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Publikasjoner (10 av 223) Visa alla publikasjoner
Dahlbom, S., Anerud, E., Lönnermark, A. & Pushp, M. (2023). A theoretical evaluation of the impact of the type of reaction on heat production and material losses in biomass piles. Fire and Materials
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A theoretical evaluation of the impact of the type of reaction on heat production and material losses in biomass piles
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Self-heating during storage of biomass in piles causes material losses, leads to emissions to air, and poses a risk of fire. There are different techniques to assess a biomass material's propensity for self-heating, some of these are briefly reviewed. One of these techniques is isothermal calorimetry, which measures thermal power from materials and produces time-resolved curves. A recently developed and published test standard, ISO 20049-1:2020, describes how the self-heating of pelletized biofuels can be determined by means of isothermal calorimetry and how thermal power and the total heat produced during the test should be measured by isothermal calorimetry. This paper supports interpretation of the result obtained by isothermal calorimetry; the mentioned standard provides examples of peak thermal power and total heat but does not provide any assistance on how the result from isothermal measurements should be interpreted or how the result from measurements on different samples could be compared. This paper addresses the impact of different types of reactions, peak thermal power, total heat released (heat of reaction), activation energy, heat conductivity, and pile size on the temperature development in a generic pile of biomass. This paper addresses important parameters when the result from isothermal calorimetry is evaluated. The most important parameter, with respect to temperature development in large piles, was found to be the total heat released. It was also proposed that safe storage times, that is, the time until a run-away of the temperature in the pile, could be ranked based on the time to the peak thermal power.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2023
Emneord
biomaterial, isothermal calorimetry, reactivity, self-heating, storage
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64847 (URN)10.1002/fam.3153 (DOI)
Forskningsfinansiär
AFA InsuranceSwedish Energy Agency
Merknad

Funders: AFA Försäkring, Energimyndigheten

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-05-19 Laget: 2023-05-19 Sist oppdatert: 2023-06-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Pushp, M., Lönnermark, A., Vikegard, P., Wei, X.-F. & Hedenqvist, M. (2023). Ageing tests closer to real service conditions using hyper-sensitive microcalorimetry, a case study on EPDM rubber. Polymer testing, 120, Article ID 107948.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ageing tests closer to real service conditions using hyper-sensitive microcalorimetry, a case study on EPDM rubber
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 120, artikkel-id 107948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Accelerated thermal ageing (ATA) coupled to mechanical testing is widely used to predict the lifetime of polymeric products. ATA implies that the mechanisms of ageing are the same at accelerated and service conditions, which may often not be the case. Hence, ageing closer to service conditions is of high importance, but require very sensitive tools. Therefore, a high sensitivity microcalorimetry (MC) method was applied here to assess if it can be a possible tool for lifetime/ageing prediction closer to service conditions. We chose to focus on a complex, yet commonly used, ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. Arrhenius extrapolation of the heat flow data indicated two regimes at low and high temperature, with the former having the lower activation energy. The heat flow values measured by the MC revealed contributions from processes such as the melting of the antioxidant, its consumption at low temperature and the breakdown of residual peroxide. MC tests on the EPDM indicated a very low degree of oxidation appearing above 100 °C, too low to be observed with infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), but noticeable with MC. The high sensitivity of the MC techniques enabled detection of early signs of polymer degradation/ageing and other thermally activated processes that take place at or close to service temperatures (such as those in nuclear power plants). The MC tests were combined with other techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, gas chromatography techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and FTIR to further understand the degradation mechanisms. © 2023 The Authors

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Emneord
Activation energy, Ageing, EPDM, Lifetime, Microcalorimetry, Rubber, Calorimeters, Degradation, Differential scanning calorimetry, Ethylene, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Gas chromatography, Heat transfer, Mechanical testing, Nuclear fuels, Nuclear power plants, Scanning electron microscopy, Temperature, Accelerated thermal aging, Ageing tests, Case-studies, Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, FTIR, High sensitivity, Lows-temperatures, Micro-calorimetry, Service conditions
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64699 (URN)10.1016/j.polymertesting.2023.107948 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147854514 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding text 1: The funding of this work by the Finnish Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment within the framework of the SAFIR 2022 Finnish Research Program on Nuclear Power Plant Safety ( 2019–2022 ) is gratefully acknowledged. We also appreciate the support and funding from SSM Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and Energiforsk , which is a Swedish research and knowledge institute that advances and coordinates energy research. We acknowledge the support of James Walker and Co Ltd. (particularly Andrew Douglas, a material engineering group manager) for providing materials and technical discussions. We are grateful to the researchers employed at RISE, Per Borchardt for performing SEM-EDX and Richard Sott for GS-MS analysis.; Funding text 2: The funding of this work by the Finnish Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment within the framework of the SAFIR 2022 Finnish Research Program on Nuclear Power Plant Safety (2019–2022) is gratefully acknowledged. We also appreciate the support and funding from SSM Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and Energiforsk, which is a Swedish research and knowledge institute that advances and coordinates energy research. We acknowledge the support of James Walker and Co Ltd. (particularly Andrew Douglas, a material engineering group manager) for providing materials and technical discussions. We are grateful to the researchers employed at RISE, Per Borchardt for performing SEM-EDX and Richard Sott for GS-MS analysis.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-05-15 Laget: 2023-05-15 Sist oppdatert: 2023-05-26bibliografisk kontrollert
Kumlin, H., Lönnermark, A., Dahlbom, S., Blomqvist, P. & Mallin, T. (2023). Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker
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2023 (svensk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Publisher
s. 93
Serie
Avfall Sverige ; 2023:15
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67496 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-10-05 Laget: 2023-10-05 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-21bibliografisk kontrollert
Li, Y. Z., Lönnermark, A., Gehandler, J. & Ingason, H. (Eds.). (2023). Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. Paper presented at Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 26-28, 2023.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security
2023 (engelsk)Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

This publication includes the Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Stavanger, Norway, April 26-28, 2023. The Proceedings include 45 papers and 16 posters. The papers were presented in 16 different sessions, i.e., Keynote sessions, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Safety, Risk Management & Explosion, Digitization, Explosion, Poster Corner, Ventilation 1&2, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems, Tenability and Evacuation, Emergency Management, Evacuation, Safety Management, Fire Dynamics and Resistance. Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Ove Njå (University of Stavanger, Norway), Vladimir Molkov (Ulster University, UK), Ulf Lundström (Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden), Mirjam Nelisse (TNO, The Netherlands), and Gunnar Jenssen (SINTEF, Norway). We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

Publisher
s. 680
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67532 (URN)978-91-89757-89-9 (ISBN)
Konferanse
Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 26-28, 2023
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-10-16 Laget: 2023-10-16 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-29bibliografisk kontrollert
Pushp, M., Arun Chaudhari, O., Vikegard, P., Blomqvist, P., Lönnermark, A., Ghafar, A. N. & Hedenqvist, M. (2023). Specific heat and excess heat capacity of grout with phase change materials using heat conduction microcalorimetry. Construction and Building Materials, 401, 132915-132915
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Specific heat and excess heat capacity of grout with phase change materials using heat conduction microcalorimetry
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 401, s. 132915-132915Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Microencapsulated phase-change-materials (PCMs) incorporated in cementitious grout can be used as a source of energy in an underground thermal energy storage system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique to measure the latent heat or specific heat of PCM-embedded cementitious materials. However, using milligram sample sizes (as required by DSC) of a cementitious material fails to represent the actual scale of cementitious components. This is the reason why, in the present paper, non-isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (MC) was evaluated as a tool for determining the thermal properties of PCM-embedded grout as well as pure PCM (three PCMs were used). An MC experimental protocol (using both single and 5–6 temperature cycles) was developed and used to measure latent heat and melting and crystallization temperatures, which were in good agreement with those reported for pure PCMs by the producers. In addition, the specific heats of the PCM-containing grout also agreed with measurements using the hot disk technique. Overall, the results show that the MC technique can be used as a potential standard method in determining thermal processes in complex systems, such as in PCM-embedded cementitious systems, where a large sample size is needed to represent the material.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66941 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.132915 (DOI)
Merknad

This article is part of a project that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 727583.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-09-21 Laget: 2023-09-21 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-21bibliografisk kontrollert
Palm, A., Kumm, M., Storm, A. & Lönnermark, A. (2022). Breathing air consumption during different firefighting methods in underground mining environment. Fire safety journal, 133, Article ID 103661.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Breathing air consumption during different firefighting methods in underground mining environment
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 133, artikkel-id 103661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper analyses the breathing air consumption among participating firefighters during full-scale tests performed in the Tistbrottet mine in Sweden 2013. The availability of breathing air during firefighting has in earlier work been identified as a critical tactical factor in underground firefighting. Results from the tests show that there are differences in the breathing air consumption and that this depends on the methods used, equipment and the workload. The use of BA-teams, i.e. firefighters equipped with breathing apparatuses, is a complex group activity where the largest breathing air consumer will set the limits for the whole team. Light equipment and a structured command and control during the activities will enhance the endurance and the firefighting performance. Equipment and methods affect both firefighting performance and the durability of the firefighting activities. Examples of tested methods and equipment during the test series are: different variations of conventional hose lay-out; CAFS; cutting extinguisher; and trolley for equipment and complementary air. The aid of additional air supply and the use of trolleys will support the activities but is dependent on a large degree of preparation and training to function properly. Based on the tests, it is concluded that the larger model of air bottles should be considered for distances longer than 75 m. © 2022 The Authors

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Emneord
BA-Operation, Breathing air consumption, Fire and rescue operation, Fire in tunnels, Underground firefighting, Durability, Fire extinguishers, Air consumption, Fire in tunnel, Fire operations, Mining environments, Performance, Rescue operations, Underground mining, Fires
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60151 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103661 (DOI)2-s2.0-85137168665 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding details: Taipei Medical University, TMU; Funding details: Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap, MSB; Funding text 1: The project “Taktik och Metodik vid brand i Undermarksanläggningar” (TMU) was a joint research project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingency Agency (MSB) during the years 2012–2014. The authors would like to thank mine manager Thomas Askemur for allowing the test to be performed in the Tistbrottet mine, MSB for the financial support, Fire Safety Engineer Per Rohlén for valuable photos and discussions and Incident Commander Krister Palmkvist from South Älvsborg Fire Department for technical support and advice with IR imaging, making it possible to evaluate the movements during the full-scale tests. Many people have also contributed to the enormous amount of effort and work needed to prepare the tunnel for the tests. The authors would also like to thank the technicians and experts from RISE (former SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden) and colleagues from Mälardalen University.; Funding text 2: The project was financed by MSB, the Swedish Contingency Agency. The project was a grant research project and no agreements existed that could have influenced the results of the project.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-09-29 Laget: 2022-09-29 Sist oppdatert: 2023-05-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Gehandler, J., Olofsson, A., Hynynen, J., Temple, A., Lönnermark, A., Andersson, J., . . . Huang, C. (2022). BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.0.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.0
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2022 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

Publisher
s. 44
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2022:47
Emneord
New energy carriers, alternative fuel vehicle, battery, alternatively powered vehicles, electric vehicle, pressure ship, biogas vehicle, CNG vehicle, hydrogen vehicle, fire, explosion, manual firefighting, tactics, risk, ro-ro ship
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59162 (URN)978-91-89561-86-1 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-04-26 Laget: 2022-04-26 Sist oppdatert: 2024-04-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Huang, C., Andrei, L. & Lönnermark, A. (2022). Development of a numerical tool using an open-source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions. Mölndal
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Development of a numerical tool using an open-source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions
2022 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Dust explosion has been a constant threat to the physical working environment of the Swedish process industries which deal with combustible powders. Examples of such industries are pellets, paper, metal processing, food and feed, pharmaceuticals, and additive industries. This project aims at (i) development of physics-based and well-validated models which address the important combustion phenomena in dust explosions, (ii) development of a well-verified and an efficient numerical tool based on an open-source toolbox OpenFOAM for predicting consequences of dust explosions and (iii) simulation of large-scale dust explosions in the process industries. The project result improves the understanding of dust explosions, and it provides the process industries with a numerical tool for designing safer process plant regarding dust explosions.The model and code development were carried out in a step-by-step fashion. First, the so-called Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model for premixed turbulent combustion, was implemented into OpenFOAM. The implementation was verified against analytical solutions for 1-dimensional planar and 3-dimensional spherical turbulent flames. Second, the developed code including the model, i.e., FSCDustFoam, was validated against experimental data on corn starch dust explosion in a fan-stirred explosion vessel under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Third, the FSC model was extended by adapting the well-known experimental observations of the self-similarity of the flame acceleration to address large-scale industrial dust explosions. An excellent agreement between measurements of vented corn starch dust explosions in an 11.5 m3 vessel and the simulations using the extended the FSC model was obtained.In spite of the successful development of FSCDustFoam, challenges remain. Specifically, the current version of FSCDustFoam cannot address the effect of different shapes of vent openings on dust explosions. Nevertheless, FSCDustFoam is a promising tool to be applied and further developed to resolve the challenging reality regarding dust explosions in the Swedish process industries.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Mölndal: , 2022. s. 94
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61115 (URN)
Forskningsfinansiär
AFA Insurance, 180028
Merknad

  The authors would like to acknowledge AFA Försäkring for financial support of this project (grant number 180028). The computations were enabled by resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at HPC2N partially funded by the Swedish Research Council through grant agreement no. 2018-05973 and RISE Simulation Lab. The SNIC projects SNIC2021-22-217, SNIC2021-5-185 and SNIC2021-22-821 are acknowledged. Åke Sandgren and Erik Andersson at HPC2N are specially acknowledged. The authors would like to acknowledge IND EX® for providing the real scale test data of the IND EX® research project “Influence of the Explosion Relief Device Geometry on its Venting Efficiency”.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-10-28 Laget: 2022-10-28 Sist oppdatert: 2024-04-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Pushp, M., Lönnermark, A., Hedenqvist, M. & Vikegard, P. (2022). Heat production in municipal and industrial waste as revealed by isothermal microcalorimetry. Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), 147(15), 8271
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Heat production in municipal and industrial waste as revealed by isothermal microcalorimetry
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926, Vol. 147, nr 15, s. 8271-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-ignited fires at municipal solid waste (MSW) storage sites are relatively common. The minimization of the phenomenon of self-heating in the waste can reduce the risks for smouldering combustion. The purpose of this work was to develop a method that can be used to measure and characterize the heat production in MSW. The method is based on isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (IMC). The heat production in MSW was determined based on sampling from two sites in two different geographical locations in Sweden. Both the original waste and milled/homogenised waste were tested. The heat production was measured at different temperatures together with gas analysis using micro-gas chromatography. The activity in the waste, in terms of its heat flow, increased when the temperature increased up to 60 °C and decreased at higher temperatures, e.g., 70 and 80 °C. The consumption of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide, together with the heat production, indicated that aerobic metabolism was responsible for the heat production. This is further strengthened by the marginal heat production observed for ultraviolet treated waste. The results showed that IMC is a valuable tool for characterising the self-heating in municipal and industrial waste. © 2021, The Author(s).

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2022
Emneord
Fire, Heat production, Microcalorimetry, Microorganisms, Municipal waste, Self-heating
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57968 (URN)10.1007/s10973-021-11117-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85120556310 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text 1: The work was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (as part of the strategic innovation programme RE:Source), RISE Research Institute of Sweden, SYSAV, Tekniska Verken i Linköping, and Borås Energi & Miljö. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-01-12 Laget: 2022-01-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-05-26bibliografisk kontrollert
Ibrahim, M. A., Lönnermark, A. & Hogland, W. (2022). Safety at waste and recycling industry: Detection and mitigation of waste fire accidents. Waste Management, 141, 271-281
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Safety at waste and recycling industry: Detection and mitigation of waste fire accidents
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 141, s. 271-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, NASA’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) fire hotspots and data of the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), collected between 2012 and 2018, was integrated to characterize waste fire incidents that were detected by VIIRS and reported to MSB (DaR), detected by VIIRS but not reported to MSB (DbNR) and that are reported to MSB but not detected by VIIRS (RbND). Results show that the average number of open waste fire incidents per million capita per year (AFIPMC) in Sweden, for the period 2012–2018, ranges from 2.4 to 4.7. Although a weak correlation exists (r = 0.44, P = 0.1563, one tailed) between years and number of fire incidents (MSB + VIIRS fires), a continuous increase in number of fire incidents was recorded between 2014 and 2018. It is concluded that the use of satellite data of fire anomalies, in-combination with the use of incident reports, will help in formalizing more reliable and comprehensive waste fire statistics. Another focus area of the article is to consolidate the recommendations and routines for safe storage of waste and biofuels and to present the lessons that can be learnt from past fire incidents. The article also discusses the technical, political, economic, social, and practical aspects of waste fires and provide a baseline for future research and experimentation.

Emneord
Waste fire, Waste management, Waste emissions, Waste industry, Fire hazard, Safe storage
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58554 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2022.02.004 (DOI)s2.0-S0956053X22000629 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

This work was supported by KK-stiftelsen [grant number 817-2.1.9, 2017] and Åforsk-stiftelsen [21-106].

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-02-15 Laget: 2022-02-15 Sist oppdatert: 2023-05-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6758-6067
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