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Jiang, L., Olofsson, A., Ingason, H., Evegren, F. & Mindykowski, P. (2023). Effect of opening geometries on fire development in a ro-ro space. Ships and Offshore Structures, 272-284
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effect of opening geometries on fire development in a ro-ro space
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, s. 272-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of model scale experiments were conducted to study the fire development in a ro-ro deck with various opening geometries. The experiments were performed in a 1/8 reduced scale model with a heptane pool fire as fire source. Experimental results show that both the ventilation factor and the opening position affect the fire development. The critical opening ratio for the fire to self-extinguish is 4%, with the opening locating at the bottom of the side walls while no self-extinction is found for other tests. A higher opening position and a larger opening height provide better flow exchange between the deck and the ambient, but this effect is only obvious for 4% opening. Numerical study shows that Fire Dynamic Simulator used with default simple settings underestimates the fire development and yields an early extinction when fire self-extinction occurs. For freely developed fire with large openings, FDS gives more close results to experiments.

Emneord
Ro-ro space; fire development; opening; ventilation
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58834 (URN)10.1080/17445302.2022.2038467 (DOI)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Transport AdministrationThe Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation
Merknad

The tests and simulations constitute parts of the research project RO5 (ro-ro spacefire ventilation) which isfinanced by Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) and The Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation (Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus).

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-03-18 Laget: 2022-03-18 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Hynynen, J., Quant, M., Pramanik, R., Olofsson, A., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Andersson, P. (2023). Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
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2023 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

Publisher
s. 79
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2023:42
Emneord
Electric vehicle, fire safety, enclosed space, parking garage, vehicle fire, field experience, hazard identification
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64248 (URN)978-91-89757-90-5 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-03-21 Laget: 2023-03-21 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Gehandler, J., Olofsson, A., Hynynen, J., Temple, A., Lönnermark, A., Andersson, J., . . . Huang, C. (2022). BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.0.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.0
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2022 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

Publisher
s. 44
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2022:47
Emneord
New energy carriers, alternative fuel vehicle, battery, alternatively powered vehicles, electric vehicle, pressure ship, biogas vehicle, CNG vehicle, hydrogen vehicle, fire, explosion, manual firefighting, tactics, risk, ro-ro ship
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59162 (URN)978-91-89561-86-1 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-04-26 Laget: 2022-04-26 Sist oppdatert: 2024-04-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Olofsson, A., Millgård, U. & Gregersson, J. (2022). ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler : Förstudie som samlar in kunskap gällande tillförlitlighet av drenchersystem i rorolastutrymme..
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler : Förstudie som samlar in kunskap gällande tillförlitlighet av drenchersystem i rorolastutrymme.
2022 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler, is a pre-study investigating open water deluge sprinkler systems in ro-ro spaces on ro-ro ships, also known as drencher systems. The overall goal of the project is to develop proposals for technical and operational improvements, in order to avoid malfunctions and make the systems more reliable. The principal function of a drencher system is the same as an open water deluge system: when a deluge section is activated, water shall be discharged from all the open nozzles in the deluge (“drencher”) section. These four approaches to collect knowledge and experience regarding the drencher systems were used in this study: - A desk study to examine regulations and other guidance documents for the drencher system. - Interview study to get an understanding of e.g., good examples, issues and ship specific applications. - Field study to examine the system installation together with crew representatives onboard and to participate in drencher system flow tests. - System group workshops following a structured method for finding innovative solutions. The developed proposals for improvements to the drencher systems technical and operational design was developed during Workshop #3 by the system group. The ideas Piping material and Avoid Sea water when testing was chosen to be further developed. The use of sea water increases the corrosion rate in steel pipe systems. The salinity of the water also has an effect on corrosion rate. For the ships included in this pre-study, there was a difference among the crews’ experience of clogged nozzles and corrosion whether the ship operated the Swedish west coast or the east coast. The crew at ships operating the east coast, which has lower salinity in the water, did not seem to have experience with clogged nozzles and corrosion to the same extent as the ships on the west coast. Crews at ships operating the east coast was more concerned about fulfilling the requirements and actual suppressing a fire, which was also an expressed concern by the interviewed inspectors. Problems with internal corrosion in pipes is not unique for deluge system at ships, it also exists for land-based applications, such as in road tunnels and buildings. The results of the project are communicated directly to the shipping industry via the reference group and system group established for the project, and to the Swedish Transport Agency for further notification to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) development of safety rules for ships.

Abstract [sv]

ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler, är en förstudie som undersökt sprinklersystem (gruppaktiveringssystem) i rorolastutrymmen på rorofartyg, även kallade drenchersystem. Det övergripande målet med projektet var att ta fram förslag på tekniska och operativa förbättringar, för att undvika felfunktion och göra systemen mer tillförlitliga. Den huvudsakliga funktionen för ett drenchersystem är densamma som för ett delugesystem: när en deluge sektion är aktiverad ska vatten tömmas ut från alla öppna munstycken i deluge ("drencher") sektionen. Dessa fyra tillvägagångssätt för att samla in kunskap och erfarenhet om drenchersystemen användes i studien: - Litteraturstudie för att granska föreskrifter och andra vägledande dokument för drenchersystemet. - Intervjustudie för att få förståelse för goda exempel, frågeställningar, skeppsspecifika applikationer m.m. - Fältstudie för att undersöka systeminstallationen tillsammans med besättningsrepresentanter ombord och för att delta i flödestester av drenchersystem. - Systemgruppsworkshops efter en strukturerad metod för att hitta innovativa lösningar. De framtagna förslagen till förbättringar av drenchersystemens tekniska och operativa design utvecklades under Workshop #3 av Systemgruppen. Idéerna Rörmaterial och Undvik havsvatten vid testning valdes för att vidareutveckla. Användningen av havsvatten ökar korrosionshastigheten i stålrörssystem. Vattnets salthalt har också en effekt på korrosionshastigheten. För de fartyg som ingick i denna förstudie var det skillnad mellan besättningarnas upplevelse av igensatta munstycken och korrosion om fartyget trafikerade den svenska västkusten eller östkusten. Besättningsmedlemmar på fartyg som trafikerar östkusten, som har lägre salthalt i vattnet, verkade inte ha erfarenhet av igensatta munstycken och korrosion i samma utsträckning som de på fartygen som trafikerar västkusten. Besättningsmedlemmar på fartyg som trafikerade östkusten var mer oroade över att uppfylla kraven och att faktiskt dämpa en brand, vilket också var en uttryckt oro från de intervjuade inspektörerna. Problem med intern korrosion i rör är inte unikt för drenchersystem på fartyg, det är även problematiskt för landbaserade applikationer, som i vägtunnlar och i byggnader. Resultatet av projektet kommuniceras direkt till sjöfartsnäringen via de referens- och systemgrupper som upprättats för projektet samt till Transportstyrelsen för vidare anmälan till IMO för utveckling av säkerhetsregler för fartyg.

Publisher
s. 65
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62535 (URN)
Merknad

 En referensgrupp som bestod av representanter från: Stena Teknik, ForSea Ferries, Destination Gotland, Transportstyrelsen, Novenco Fire, Johnson Controls, Albacon, DNV, MacGregor och RISE. Detta projekt har genomförts inom Trafikverkets branschprogram Hållbar sjöfart, som drivs av Lighthouse.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-01-16 Laget: 2023-01-16 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Olofsson, A., Millgård, U. & Gregersson, J. (2022). ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler. Förstudie som samlar in kunskap gällande tillförlitlighet av drenchersystem i rorolastutrymme..
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler. Förstudie som samlar in kunskap gällande tillförlitlighet av drenchersystem i rorolastutrymme.
2022 (svensk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [sv]

ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler, är en förstudie som undersökt sprinklersystem (gruppaktiveringssystem) i rorolastutrymmen på rorofartyg, även kallade drenchersystem. Det övergripande målet med projektet var att ta fram förslag på tekniska och operativa förbättringar, för att undvika felfunktion och göra systemen mer tillförlitliga. Den huvudsakliga funktionen för ett drenchersystem är densamma som för ett delugesystem: när en deluge sektion är aktiverad ska vatten tömmas ut från alla öppna munstycken i deluge ("drencher") sektionen. Dessa fyra tillvägagångssätt för att samla in kunskap och erfarenhet om drenchersystemen användes i studien: - Litteraturstudie för att granska föreskrifter och andra vägledande dokument för drenchersystemet. - Intervjustudie för att få förståelse för goda exempel, frågeställningar, skeppsspecifika applikationer m.m. - Fältstudie för att undersöka systeminstallationen tillsammans med besättningsrepresentanter ombord och för att delta i flödestester av drenchersystem. - Systemgruppsworkshops efter en strukturerad metod för att hitta innovativa lösningar. De framtagna förslagen till förbättringar av drenchersystemens tekniska och operativa design utvecklades under Workshop #3 av Systemgruppen. Idéerna Rörmaterial och Undvik havsvatten vid testning valdes för att vidareutveckla. Användningen av havsvatten ökar korrosionshastigheten i stålrörssystem. Vattnets salthalt har också en effekt på korrosionshastigheten. För de fartyg som ingick i denna förstudie var det skillnad mellan besättningarnas upplevelse av igensatta munstycken och korrosion om fartyget trafikerade den svenska västkusten eller östkusten. Besättningsmedlemmar på fartyg som trafikerar östkusten, som har lägre salthalt i vattnet, verkade inte ha erfarenhet av igensatta munstycken och korrosion i samma utsträckning som de på fartygen som trafikerar västkusten. Besättningsmedlemmar på fartyg som trafikerade östkusten var mer oroade över att uppfylla kraven och att faktiskt dämpa en brand, vilket också var en uttryckt oro från de intervjuade inspektörerna. Problem med intern korrosion i rör är inte unikt för drenchersystem på fartyg, det är även problematiskt för landbaserade applikationer, som i vägtunnlar och i byggnader. Resultatet av projektet kommuniceras direkt till sjöfartsnäringen via de referens- och systemgrupper som upprättats för projektet samt till Transportstyrelsen för vidare anmälan till IMO för utveckling av säkerhetsregler för fartyg.

Publisher
s. 65
Serie
Lighthouse
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58835 (URN)
Merknad

Detta projekt har genomförts inom Trafikverkets branschprogram Hållbar sjöfart, som drivs av Lighthouse. 

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-03-21 Laget: 2022-03-21 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Burgén, J., Gehandler, J., Olofsson, A., Huang, C. & Temple, A. (2022). Safe and Suitable Firefighting. Borås
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Safe and Suitable Firefighting
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2022 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The level of protection for personal protective equipment (PPE) in firefighting is important for Swedish shipowners; they want to be sure that the equipment they provide is sufficiently safe for the types of fires that can occur onboard. Shipowners also want to be updated on risks related to the carriage of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Safety products and equipment used onboard ships with a European flag must be certified in accordance with the Marine Equipment Directive (MED) and follow the regulations in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). For fire suits, this means that they must be certified according to one of three standards listed in MED. Two of these standards cover suits used in special cases, with very intense radiant heat, and should only be worn for short periods. The third standard, EN 469, is the same standard that is referred to the PPE Regulation 2016/42, making EN 469-approved fire suits used among European firefighters ashore. However, EN 469 contains two different performance levels where the lower level is not suitable for protection against risks encountered when fighting fires in enclosures. Based on a user study and a risk assessment for AFVs, a set of suggested changes to MED and SOLAS were prepared, together with a set of recommendations for operators that were found important but not subject for regulations. A ready-to-use quick guide, containing the most important results, has been developed for operators.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Borås: , 2022. s. 62
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2022:32
Emneord
Firefighter outfit, fire suit, personal protective equipment, firefighting, SOLAS, Marine equipment directive, wheel mark, alternative fuel vehicle, electric vehicle, gas-powered vehicle
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58911 (URN)978-91-89561-56-4 (ISBN)
Forskningsfinansiär
The Swedish Mercantile Marine FoundationAFA Insurance
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-03-28 Laget: 2022-03-28 Sist oppdatert: 2024-05-15bibliografisk kontrollert
Mindykowski, P., Olofsson, A. & Evegren, F. (2021). RoBound – Ro-ro space boundary fire protection – Literature Study.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>RoBound – Ro-ro space boundary fire protection – Literature Study
2021 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

This is the report from the literature study of the RoBound (Ro-ro space Boundary fire protection) project. RoBound is carried out by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB.The ro-ro ships have a large longitudinal space where cars, trucks and other cargo can be rolled on and rolled off. Despite improved fire protection regulations, many fire accidents have occurred on ro-ro ships and there are no signs of them diminishing in number or magnitude. During a review of the fire safety regulations, the IMO correspondence group has particularly pinpointed the need for additional experimental data or results of scientific studies regarding:- The performance of A-60 boundaries in case of a ro-ro space fire, especially to prevent fire spread to accommodation spaces; and- The performance of A-0 boundaries in case of a ro-ro space fire, especially to prevent fire spread between ro-ro spaces.In this process, Sweden has moreover underlined the issue of the smoke tightness of A-class divisions with doors. While smoke tightness is a requirement for A-class divisions, the fire resistance test method in the Fire Test Procedures (FTP) Code is not designed to evaluate hazards associated with smoke spread. RoBound purpose is to clarify the performance of “state-of-the-art” fire boundaries between ro-ro spaces and accommodation spaces or other ro-ro spaces, and to give recommendations on how sufficient fire containment is ensured. RoBound aims to strengthen competence and influence regulation development regarding fire divisions of ro-ro ships.The main result from the literature study is that :- The concept of horizontal fire zones, allowing ro-ro spaces and special category spaces to be as long as the whole ship, was introduced in 1967 according to resolution A.122(V), but was made mandatory long time after. In SOLAS 1974, entered into force in 1980 the main vertical zones was included in the regulation.- The land based method will not be used in RoBound since some smoke tightness solutions are based on an intumescent sealing joint. In order to be activated, the joint needs high temperature which is not reach in the land based standard.- Hose ports, also denoted “Cat holes”, are used on board with different experiences. Some think it works fine, other that it more problem. Level of maintenance vary from almost nothing to a lot of hassle. It is concluded that they reduce the amount of smoke spreading through the door compared with have a wedge and doorway open.- Doors to the ro-ro space is not perceived as smoke tight, and so are not lift doors. Crew is aware of the importance of well closing fire doors, checks are made daily.- Fire insulation in ro-ro spaces can be damaged by loading of trailers or during maintenance work. There can also be water damage (testing of drenchers, cleaning or by rain) and general wear and tear. Damaged insulation happens but not too often so it is not experienced as a problem for the crew.

Publisher
s. 24
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2021:68
Emneord
ro-ro space, ro-ro deck, SOLAS, guidance, open ro-ro space, closed ro-ro space
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-54751 (URN)978-91-89385-58-0 (ISBN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2019/96119The Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-07-01 Laget: 2021-07-01 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Olofsson, A., Evegren, F., Mindykowski, P., Jiang, L., Ukaj, K., Zawadowska, A. & Ingason, H. (2020). RO5 ro-ro space fire ventilation: Summary report. Borås
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>RO5 ro-ro space fire ventilation: Summary report
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2020 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

This report is the final report from the research project RO5. The report summarises the results from the research project RO5. The report consists of summary from a literature study, from computer simulations and from model scale tests. This, together with results from full scale demonstrational test (documented only in this report) leads to the conceptional solutions and recommendations presented in this report. The project focused aim was to investigate the effects of ventilation on fire development in ro-ro spaces with different ventilation conditions.

Important conclusion from the literature study is that ventilation is primary to prevent flammable and other harmful gases from accumulating in the spaces, and the mechanical ventilation is not designed to be functional in case of fire. It is a must for the crew to gain knowledge about the ventilation system (i.e. fans, inlets and outlets) and its capacity from tests and experiences. It is important that guidelines, rules and routines are established for using the ventilation system in typical conditions (loading/unloading etc.) and that it is documented and passed on to provide guidance for the ship's crew.

One of the most important conclusions from the model scale tests and numerical simulation study is that distinct limitation is found for 4% opening of space sides (natural ventilation) for the fire self-extinction to occur. This is dependent on the height and shape of the opening. For the mechanical ventilation case, in case of fire, stopping the ventilation is the best way to reduce the fire intensity. The tests show that mechanical ventilation is vital for the fire to continue to burn. The recommendations aim at giving advise concerning ventilation in case of fire and how to deal with the ventilation at different ro-ro spaces.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Borås: , 2020. s. 55
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2020:06
Emneord
ro-ro space, ro-ro deck, weather deck, water cannon, ventilation, SOLAS, fire accident, fire test, model scale tests, guidance, open ro-ro space, closed ro-ro space, water monitor
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44425 (URN)978-91-89049-86-4 (ISBN)
Forskningsfinansiär
The Swedish Mercantile Marine FoundationSwedish Transport Administration
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-13 Laget: 2020-03-13 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Mindykowski, P., Olofsson, A. & Ronstad, T. (2020). RoBound – Ro-ro space boundary fire protection – Smoke spread through in A class divisions.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>RoBound – Ro-ro space boundary fire protection – Smoke spread through in A class divisions
2020 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The International Maritime Organization, through its correspondence group on fire safety of ro-pax ships, has underlined the need for more scientific studies regarding the performance of boundaries in case of a ro-ro space fire, especially to prevent fire and smoke spread to accommodation spaces. Following these discussions, Swedish Flag State has underlined the issue of the smoke tightness of doors in A class divisions. While smoke tightness is a requirement for A class divisions, the fire resistance test method in the FTP Code is not designed to evaluate hazards associated with smoke spread.RISE has carried out the RoBound project to meet this need.To increase the understanding of this weakness in the FTP Code, RISE has performed experimental tests of two almost identical doors. The only difference between the two doors was the presence or not of an intumescent joint between the leaf and the frame of the door, intended to prevent the passage of smoke. The doors were exposed to the test for fire boundaries in Part 3 of the FTP Code, which exposes specimens to a simulated fire by a temperature increase according to the standard fire curve ISO 834.A modification of the standard experimental rig was added and consisted of the addition of a canopy above the tested doors to gather and measure the rate of carbon dioxide to quantify the amount of smoke leaking from the doors. This set up of canopy and measurement rig was taken from the standard EN 81-58 which is applied for elevator doors acting as fire barriers.The results of the tests showed that both doors marginally failed the A-60 integrity criteria since there was presence of a sustained flame at the unexposed side before 60 minutes of test. However, both doors satisfied to the insulation criteria by maintaining a rise of temperature lower than 140 °C in average at the unexposed side. The main difference between the doors was that the door with the intumescent joints presented a rate of smoke leakage which was almost half of that of the fire door without intumescent joints.This result clearly shows the importance of evaluating the smoke tightness of A class doors during testing and the need

Publisher
s. 19
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2021:70
Emneord
ro-ro space, ro-ro deck, SOLAS, guidance, open ro-ro space, closed ro-ro space, smoke spread, A class division, door
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-54755 (URN)978-91-89385-60-3 (ISBN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2019/96119The Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-07-01 Laget: 2021-07-01 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Olofsson, A., Mindykowski, P., Jiang, L., Rakovic, A. & Ingason, H. (2019). Model scale tests of a ro-ro space fire ventilation. Borås
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Model scale tests of a ro-ro space fire ventilation
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2019 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The report contains results from a parametric study using model scale tests with natural and mechanical ventilation on ro-ro ship. Two types of fuels were used, heptane liquid fire and wood cribs. The heptane fire was used for the test series using natural ventilation and wood cribs were used in the test series using mechanical ventilation. The tests were carried out in a scale model 1:8 made of steel covered with 6 mm thick gypsum boards. The size of the model was 14.4 m long, 2.8 m wide and 0.6 m high. For natural ventilation different opening sizes (0, 1, 4 and 10% of the area of the walls along the sides) and shapes were located at different hull sides and sill heights. For mechanical ventilation both inlets supply, and outlets extracts were attached to the model and external fans combined with opening or closing of one end side. The air change per hours (ACPH) were set at 0, 10 and 20.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Borås: , 2019
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2019:94
Emneord
fire test, model scale test, ro-ro space, ro-ro deck, ventilation, SOLAS
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44401 (URN)978-91-89049-24-6 (ISBN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Transport AdministrationThe Swedish Mercantile Marine Foundation
Merknad

One of three RISE reports from the project RO5

Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-06 Laget: 2020-03-06 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2049-6213
v. 2.43.0