Energy efficiency, Food temperature, Retail display cabinet, Systematic review, Food storage, Refrigeration, Display cabinet, Energy efficiency in buildings, Energy efficiency measurements, Food temperatures, Supermarket refrigeration, Systematic literature review
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44712 (URN)10.1016/j.tifs.2020.03.027 (DOI)2-s2.0-85082701352 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Funding details: HandelsrÃ¥det; Funding text 1: We acknowledge the support of Swedish Retail and Wholesale Council .

Tillgänglig från: 2020-04-27 Skapad: 2020-04-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
Lindberg, U. & Borgqvist, M. (2018). Certified energy consultant for increasednumber of retail grocery stores with low energy use, safe operation and low environmental impact. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018 (pp. 376-384).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Certified energy consultant for increasednumber of retail grocery stores with low energy use, safe operation and low environmental impact
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, s. 376-384Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the framework for a proposed certification for energy consultants targeting the grocery sector, i.e. supermarkets. Thecertificationshould cover necessary knowledge and requirements, with the overall aim of increasing energy efficiency and reducing related costs for the store at the system level. Within the retail sector, supermarkets are the most energy-intensive buildings. Buildings intended for food sector applications need to be of a special design, with requirements that differ from other premises. Half of the electricity used is employed to keep food cold. However, energy efficiency can be improved through efficient equipment and increased knowledge, sometimes by 30-50% or more. This paper presents different skills and requirements needed by a certified energy consultant, CEC, working with energy efficiency in supermarket, from the retailer's perspective. Thus, the specifications can be used to further develop the certification area; energy consulting for supermarkets and good practice approaches targeting this area.

Nyckelord
Certification, Commercial, Energy, Energy efficiency, Refrigeration, Retail grocery store, Chains, Commercial refrigeration, Costs, Environmental impact, IIR filters, Retail stores, Sales, Sustainable development, Good practices, Grocery sector, Grocery stores, Safe operation, System levels
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34479 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2018.0049 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046272801 (Scopus ID)9782362150241 (ISBN)
Konferens
5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018
Anmärkning

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten;

Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-09 Skapad: 2018-08-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-22Bibliografiskt granskad
Lindberg, U., Salomonson, N., Sundström, M. & Wendin, K. (2018). Consumer perception and behavior in the retail foodscape – A study of chilled groceries. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 40, 1-7
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Consumer perception and behavior in the retail foodscape – A study of chilled groceries
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 40, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In the retail grocery business, new competitors such as pure e-commerce players are growing fast, and, in order to compete, ‘brick and mortar’ stores such as supermarkets need to become more professional at providing excellent customer service, and to use the physical servicescape as the main competitive advantages. However, supermarkets also face a challenge to offer consumers high quality products while at the same time providing a pleasant and functional servicescape. Products like groceries often need to be stored in cabinets due to strict regulations and in order to maintain correct temperatures. Some of these cabinets have doors which make them more energy-efficient (Evans et al., 2007 ;  Faramarzi et al., 2002), reduces costs, and contributes to grocery quality, but it can also affect the perceived servicescape, and risk a negative impact on sales (Waide, 2014; Kauffeld, 2015). For example, moisture from the atmosphere that condenses on the inside of the door glass (Fricke and Bansal, 2015) may make the cabinets less transparent, and doors can obstruct consumers from passing by. Thus, having chilled groceries in cabinets with doors can be both beneficial and problematic. However, no studies have been conducted on how open (no doors) or closed (with doors) cabinets for chilled groceries impact consumer perception and behavior. Hence, the purpose of the study is to contribute to an understanding of how consumers behave and what they perceive when shopping chilled groceries from cabinets with doors and without doors in the supermarket.

Based on a qualitative research approach, combining in-store observations and focus group interviews, and focusing on Bitner's (1992) three environmental variables in the servicescape, i.e. (1) ambient condition, (2) space and functions, and (3) signs, symbols and artifacts, the study investigates the question: do open or closed cabinets for chilled groceries in the supermarket impact consumer perception and behavior, and if so, how?

Our results indicate that consumers’ behavior and perceptions of the foodscape differ when there are doors or no doors on the cabinets. The paper thereby contributes to servicescape research by focusing on a particular part of supermarkets – the foodscape for chilled groceries–and by enhancing the understanding of environmental variables in the servicescape. The results further show how doors lead to different forms of approach or avoidance behavior in terms of accessibility and that consumers’ vision, olfaction and tactility all influence consumers’ perceptions of freshness and cleanliness in relation to doors or no doors. Our results also have practical implications for retailers who are designing new stores or considering changes in existing store layouts.

Nyckelord
grocery retail, consumer behavior, consumer perception, servicescape, foodscape
Nationell ämneskategori
Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32852 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.09.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034114483 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Handelns utvecklingsråd
Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-12 Skapad: 2017-12-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-22Bibliografiskt granskad
Lindberg, U., Rolfsman, L. & Swartz, H. (2018). Energy agreements regarding grocery stores for a sustainable society - Lessons learned. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018 (pp. 152-159).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Energy agreements regarding grocery stores for a sustainable society - Lessons learned
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, s. 152-159Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this study we aim to shed light on waste heat from commercial refrigeration, which is common but unnecessary. Excess heat is the heat which is not recovered, although it is possible to do so. We include heating for existing buildings: grocery stores as stand-alone, or within another building. VariousSwedish perspectives of the parties involved, tenant and landlord, are discussed. Theoretically and technically, it is not difficult to distributeexcess energy from a tenant to another receiver, which in turn uses the energy. However, to meet energy goals regarding energy consumption for heating buildings requires new and efficient approaches. The technique is already known and availableon the market. We suggest that availableenergy and heat recovery projects, contracts and agreements maysignificantly enhance the possibility of creating viable energy efficiency projects, and include excess heat. Results include lessons learned from the parties.

Nyckelord
Agreement, Commercial, Energy efficiency, Heat-recovery, Lease, Refrigeration, Supermarket, Chains, Commercial refrigeration, Contracts, Energy utilization, IIR filters, Sustainable development, Waste heat, Waste heat utilization, Excess heats, Grocery stores, Stand -alone, Sustainable society
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34481 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2018.0021 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046294764 (Scopus ID)9782362150241 (ISBN)
Konferens
5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018
Anmärkning

Funding details: Energimyndigheten;

Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-09 Skapad: 2018-08-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-22Bibliografiskt granskad
Haglund Stignor, C., Tiljander, P., Lindberg, U., Lidbom, P., Axell, M. & Masgrau, M. (2018). New type of energy efficient heat exchanger for indirectly cooled display cabinets - Laboratory and field tests. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018 (pp. 206-214).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>New type of energy efficient heat exchanger for indirectly cooled display cabinets - Laboratory and field tests
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, s. 206-214Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this study, a completely new type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side has been evaluated in a display cabinet application. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. Tests were performed with a traditional open vertical display cabinet, first with a traditional finned-tube coil and thereafter with the new type of heat exchanger, both in a climate chamber and thereafter in the field. The results from both tests showed that the liquid inlet temperature could be increased by around 6°C, from the range -8°C - -7°C with the traditional coil to the range -2°C -1°C with the new type of heat exchanger, which can lead to considerable energy savings and operation without the need for defrosting of the heat exchanger.

Nyckelord
Display cabinet, Heat exchanger, Indirect cooling, Laminar flow, Chains, Energy conservation, Energy efficiency, Heat transfer, IIR filters, Liquids, Sustainable development, Woodworking, Climate chambers, Energy efficient, Heat transfer performance, Laminar flow regimes, Liquid inlet temperature, Parallel plates, Heat exchangers
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34470 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2018.0028 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046274802 (Scopus ID)9782362150241 (ISBN)
Konferens
5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018
Anmärkning

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten;

Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-13 Skapad: 2018-08-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-03-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Jensen, S., Lindberg, U. & Rolfsman, L. (2017). Prioriterade åtgärder i befintliga livsmedelslokaler för ökad energieffektivisering. Kyla & värme (2), 34-39
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Prioriterade åtgärder i befintliga livsmedelslokaler för ökad energieffektivisering
2017 (Svenska)Ingår i: Kyla & värme, nr 2, s. 34-39Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm)) Published
Nyckelord
energi, f-gas, köldmedier, energieffektivisering
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29280 (URN)
Projekt
Prioriterade åtgärder i befintliga livsmedelslokaler för ökad energieffektivisering
Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-11 Skapad: 2017-04-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-22Bibliografiskt granskad
Lindberg, U., Fahlén, P., Axell, M. & Fransson, N. (2017). Thermal comfort in the supermarketenvironment – multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment. International journal of refrigeration, 82, 426-435
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Thermal comfort in the supermarketenvironment – multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 82, s. 426-435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In the supermarket environment three factors must be considered: food (food quality), personnel (working conditions), and customers.The customers do not remain in this environment very long but are of particular interest since they constitute the supermarket’s commercial basis. However, there are no recommendations on the indoor environment based on this category. This study compares the perceived indoor thermal environment with simultaneous objective measurements of the thermal environment and includes multiple enquiry methods. These methods have been used for this specific environment in order to understand how customers perceive, evaluate, and prefer variations in the thermal environment.

Measurements were performed in summer and winter in front of twelve display cabinets, over 1100 questionnaires have been received.To provide recommendations, this study presents measured and perceived comfort in supermarkets, information which can be used for prescribing suitable thermal environments for customers.

Nyckelord
Environment, Supermarket, Display Cabinet, Comfort, Thermal Analysis, Retail, Customer, Consumer
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32863 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2017.06.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85026862478 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-14 Skapad: 2017-12-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-03-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Johnni, M., Kellner, P., Malmberg, M., Svanborg, M. & Vavassori, G. (2016). Cold Chain of Chilled meals - A case study.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cold Chain of Chilled meals - A case study
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2016 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

”Active Ageing – Personalised food and meal solutions for health and quality of life”(Aktivt åldrande – individuellt anpassade måltidslösningar för hälsa och livskvalitet hosäldre. Diarienr 2013-02780) is a project that aims to maintain the quality of life and autonomy of older persons, through individual and personalised meal solutions that fit their needs and requirements. The target group are primarily the age 75 or older. Five work packages are included in the project. One of the work packages had the scope of developing a concept for the ordering, distribution and delivery of meal to the elderly.The final report from that work package can be found in SP Report 2015:75. An interdisciplinary approach – combining knowledge of ICT (information and communications technology) – Technology, food quality, packaging, logistic, sensory, and waste/return systems for the food that is distributed is increasingly necessary. Being able to influence food choices, for the elderly, is central and open up possibilities for different activities and the development of new products, models and services that might be facilitated by collaborating with SMEs (micro, small and medium sized enterprises) and other business partners interested in delivering solutions for the elderly consumers. The concept for the ordering, distribution and delivery of meal to the elderly developed in the project can be used by other end users and/or for other products and services.Students at the KTH performed a case study “cold chain of chilled meals” together with participant, Medirest, from the project Active Ageing which is presented in this report.The focus is on hospital food provisioning, which is an even more delicate branch in the general food processing panorama. The entire cold chain is mapped and analysed, from the factory up to the hospital wards, in order to ensure integrity and identify critical points. The work is done in collaboration with Medirest, a company responsible for food provision in five hospitals in Stockholm’s county. The aim of the project were to investigate if Medirest cold chain of a meal containing chicken were kept intact starting from when the frozen chicken were thawed until it was delivered in a meal box to the S:t Görans Hospital, including all storing and transportation.Starting from the background knowledge of food regulations, production procedures, logistic technologies and delivery schemes, the overall situation can be depicted and subsequently investigated. Temperature measurements were carried out upon cooked chicken. The results shows that the chicken holds a temperature below 6°C, which is Medirest’s goal, when it is put in the holding fridge at Medirest. The temperature fluctuates a lot.When it is put in the holding fridge at the hospital the temperature is held more constant, just above 6°C. The difference may depend on the activity and the amount of internal loads, as well as the ventilation flow required at the Medirest facility. The most exposed parts of the cold chain were during the preparation of the meal boxes, the transportation to the hospital, and during the delivery of the meal boxes to the different wards. The measurements were carried out in November, which is a relative cold month. Problems not showed in this study could however occur during the summer months when the cold chain is exposed to higher loads and higher ambient temperatures.

Serie
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2016:91
Nyckelord
Cold chain, chilled meals, distribution, energy, food, elderly consumers
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27946 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-23 Skapad: 2017-01-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
Giacalone, D., Wendin, K., Kremer, S., Frøst, M. B., Bredie, W. L. P., Olsson, V., . . . Risvik, E. (2016). Health and quality of life in an aging population - Food and beyond. Food Quality and Preference, 47, 166-170
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Health and quality of life in an aging population - Food and beyond
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 47, s. 166-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, their food perception and preferences is increasingly needed. The role of food in healthy aging was a prominent theme at the 6th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, which had quality of life across the life span as a focal point. This short paper is based on a workshop held at the EuroSense meeting, focusing on research from sensory and consumer scientists. The workshop featured contributions focusing on food-related perception, needs and behavior of the elderly, and aimed at demonstrating the relevance of sensory and consumer scientists in promoting food-related well-being in an aging population. The workshop contributions are here reviewed and summarized three main themes: nutritional needs, food perception and aging, and behavioral drivers of food consumption.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2016
Nyckelord
Elderly nutrition, Healthy aging, Older consumers, Sarcopenia, Sensory and consumer science, Societal changes
Nationell ämneskategori
Livsmedelsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-137 (URN)10.1016/j.foodqual.2014.12.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-84942292832 (Scopus ID)09503293 (ISSN) (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-02 Skapad: 2016-06-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
Lindberg, U., Fahlén, P., Axell, M., Rolfsman, L. & Fransson, N. (2016). Supermarket environment, thermal comfort, energy and food quality efficiency. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 4th IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, April 7-9, 2016, Auckland, New Zealand (pp. 391-398).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Supermarket environment, thermal comfort, energy and food quality efficiency
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2016, s. 391-398Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In a supermarket setting, customers likely feel the chilled air from refrigerated units displaying their contents to passing customers. Supermarkets, by their nature, contain a diverse range of perishable goods stored in different designed units within one large building, whose distinct storage temperatures result in the unusual thermal environment that customers encounter when shopping. Unfortunately, this open environment results in huge amounts of wasted cold air from display units, the reduction of thermal comfort for customers, and a reduction in the quality of the food. A possible solution to improve comfort for customers, reduce cold air waste, help preserve foods, and save money for retailers includes innovative doors for open display cabinets. Such doors will save money for the retailer by lowering the costs for energy in supermarkets. Doors should, therefore, be viewed as an option and solution for not only the merchandiser, but also for the customer.

Nyckelord
Environment, Food, Quality, Retail, Supermarket, Thermal comfort, Chains, Food products, IIR filters, Image quality, Retail stores, Sustainable development, Display cabinet, Open environment, Perishable goods, Storage temperatures, Thermal environment, Sales
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27671 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2016.0051 (DOI)2-s2.0-84975886042 (Scopus ID)9782362150142 (ISBN)
Konferens
4th IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, April 7-9, 2016, Auckland, New Zealand
Anmärkning

References: ADEME, AFCE, UNICLIMA, EReIE, Cemafroid, (2013) Alternatives to High GWP HFCs in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Applications, , Retrieved Oct., 2015; Axell, M., (2002) Vertical Display Cabinets in Supermarkets - Energy Efficiency and the Influence of Air Flows, p. 225. , Ph. D. thesis, D66:2002. Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Building Services Eng. Sweden; Brolls, E.K., Factors affecting retail display cases (1986) Com C2, 3, pp. 405-413. , IIR. GB 1986; EC European Commission, (2010) Final Report - Preparatory Study on Food Waste Across EU2, DG ENV - Directorate C, Brussels, p. 213. , Technical, October 2010; Energy Star, (2008) Facility Type: Supermarkets and Grocery Stores, , Retrieved May 13, 2015 ENERTECH; Ademe, P., (2001) Heat Gains from Chilled Refrigeration Equipment in Supermarkets, Diagnostic Électrique d'un Supermarché de Moyenne, , Surface, ADEME - Délégation régionale de Picardie, Immeuble APOTIKA, 67 avenue d'Italie. Italy; Evans, J., (2014) Are Doors on Fridges the Best Environmental Solution for the Retail sector?, p. 11. , Background paper to IOR Debate by Judith Evans FInstR, Advance Proof., IIR; Evans, J.A., Swain, M.V.L., (2010) Performance of Retail and Commercial Refrigeration Systems, p. 8. , IIR ICCC, Cambridge 29-31 March 2010; Faramarzi, R.T., Coburn, B.A., Sarhandian, R., Performance and energy impact of installing glass doors on an open fronted vertical deli/dairy display case (2002) ASHRAE Tran, 108 (1), pp. 673-679; Fanger, P.O., (1970) Thermal Comfort, p. 244. , Danish Technical Press. Copenhagen, Denmark; Foster, A.M., (1996) The Benefits of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for Modelling Processes in the Cold Chain, p. 52. , FRPERC University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol. BS18; Fricke, B., Becker, B., Energy use of doored and open vertical refrigerated display cases (2010) International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference, p. 9; Gheewala, S., Yeh, S., Fingerman, K., Diaz-Chavez, R., Moraes, M., Otto, M., (2011) The Bioenergy and Water Nexus, p. 40. , United Nations Environment Programme UNEP; Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., (2011) Global Food Losses and Food Waste - Extent, Causes and Prevention, p. 38. , Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations Rome, 2011; IIR/IIF, (2015) The Role of Refrigeration in the Global Economy, p. 16. , 29th Informatory Note on Refr. Techn; Howell, R.H., Rosario, L., Riiska, D., Potential savings in display case energy with reduced supermarket relative humidity (1999) 20th IIR/IIF Sydney, p. 7. , Australia; ISO 23953-2, Refrigerated display cabinets - Part 2: Classification, requirements and test conditions (2005) International Organization for Standardization, p. 73; Lindberg, U., Axell, M., Fahlén, P., Fransson, N., (2007) Appropriate Indoor Climate for Environmentally Sustainable Supermarkets - Field Measurements IIF/IIR, p. 8. , Beijing, China; Lindberg, U., Axell, M., Fahlén, P., Fransson, N., Supermarkets, indoor climate and energy efficiency - Field measurements before and after installation of doors on refrigerated cases (2008) Conference Refrigeration and Compressor, p. 8. , Purdue, USA, IIR; Lindberg, U., (2009) Indoor Thermal Environment in Supermarkets. A Study of Measured and Perceived Comfort Parameters, p. 173. , D 2009:04, Chalmers Univ. of Techn., Chalmers Reproservice, Sweden; Lindberg, U., Axell, M., Fahlén, P., (2010) Vertical Display Cabinets Without and with Doors, a Comparison of Measurements in A Laboratory and in A Supermkaret, p. 8. , IIR ICCC, Cambridge 29-31 March 2010; Lindberg, U., Axell, M., Fahlén, P., Vertical display cabinets with doors - Influence of the door-opening frequency on storage temperature and cooling demand (2010) Proc. Sustainable Refrigeration and Heat Pump Techn. Conference, p. 8. , Sthlm, Sweden, IIF/IIR; Lindberg, U., Jensen, S., (2014) How Could a Lower Temperature in the Cold Chain Affect Food Waste, p. 8. , IIR ICCC, London 23-25 June 2014; Rolfsman, M., Markusson, B.C., (2014) Changes of the Refrigeration System in the Dairy Section of a Supermarket - Field Measurements, p. 8. , IIR ICCC, London 23-25 June 2014; SEPA Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, (2013) Food Waste Volumes in Sweden, p. 20. , Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm; Sweetser, R., Supermarket relative humidity & Display-case performance (2000) Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering, 72 (2), pp. 38-47; Schönenberger, J., Experience with ejectors implemented in a R744 booster system operating in a supermarket (2014) 11th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, , China, Retr., 2015; UNEP, (2010) Report of the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee, p. 243. , Retrieved March 19, 2015; Ågren, T., Energy manager at ICA fastigheter sverige AB (in english Sweden real estates) (2015) Presentation "Energy Indicies" at National Project Meeting at SP Borås, Sweden, , 2nd of October, 2015

Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-22 Skapad: 2016-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-03-25Bibliografiskt granskad
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ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8323-4459

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