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Abugabbara, M., Gehlin, S., Lindhe, J., Axell, M., Holm, D., Johansson, H., . . . Javed, S. (2023). How to develop fifth-generation district heating and cooling in Sweden?: Application review and best practices proposed by middle agents. Energy Reports, 9, 4971-4983
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>How to develop fifth-generation district heating and cooling in Sweden?: Application review and best practices proposed by middle agents
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 9, s. 4971-4983Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden has an ambitious plan to fully decarbonise district heating by 2030 and to contribute with negative emissions of greenhouse gases in 2050. The vagaries of the energy market associated with climate, political, and social changes entail cross-sectoral integration that can fulfill these national targets. Fifth-generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC) is a relatively new concept of district energy systems that features a simultaneous supply of heating and cooling using power-to-heat technologies. This paper presents best practices for developing 5GDHC systems in Sweden to reach a consensus view on these systems among all stakeholders. A mixed-method combining best practice and roadmapping workshops has been used to disseminate mixed knowledge and experience from middle agents representing industry professionals and practitioners. Four successful implementations of 5GDHC systems are demonstrated and the important learned lessons are shared. The best practices are outlined for system planning, system modeling and simulation, prevailing business models for energy communities, and system monitoring. A roadmap from the middle agents’ point of view is composed and can be utilised to establish industry standards and common regulatory frameworks. © 2023 The Author(s)

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Emneord
5GDHC, Best practices, District heating and cooling, Middle-out, Workshop, Cooling systems, Greenhouse gases, Energy markets, Greenhouses gas, Middle-agents, Political changes, Social changes, District heating
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64383 (URN)10.1016/j.egyr.2023.04.048 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152593457 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

 Funding details: European Regional Development Fund, ERDF, NYPS 20293146; Funding text 1: This study was financially supported by the European Regional Development Fund, program Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, Sweden , project COOLGEOHEAT: Shallow geothermal energy – the green and effective heating and cooling grids of the future, Sweden [grant number NYPS 20293146 ].

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-05-03 Laget: 2023-05-03 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Haglund Stignor, C., Tiljander, P., Lindberg, U., Lidbom, P., Axell, M. & Masgrau, M. (2018). New type of energy efficient heat exchanger for indirectly cooled display cabinets - Laboratory and field tests. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018 (pp. 206-214).
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>New type of energy efficient heat exchanger for indirectly cooled display cabinets - Laboratory and field tests
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2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, s. 206-214Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

In this study, a completely new type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side has been evaluated in a display cabinet application. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. Tests were performed with a traditional open vertical display cabinet, first with a traditional finned-tube coil and thereafter with the new type of heat exchanger, both in a climate chamber and thereafter in the field. The results from both tests showed that the liquid inlet temperature could be increased by around 6°C, from the range -8°C - -7°C with the traditional coil to the range -2°C -1°C with the new type of heat exchanger, which can lead to considerable energy savings and operation without the need for defrosting of the heat exchanger.

Emneord
Display cabinet, Heat exchanger, Indirect cooling, Laminar flow, Chains, Energy conservation, Energy efficiency, Heat transfer, IIR filters, Liquids, Sustainable development, Woodworking, Climate chambers, Energy efficient, Heat transfer performance, Laminar flow regimes, Liquid inlet temperature, Parallel plates, Heat exchangers
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34470 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2018.0028 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046274802 (Scopus ID)9782362150241 (ISBN)
Konferanse
5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018
Merknad

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten;

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-08-13 Laget: 2018-08-13 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindberg, U., Fahlén, P., Axell, M. & Fransson, N. (2017). Thermal comfort in the supermarketenvironment – multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment. International journal of refrigeration, 82, 426-435
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Thermal comfort in the supermarketenvironment – multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 82, s. 426-435Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In the supermarket environment three factors must be considered: food (food quality), personnel (working conditions), and customers.The customers do not remain in this environment very long but are of particular interest since they constitute the supermarket’s commercial basis. However, there are no recommendations on the indoor environment based on this category. This study compares the perceived indoor thermal environment with simultaneous objective measurements of the thermal environment and includes multiple enquiry methods. These methods have been used for this specific environment in order to understand how customers perceive, evaluate, and prefer variations in the thermal environment.

Measurements were performed in summer and winter in front of twelve display cabinets, over 1100 questionnaires have been received.To provide recommendations, this study presents measured and perceived comfort in supermarkets, information which can be used for prescribing suitable thermal environments for customers.

Emneord
Environment, Supermarket, Display Cabinet, Comfort, Thermal Analysis, Retail, Customer, Consumer
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32863 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2017.06.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85026862478 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-14 Laget: 2017-12-14 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Gustafsson, O., Teuillieres, C., Hellgren, H., Axell, M. & Dalenbäck, J.-O. (2016). Reversing air-source heat pumps - Noise at defrost initiation and a noise reducing strategy. International journal of refrigeration, 62, 137-144
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Reversing air-source heat pumps - Noise at defrost initiation and a noise reducing strategy
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2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 62, s. 137-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

With the increasing use of air source heat pumps, noise disturbance can be a barrier for further market growth and acceptance. Both steady state noise level and noise events influence reported noise disturbance. In this study one of the transient noise events was investigated: the noise initiated when the heat pump shifts to defrost mode. The results show that noise from a heat pump at defrost initiation was strongly dependent on the pressure differences in the system at the time of the shift. A reduced pressure difference resulted in a lower noise level. A control strategy that adds an idling time for the heat pump just before the shift of the 4-way valve is therefore suggested. This will have a small negative effect (<3%) on the heat capacity of the heat pump but the effect upon the COP will be negligible.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2016
Emneord
Heat pump, Noise reduction, Pressure differences, Defrost, 4-way valve, Energy, COP
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-417 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.10.017 (DOI)2-s2.0-84955457991 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-06-23 Laget: 2016-06-23 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindberg, U., Fahlén, P., Axell, M., Rolfsman, L. & Fransson, N. (2016). Supermarket environment, thermal comfort, energy and food quality efficiency. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 4th IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, April 7-9, 2016, Auckland, New Zealand (pp. 391-398).
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Supermarket environment, thermal comfort, energy and food quality efficiency
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2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2016, s. 391-398Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

In a supermarket setting, customers likely feel the chilled air from refrigerated units displaying their contents to passing customers. Supermarkets, by their nature, contain a diverse range of perishable goods stored in different designed units within one large building, whose distinct storage temperatures result in the unusual thermal environment that customers encounter when shopping. Unfortunately, this open environment results in huge amounts of wasted cold air from display units, the reduction of thermal comfort for customers, and a reduction in the quality of the food. A possible solution to improve comfort for customers, reduce cold air waste, help preserve foods, and save money for retailers includes innovative doors for open display cabinets. Such doors will save money for the retailer by lowering the costs for energy in supermarkets. Doors should, therefore, be viewed as an option and solution for not only the merchandiser, but also for the customer.

Emneord
Environment, Food, Quality, Retail, Supermarket, Thermal comfort, Chains, Food products, IIR filters, Image quality, Retail stores, Sustainable development, Display cabinet, Open environment, Perishable goods, Storage temperatures, Thermal environment, Sales
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27671 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2016.0051 (DOI)2-s2.0-84975886042 (Scopus ID)9782362150142 (ISBN)
Konferanse
4th IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, April 7-9, 2016, Auckland, New Zealand
Merknad

References: ADEME, AFCE, UNICLIMA, EReIE, Cemafroid, (2013) Alternatives to High GWP HFCs in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Applications, , Retrieved Oct., 2015; Axell, M., (2002) Vertical Display Cabinets in Supermarkets - Energy Efficiency and the Influence of Air Flows, p. 225. , Ph. D. thesis, D66:2002. Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Building Services Eng. Sweden; Brolls, E.K., Factors affecting retail display cases (1986) Com C2, 3, pp. 405-413. , IIR. GB 1986; EC European Commission, (2010) Final Report - Preparatory Study on Food Waste Across EU2, DG ENV - Directorate C, Brussels, p. 213. , Technical, October 2010; Energy Star, (2008) Facility Type: Supermarkets and Grocery Stores, , Retrieved May 13, 2015 ENERTECH; Ademe, P., (2001) Heat Gains from Chilled Refrigeration Equipment in Supermarkets, Diagnostic Électrique d'un Supermarché de Moyenne, , Surface, ADEME - Délégation régionale de Picardie, Immeuble APOTIKA, 67 avenue d'Italie. Italy; Evans, J., (2014) Are Doors on Fridges the Best Environmental Solution for the Retail sector?, p. 11. , Background paper to IOR Debate by Judith Evans FInstR, Advance Proof., IIR; Evans, J.A., Swain, M.V.L., (2010) Performance of Retail and Commercial Refrigeration Systems, p. 8. , IIR ICCC, Cambridge 29-31 March 2010; Faramarzi, R.T., Coburn, B.A., Sarhandian, R., Performance and energy impact of installing glass doors on an open fronted vertical deli/dairy display case (2002) ASHRAE Tran, 108 (1), pp. 673-679; Fanger, P.O., (1970) Thermal Comfort, p. 244. , Danish Technical Press. Copenhagen, Denmark; Foster, A.M., (1996) The Benefits of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for Modelling Processes in the Cold Chain, p. 52. , FRPERC University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol. BS18; Fricke, B., Becker, B., Energy use of doored and open vertical refrigerated display cases (2010) International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference, p. 9; Gheewala, S., Yeh, S., Fingerman, K., Diaz-Chavez, R., Moraes, M., Otto, M., (2011) The Bioenergy and Water Nexus, p. 40. , United Nations Environment Programme UNEP; Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., (2011) Global Food Losses and Food Waste - Extent, Causes and Prevention, p. 38. , Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations Rome, 2011; IIR/IIF, (2015) The Role of Refrigeration in the Global Economy, p. 16. , 29th Informatory Note on Refr. Techn; Howell, R.H., Rosario, L., Riiska, D., Potential savings in display case energy with reduced supermarket relative humidity (1999) 20th IIR/IIF Sydney, p. 7. , Australia; ISO 23953-2, Refrigerated display cabinets - Part 2: Classification, requirements and test conditions (2005) International Organization for Standardization, p. 73; Lindberg, U., Axell, M., Fahlén, P., Fransson, N., (2007) Appropriate Indoor Climate for Environmentally Sustainable Supermarkets - Field Measurements IIF/IIR, p. 8. , Beijing, China; Lindberg, U., Axell, M., Fahlén, P., Fransson, N., Supermarkets, indoor climate and energy efficiency - Field measurements before and after installation of doors on refrigerated cases (2008) Conference Refrigeration and Compressor, p. 8. , Purdue, USA, IIR; Lindberg, U., (2009) Indoor Thermal Environment in Supermarkets. A Study of Measured and Perceived Comfort Parameters, p. 173. , D 2009:04, Chalmers Univ. of Techn., Chalmers Reproservice, Sweden; Lindberg, U., Axell, M., Fahlén, P., (2010) Vertical Display Cabinets Without and with Doors, a Comparison of Measurements in A Laboratory and in A Supermkaret, p. 8. , IIR ICCC, Cambridge 29-31 March 2010; Lindberg, U., Axell, M., Fahlén, P., Vertical display cabinets with doors - Influence of the door-opening frequency on storage temperature and cooling demand (2010) Proc. Sustainable Refrigeration and Heat Pump Techn. Conference, p. 8. , Sthlm, Sweden, IIF/IIR; Lindberg, U., Jensen, S., (2014) How Could a Lower Temperature in the Cold Chain Affect Food Waste, p. 8. , IIR ICCC, London 23-25 June 2014; Rolfsman, M., Markusson, B.C., (2014) Changes of the Refrigeration System in the Dairy Section of a Supermarket - Field Measurements, p. 8. , IIR ICCC, London 23-25 June 2014; SEPA Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, (2013) Food Waste Volumes in Sweden, p. 20. , Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm; Sweetser, R., Supermarket relative humidity & Display-case performance (2000) Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering, 72 (2), pp. 38-47; Schönenberger, J., Experience with ejectors implemented in a R744 booster system operating in a supermarket (2014) 11th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, , China, Retr., 2015; UNEP, (2010) Report of the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee, p. 243. , Retrieved March 19, 2015; Ågren, T., Energy manager at ICA fastigheter sverige AB (in english Sweden real estates) (2015) Presentation "Energy Indicies" at National Project Meeting at SP Borås, Sweden, , 2nd of October, 2015

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-22 Laget: 2016-12-21 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindberg, U., Fahlén, P., Axell, M. & Fransson, N. (2016). Thermal comfort in the supermarket environment - Multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 4th IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, April 7-9, 2016, Auckland, New Zealand (pp. 41-48).
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Thermal comfort in the supermarket environment - Multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2016, s. 41-48Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

In the supermarket environment three factors must be considered: food (food quality), personnel (working conditions), and customers. The customers do not remain in this environment very long but are of particular interest since they constitute the supermarket's commercial basis. However, there are no recommendations on the indoor environment based on this category. This study compares the perceived indoor thermal environment with simultaneous objective measurements of the thermal environment and includes multiple enquiry methods. These methods have been used for this specific environment in order to understand how customers perceive, evaluate, and prefer variations in the thermal environment. Measurements were performed in summer and winter in front of twelve display cabinets, and over 1100 questionnaires have been received. To provide recommendations, this study presents measured and perceived comfort in supermarkets, information which can be used for prescribing suitable thermal environments for customers.

Emneord
Display cabinets, Interdisciplinary, Supermarket, Thermal comfort, Thermal environment, Chains, IIR filters, Retail stores, Sales, Surveys, Display cabinet, Indoor environment, Indoor thermal environments, Objective measurement, Simultaneous measurement, Sustainable development
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27670 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2016.0006 (DOI)2-s2.0-84975853456 (Scopus ID)9782362150142 (ISBN)
Konferanse
4th IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, April 7-9, 2016, Auckland, New Zealand
Merknad

References: ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55, Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy, Atlanta: American society of heating (2004) Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Eng., Inc., 30p; Axell, M., Lindberg, U., Field measurements in supermarkets (2005) Proc. Vicenza Conf., C. R. Conf. Vicenza, IIF/IIR, 8p; De Dear, R., Fountain, M., Field experiments on occupant comfort and office thermal environments in a hot-humid climate (1994) ASHRAE Trans, 100, pp. 457-474; Fanger, P.O., Thermal comfort (1970) Copenhagen, Denmark, p. 244. , Danish Technical Press; Foster, A.M., The benefits of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for modelling processes in the cold chain (1996) FRPERC, UK, 52p; Foster, A.M., Quarini, G.L., Using advanced modelling techniques to reduce the cold spillage from retail display cabinets into supermarket stores to maintain customer comfort (2001) Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, pp. 29-38; ISO 7730, Ergonomics of the thermal environment (2005) Analytical Determination and Interpretation of the Thermal Comfort Using Calculation of the PMV and PPD Indices and Local Thermal Comfort Criteria, 52p; ISO 10551, Ergonomics of the thermal environment (1995) Assessment of the Influence of the Thermal Environment Using Subjective Judgement Scales, 18p; ISO 7726, Ergonomics of the thermal environment (1998) Instr. for Measuring Physical Quantities, p. 51; Lindberg, U., Indoor thermal environment in Supermarkets (2009) A Study of Measured and Perceived Comfort Parameters, D2009:04, 173p. , Chalmers University of Technology, Building Services. Sweden; Newsham, G.R., Tiller, D.K., A field study of office thermal comfort using questionnaire software (1997) ASHRAE Transactions. Research, 103 (2), 15p. , Boston; Oliveira, A., Gaspar, A., André, J., Quintela, D., Subjective analysis of cold thermal environments (2014) Applied Ergonomics, 45 (3), pp. 534-543; Rupp, R., Vásquez, N., Lamberts, R., A review of human thermal comfort in the built environment (2015) Energy and Buildings, 105 (10), pp. 178-205; Simone, A., Crociata, S., Martellotta, F., The influence of clothing distribution and local discomfort on the assessment of global thermal comfort (2013) Building and Environment, 59 (1), pp. 644-653; Skoog, J., Fransson, N., Jagemar, L., Thermal environment in Swedish hospitals: Summer and winter measurements (2004) Energy and Buildings, 37, pp. 872-887

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-22 Laget: 2016-12-21 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Gustafsson, O., Hellgren, H., Haglund Stignor, C., Axell, M., Larsson, K. & Teuillieres, C. (2014). Flat tube heat exchangers – direct and indirect noise levels in heat pump applications (ed.). Applied Thermal Engineering, 66(5), 104-112
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Flat tube heat exchangers – direct and indirect noise levels in heat pump applications
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2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 66, nr 5, s. 104-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In the outdoor unit of an air-source heat pump the fan is a major noise source. The noise level from the fan is dependent on its state of operation: high air-flow and high pressure drop often result in higher noise levels. In addition, an evaporator that obstructs an air flow is a noise source in itself, something that may contribute to the total noise level. To be able to reduce the noise level, heat exchanger designs other than the common finned round tubes were investigated in this study. Three types of heat exchanger were evaluated to detect differences in noiselevel and air-side heat transfer performance at varying air flow. The measured sound power level from all the heat exchangers was low in comparison to the fan sound power level (directeffect). However, the heat exchanger design was shown to have an important influence on the sound power level from the fan (indirect effect). One of the heat exchangers with flat tubes was found to have the lowest sound power level, both direct and indirect, and also the highest heat transfer rate. This type of flat tube heat exchanger has the potential to reduce the overall noise level of a heat pump while maintaining heat transfer efficiency.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6617 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.02.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-84898909466 (Scopus ID)16421 (Lokal ID)16421 (Arkivnummer)16421 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-08 Laget: 2016-09-08 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Gustafsson, O., Axell, M., Larsson, K., Hellgren, H. & Teuillieres, C. (2013). Outdoor units of air-source heat pumps - a noise investigation (ed.). In: : . Paper presented at Proceedings of CLIMA 2013.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Outdoor units of air-source heat pumps - a noise investigation
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2013 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12266 (URN)15270 (Lokal ID)15270 (Arkivnummer)15270 (OAI)
Konferanse
Proceedings of CLIMA 2013
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-13 Laget: 2016-09-13 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Ruud, S., Fahlén, P., Axell, M., Kovacs, P., Ylmen, P. & Ståhl, F. (2011). Demonstrationsplattform för näranollenergibyggnader -småhus (ed.).
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Demonstrationsplattform för näranollenergibyggnader -småhus
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2011 (svensk)Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [sv]

On behalf of the Swedish Energy Agency, SP has investigated and recommended how one could form a platform for demonstration of single family houses as nearly zero energy houses. SP suggests that TMF, the national trade and employers’ association of the wood processing and furniture industry in Sweden, should administrate this platform. The reason being that members of TMF produce almost 80% of all single family houses in Sweden. TMF also has the capacity to launch a demonstration platform in a reasonable short time. SP has also compiled a set on technical criteria regarding properties related to energy use that should be met by demonstration projects within the platform. One presumption has been that a house that meets the criteria in the south of Sweden also should meet the criteria in the north of Sweden. The reason being to promote an industrialized and cost effective building process. Another ambition has been not to disfavor smaller single family houses. The main criteria are on very energy efficient building envelopes and very efficient building services systems. The criteria are therefore more detailed than the current Swedish building regulations.

Serie
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2011:83
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-5025 (URN)13166 (Lokal ID)978-91-87017-16-2 (ISBN)13166 (Arkivnummer)13166 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-07 Laget: 2016-09-07 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindberg, U., Rolfsman, L., Axell, M. & Fahlén, P. (2011). Energy efficiency in Supermarkets and directives for efficiency - Implication of EU efficiency directives. (ed.). In: : . Paper presented at 23nd International Congress of Refrigeration Prague, Czech Republic.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy efficiency in Supermarkets and directives for efficiency - Implication of EU efficiency directives.
2011 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12112 (URN)13274 (Lokal ID)13274 (Arkivnummer)13274 (OAI)
Konferanse
23nd International Congress of Refrigeration Prague, Czech Republic
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-13 Laget: 2016-09-13 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0009-0000-7874-4702
v. 2.43.0