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Hynynen, J., Willstrand, O., Blomqvist, P. & Andersson, P. (2023). Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests. Fire safety journal, 139, Article ID 103829.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, artikkel-id 103829Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Emneord
Combustion gas, Electric vehicle, Heat release rate, Large-scale fire test, Lithium-ion battery, Combustion, Enthalpy, Fires, Fluorine compounds, Gases, Internal combustion engines, Fire tests, Heat release, Internal combustion engine vehicles, Large scale fire tests, Large-scales, Peak heat release rates, Release rate, Vehicle fires, Lithium-ion batteries
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64934 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.103829 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160430610 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Correspondence Address: Hynynen, J.; Research Institutes of Sweden RISE, Brinellgatan 4, Sweden; email: jonna.hynynen@ri.se; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 48193-1, 48193-2; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency [grant no. 48193-1, 48193-2].

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-06-12 Laget: 2023-06-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-06-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Hynynen, J., Quant, M., Pramanik, R., Olofsson, A., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Andersson, P. (2023). Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
Vise andre…
2023 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

Publisher
s. 79
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2023:42
Emneord
Electric vehicle, fire safety, enclosed space, parking garage, vehicle fire, field experience, hazard identification
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64248 (URN)978-91-89757-90-5 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-03-21 Laget: 2023-03-21 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Willstrand, O., Pushp, M., Andersson, P. & Brandell, D. (2023). Impact of different Li-ion cell test conditions on thermal runaway characteristics and gas release measurements. Journal of Energy Storage, 68, Article ID 107785.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Impact of different Li-ion cell test conditions on thermal runaway characteristics and gas release measurements
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 68, artikkel-id 107785Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries requires further efforts in safety testing and evaluation. It is of utmost importance that the effects of different test conditions are understood, particularly for validation of computer models. While plenty of data from thermal runaway tests are available in literature, few are from large test series. The missing systematic approach to evaluate the impact of different test conditions implies uncertainty when comparing test results. In addition, the fast pace in cell development, including an increasing utilization of larger cells, necessitate the validation of previously published results. This work presents thermal runaway data from 37 tests on one type of large format prismatic lithium-ion cell (157 Ah). The tests are conducted in a closed pressure vessel with inert atmosphere as well as in an open setup below an exhaust collector hood. Further, six different thermal runaway trigger methods are employed as well as four different states of charge. Emphasis is put on the gases produced, a key aspect for safety evaluation. The results are compared with literature data and a new modified method is proposed for calculating the characteristic venting rate in a closed pressure vessel. It is concluded that the trigger method affects the gas production rate, mass loss, and maximum temperature of the cell as much as its state of charge. The large cell format potentially impacts the specific total gas production and enhances the effects of different trigger methods, but has a small impact on other evaluation parameters. No significant differences were observed in the test results due to the different test setups, apart from differences due to potential combustion of the released gases in ambient atmosphere. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Emneord
Gas composition, Gas production, Large format cell, State of charge, Test apparatus, Trigger methods, Battery management systems, Cells, Charging (batteries), Cytology, Gases, Ions, Lithium-ion batteries, Safety testing, Gas compositions, Gas productions, Large-format, Li-ion cells, States of charges, Test condition, Thermal runaways, Trigger method, Pressure vessels
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64929 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2023.107785 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160733022 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Correspondence Address: Willstrand, O.; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Box 857, Sweden; email: ola.willstrand@ri.se; Funding details: Vinnova-2019-00064; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 51787-1; Funding details: Uppsala Universitet; Funding text 1: We thank David Raymand, Scania CV AB, and Tomas Verhallen and Seungbok Lee, Northvolt Labs, for input on the manuscript. This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1 ). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064 ), and the StandUp for Energy consortium.; Funding text 2: We thank David Raymand, Scania CV AB, and Tomas Verhallen and Seungbok Lee, Northvolt Labs, for input on the manuscript. This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064), and the StandUp for Energy consortium.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-06-12 Laget: 2023-06-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Willstrand, O., Gehandler, J. & Andersson, P. (Eds.). (2023). Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023. Paper presented at Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023
2023 (engelsk)Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 7th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2023, held in Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, trucks and trains, or related infrastructure, such as car parks or vehicle transport at sea. Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced, with emphasis on high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas. Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge. FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators, rescue services and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different types of vehicles. In recognition of the fact that many of the fire problems faced by these vehicles are the same, the solutions to them can also be similar. In the proceedings you will find papers on vehicle fire development, bus fires, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, and car park fires. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, 2023. s. 249
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67533 (URN)978-91-89757-88-2 (ISBN)
Konferanse
Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-10-16 Laget: 2023-10-16 Sist oppdatert: 2023-10-20bibliografisk kontrollert
Huang, C., Temple, A., Ramachandra, V., Anderson, J. & Andersson, P. (2022). Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions. Gothenburg: Research Institutes of Sweden
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions
Vise andre…
2022 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Thermal propagation is one of the major challenges when batteries will be used in dwellings in large scale. It means the exothermic reactions in the cell are out of control and can lead to a fast release of flammable and toxic gases. In a system involving a large number of cells, thermal runaway can rapidly propagate from one battery cell to the whole system, which means substantial fire and explosion risks, an event that is important to mitigate and prevent. Multi-physics simulations together with full-scale testing is a cost-effective method for designing safer batteries. This project aims at simulating thermal runaway initiation and propagation using a multi-physics commercial software GT-Suite. 

A battery thermal runaway model containing 12 prismatic cells based on 3-D Finite Element approach was built using GT-Suite. The computed thermal runaway time instants versus thermal runaway cell number were compared with full-scale experimental data with reasonable agreement. Quantitative sensitivity study on the model input parameters and model space and time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The thermal runaway model was then extended with an electric equivalent sub-model to simulate the short circuit. With the electrical model acting as the input to the thermal model, the most interesting output of the simulation is the change in temperature of the cells, dependent on the current in the cells, with respect to time. The current is determined by the value of the external resistance through which the short takes place and the voltage level of the battery pack. The obtained results from the above short circuit simulations can only be used as a starting point and not as absolute values for neither triggering the thermal model nor for accurately simulating a battery under an electrical load. Furthermore, GT-Suite was applied to simulate the gas dispersion inside a room. A comparative study of the dispersion of toxic gases during thermal runaway, utilising an arbitrary release of HCN to represent the battery gases, in a small compartment with natural ventilation was investigated and the results compared the same situation simulated in FDS. The pipe based modelling supported by GT-Suite has limited applicability and overestimated the concentrations close to the ceiling whereas the lateral concentrations where underestimated. 

The multi-physics model for battery thermal runaway process is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with full-scale testing. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Gothenburg: Research Institutes of Sweden, 2022. s. 33
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2022:121
Emneord
battery thermal runaway, multi-physics simulation, short circuit, dwelling, gas dispersion
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62016 (URN)978-91-89757-02-8 (ISBN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Brandforsk, 322-001
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-12-22 Laget: 2022-12-22 Sist oppdatert: 2024-04-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Andersson, P., Byström, A., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Försth, M., Van Hees, P., Kovacs, P. & Runefors, M. (2019). Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet. RISE
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet
Vise andre…
2019 (svensk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [sv]

Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
RISE: , 2019. s. 77
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2019:109
Emneord
brandsäkerhet, brandrisker, solenergi, solpanel, PV, växelriktare, ljusbåge, regelverk, rekommendationer, energieffektiva byggnader, Li-jonbatterier, energilager, räddningstjänst, brandbekämpning
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40752 (URN)978-91-89049-34-5 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-11-11 Laget: 2019-11-11 Sist oppdatert: 2023-06-07bibliografisk kontrollert
Vermina Lundström, F. & Andersson, P. (2018). Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data. Lund
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data
2018 (svensk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Alternativ tittel[en]
Limiting factors for fire extent in residential buildings – analysis of information from the insurance sector
Abstract [en]

Every year, the insurance sector reports 23 000 fire incidents in Sweden. Of these, the fire rescue service are called into 6 000. Since there is little knowledge on the fires that the fire rescue service is not involved in, incident data from insurance companies has been analyzed.

One limitation to the results in this report is that the insurance sector’s definition of fire is broad; e.g. short-circuit is regarded a fire incident.

Still, the data complies with the statistics from the fire rescue service: Kitchen fires and fire in electric equipment are the most common sources of fire in residential buildings.

The cost (property damage) of a fire is also presented. It is seen that the most common fires sources commonly lead to a relatively low economical loss.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Lund: , 2018. s. 30
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2018:06
Emneord
insurance; cost; small fire
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33009 (URN)978-91-88695-41-3 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-10 Laget: 2018-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2023-06-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Andersson, P., Arvidson, M., Evegren, F., Jandali, M., Larsson, F. & Rosengren, M. (2018). Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea
Vise andre…
2018 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

Publisher
s. 49
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2018:77
Emneord
lithium-ion batteries, ships, battery room, fire-fighting
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36683 (URN)978-91-88907-27-1 (ISBN)
Merknad

The Lion Fire @ Sea project was funded by the Swedish Maritime Administration (Sjöfartsverket) and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-12-21 Laget: 2018-12-21 Sist oppdatert: 2023-06-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Brandon, D., Just, A., Andersson, P. & Östman, B. (2018). Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design
2018 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

Publisher
s. 47
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2018:43
Emneord
Tall timber buildings; Fire; Fire stop; Fire spread; Water damage
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35110 (URN)978-91-88695-82-6 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-03 Laget: 2018-09-03 Sist oppdatert: 2023-06-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Andersson, P. & Willstrand, O. (Eds.). (2018). Proceeding from 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2018: October 3-4, 2018, Borås Sweden. Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2018. Boras: RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Proceeding from 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2018: October 3-4, 2018, Borås Sweden
2018 (engelsk)Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2018, held in Borås, Sweden October 3-4, 2018. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, coaches, trucks and trains.

Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced together with sophisticated new technology such as e.g. fuel cells and high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas.

Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge.

FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different vehicles. It is not confined to bus fires or train fires but includes them both, naturally since fire problems are often similar regardless of type of vehicle. This means that for example solutions for trains are useful for fire problems in buses and vice versa.

In the proceedings you will find papers on the fire problem, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, fire investigations and case studies and finally fire mitigation. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Boras: RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2018
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2018:51
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44384 (URN)978-91-88695-95-6 (ISBN)
Konferanse
5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2018
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-05 Laget: 2020-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2023-06-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3690-387x
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