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Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Blom, J., Arvidson, M. & Försth, M. (2024). Mechanisms and performance of different fixed fire fighting systems in tunnels – summary of laboratory and tunnel fire tests.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms and performance of different fixed fire fighting systems in tunnels – summary of laboratory and tunnel fire tests
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2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents both small scale laboratory tests and tunnel fire tests carried out in a FORMAS project. Four series of small scale laboratory tests were conducted to obtain the material properties, burning properties, water spray distributions, and spray droplet size distributions. The main efforts were, by adopting the Froude scaling, seven series of tests conducted in a about 50 m long container tunnel with a scale of 1 to 3. This report presents results on the influence of low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure water-based fixed fire fighting systems (FFFSs) on fire development, fire spread to adjacent vehicles, structural protection, tenability, smoke control, spray deflection and spray resistances. The focus is to compare the performance of three default FFFSs and to evaluate the efficiency of each of the FFFS. The results show that the default low pressure FFFS performs well in term of suppressing the fire development, preventing the fire spread to nearby vehicles, providing tenable conditions for evacuation and rescue service, protecting tunnel structure and easing the problem with spray deflection due to tunnel ventilation. The default high pressure FFFS is usually on the opposite side while the default medium pressure FFFS usually lie in between.

Publisher
p. 75
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2024:22
Keywords
tunnel fire, fixed fire fighting system, fire suppression, fire spread, ventilation, smoke control, deflection, ventilation resistance, structural protection
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72327 (URN)978-91-89896-70-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M., Egeltoft, E. & Godby, T. (2023). Driftserfarenheter från sprinkler-installationer i kyrkor och andra kulturhistoriskt värdefulla byggnader Brandforsk projekt 323-010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driftserfarenheter från sprinkler-installationer i kyrkor och andra kulturhistoriskt värdefulla byggnader Brandforsk projekt 323-010
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Operating experiences from sprinkler system installations in Swedish churches and other heritage buildings During the past 20 years, the fire protection of many historically valuable buildings in Sweden, especially ancient wooden churches, have been improved with the installation of fire detection and fire sprinkler systems. The objective of the project was to document the operating experiences from some of these buildings. Most of the installations have been made in small- or intermediate-sized wooden churches, but installations in larger buildings were identified. The operating experiences were documented by interviews with the end users, fire protection inspectors and system installers, and by study visits. Problems associated with the use of antifreeze were identified. Systems have experienced leakage, high and varying system pressures during warm days and unintentional activations due to breakage of nozzles or nozzle glass bulbs. For systems designed as dry-pipe systems, unintentional activations have occurred during wintertime due to freezing. Testing of dry-pipe systems during the study visits also revealed unacceptably long water delivery times and residual water in piping. Many of the smaller rural churches are using a high-pressure gas (nitrogen) driven pump because the public grid is unreliable. Three suffocation incidents were documented when nitrogen was unintentionally released into the technical space. Two of the incidents can be described as profoundly serious. The church building managers have a key role in the daily supervision of these installations. But it requires effort, technical competence and not least a substantial deal of self-interest. For some churches, high staff turnover has contributed to a lack of competence and supervision and maintenance has been neglected. High frequency of fault alarms (operating alarms) was also perceived as a burden and is also costly. Overall, the occurrence of technical problems and excessive costs have contributed to the shutdown or even dismantling of several sprinkler systems.

Publisher
p. 104
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:133
Keywords
Churches, heritage buildings, fire safety, fire sprinkler systems, water mist fire protection systems, fire alarm systems
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72585 (URN)978-91-89896-20-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-04-10 Created: 2024-04-10 Last updated: 2024-04-10Bibliographically approved
Hynynen, J., Quant, M., Pramanik, R., Olofsson, A., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Andersson, P. (2023). Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

Publisher
p. 79
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:42
Keywords
Electric vehicle, fire safety, enclosed space, parking garage, vehicle fire, field experience, hazard identification
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Other Chemical Engineering Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64248 (URN)978-91-89757-90-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M., Gehandler, J. & Bleye, J. (2023). Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships. In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: . Paper presented at Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023 (pp. 107).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, 2023, p. 107-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about firefighting measures including water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) and tactics and equipment used for manual firefighting on ro-ro cargo and ro-ro passenger ships. A test series involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV’s) and battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) under as equal test conditions as possible were conducted to investigate the performance efficiency of the drencher system. In addition, manual firefighting equipment and tactics was evaluated on three BEV fire tests. It is concluded that a fire in the two types of vehicles is different but share similarities. However, a fire in a BEV does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in an ICEV for the drencher system design given in current international recommendations. Similarly, there are common (e.g., handheld fire extinguishers and hoses) and new (e.g., fire blanket and water-cooling device) manual firefighting equipment that effectively can be used to control or limit a BEV fire.

Keywords
: ICEV, BEV, sprinkler systems, water spray system, drencher system, manual firefighting, ro-ro spaces, ships.
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71491 (URN)
Conference
Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023
Note

The project has received funding from the European Union’sHorizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 814975

Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. & Mindykowski, P. (2023). Fire testing of alternative fixed fire-extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces onboard ships. Ships and Offshore Structures, 18(3), 423-428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire testing of alternative fixed fire-extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces onboard ships
2023 (English)In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 423-428Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) recognises five different fire-extinguishing system solutions for ro-ro spaces on ships; manually activated water spray systems (Resolution A.123(V)), automatic sprinkler or deluge water spray systems and automatic nozzle or deluge water mist systems (MSC.1/Circ.1430), high-expansion foam systems and gas fire-extinguishing systems (FSS Code). A review of potential commercially available alternative systems, their expected performance efficiency and water consumption was made. Based on this review, two alternative fire-extinguishing systems were identified: Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) and foam-water sprinkler/spray systems. Fire suppression performance testing of water spray systems according to the Resolution A.123(V) and MSC.1/Circ.1430, a CAFS and a foam-water spray system were conducted. The water spray system per MSC.1/Circ.1430 had superior performance while the system per Resolution A.123(V) and the foam-water spray system limited the fire size to some degrees. The CAFS provided limited fire suppression performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2023
Keywords
CAFS, extinguishment, Fire, ro-ro space, water spray, Compressed air, Fire extinguishers, Fire protection, Ships, Spray nozzles, Sprinkler systems (irrigation), Air foam, Compressed air foam system, Fire suppression performance, Fire-extinguishing systems, International conventions, Safety of life at seas, Spray systems, Water sprays, Fires
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59239 (URN)10.1080/17445302.2022.2061768 (DOI)2-s2.0-85129631611 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors would like to thank the manufacturers who provided equipment, support and technical advices for the fire tests: TYCO Fire Suppression & Building Products (Sweden), Jomos Eurosprinkler AG (Switzerland), Dr. R. Stahmer GmbH & Co. KG (Germany), FireFlex Systems Inc. (Canada), Dafo Fomtec AB (Sweden).

Available from: 2022-05-24 Created: 2022-05-24 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. & Westlund, Ö. (2023). Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles. Fire technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles
2023 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about the performance efficiency of water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) typically installed on ro–ro cargo and ro–ro passenger ships. A test series was conducted involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar gasoline-fuelled and battery electric vehicles in test conditions as equivalent as possible. During testing, key parameters such as the heat release rate, the gas temperature above the vehicle and the surface temperature of target steel sheet screens at the sides of the vehicle were measured. Fire ignition was arranged in such a way that the gasoline fuel or the battery pack was involved at the initial stage of the fire. It is concluded that fires in the two types of vehicles are different but have similarities. However, a fire in a battery electric vehicle does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in a gasoline-fuelled vehicle for a drencher system designed in accordance with current international recommendations

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66068 (URN)10.1007/s10694-023-01473-w (DOI)
Note

Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. The project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 814975.

Available from: 2023-08-18 Created: 2023-08-18 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. & Westlund, Ö. (2023). Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles. Fire technology, 59(6), 3391-3414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles
2023 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Fire Technology, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 3391-3414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Closed ro-ro spaces on maritime vehicle carriers are usually protected by a total-flooding carbon dioxide system. Such systems have many benefits, for example that there are no residues that can adversely affect the protected objects (in this case thousands of vehicles) and the agent is electrically non-conductive. However, there could be a considerable time delay from the start of a fire until the carbon dioxide system is discharged. Experience has shown that this delay time can cause significant fire damage and jeopardize the performance of the system. Within the EU funded LASH FIRE project, design and installation guidelines for supplementary automatic water-based fire sprinkler systems were developed. An important design feature is that the system automatically activates at an early stage of a fire. This would allow more time to fight the fire manually or to safely evacuate the space and discharge the CO2 system when the fire is controlled to one or a few vehicles instead of at a time when it has escalated in size. The work was partly based on a comprehensive literature review that identified relevant standards and information applicable to the design of automatic fire sprinkler and deluge water spray systems. Large-scale fire tests verified that the suggested system designs were able to provide control of realistic vehicle fires, including fires in passenger cars and a freight truck.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72459 (URN)10.1007/s10694-023-01473-w (DOI)
Available from: 2024-03-27 Created: 2024-03-27 Last updated: 2024-04-02Bibliographically approved
Ingason, H., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Jiang, L. (2022). Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel. Fire safety journal, 129, Article ID 103567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel
2022 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 129, article id 103567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of 1:3 intermediate scale tunnel fire tests was performed to investigate the performance of a fully automatic sprinkler system in a road tunnel. The experiments were carried in a container tunnel with scaled geometry, using wood pallets as the fire source to simulate HGV fires. The activation of the sprinklers was simulated by using thermocouples that corresponded to a given Thermal Response Index (RTI) of a sprinkler bulb or a link. A total of 12 tests were carried out with varying longitudinal velocities (0.8–1.7 m/s), sprinkler activation temperatures (68–141 °C), water densities (2.9–8.7 mm/min) and types of arrangement of the fuel. The activation times, number of activated sprinklers, maximum heat release rates and other key parameters are presented and analyzed. The results show that the water density plays a key role in the performance of the automatic sprinkler systems tested. A high tunnel ventilation velocity, low water density and low sprinkler activation temperature are not recommended. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Activation, Automatic sprinkler, Model scale, Tunnel fire, Tunnel velocity, Chemical activation, Fires, Flammability testing, Sprinkler systems (irrigation), Thermocouples, Activation temperatures, Fire tests, Performance, Road tunnel, Sprinkler activation, Tunnel fires, Water density, Hose
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58999 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103567 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127092273 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering, SKB; Funding details: Trafikverket; Funding text 1: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundstr?m at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.; Funding text 2: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) . The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundström at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. (2020). Fire protection of robotic top-loading compact storage systems. Fire Protection Engineering (85), 16-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire protection of robotic top-loading compact storage systems
2020 (English)In: Fire Protection Engineering, ISSN 1524-900X, no 85, p. 16-22Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gaithersburg: Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE), 2020
Keywords
Fire, compact storage systems, sprinklers
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44776 (URN)
Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. & Frantzich, H. (2020). Sprinklersystem i fortifikationsläggningar under mark: Kostnad och nytta. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sprinklersystem i fortifikationsläggningar under mark: Kostnad och nytta
2020 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Sprinkler systems in fortification facilities below ground: Cost and benefit
Abstract [en]

Fortifikationsverket (FORTV) has expressed a desire to investigate the design, reliability, performance and cost of a sprinkler system for a typical underground fortification facility. Based on the cost and the benefit associated with a sprinkler system, a cost-benefit analysis was performed. In addition, water mist fire protection systems were studied. The installation cost analysis was based on two fictious facilities; a small facility with a net area of 1 000 m2 and a large facility with a 5 000 m2 net area.

The estimated installation cost for a traditional sprinkler system in the smaller type facility is about SEK 1,3 million and about SEK 3,3 million for the larger type facility. The installation cost for a high-pressure water mist system is higher than that of a traditional sprinkler system for the smaller type facility but comparable for the larger type facility. A low‑pressure water mist system seems to be the least expensive option for both types of facilities. This is probably because the system, unlike a traditional sprinkler system, requires smaller pipe sizes, smaller water pumps and a smaller water tank and unlike a high-pressure system uses normal steel pipes and less expensive centrifugal pumps.

The cost-benefit analysis for the fictitious type facilities shows that a sprinkler system is cost-effective, especially for the larger type facility. But it should be noted that the uncertainty in the data base is quite large, which means that the trends in the result can be used for further analysis, but that the actual values ​​of the benefit ratio should be viewed with some caution. The sprinkler system mainly has an effect to reduce the property loss. The expected benefit for personal injury is around one percent of the total benefit of the sprinkler system. This is because the risk of fatality and injuries in the event of a fire is small, as people can usually put themselves in safety. The reduction in property loss was assumed to be 75%, and an assumed lowered benefit of sprinklers (50% and 25% property loss reduction, respectively) leads to a lower benefit ratio but for the large type facility the benefit ratio is still above 1,0. The benefit of sprinklers also decreases if the assumed fire frequency is reduced. However, for the larger type plant, the calculation shows that there is still a benefit, even if the assumed fire frequency is halved. The same applies if the cost of replacement of expensive equipment is assumed to be half as high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2020. p. 59
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2020:08
Keywords
Sprinkler systems, underground fortification facilities, reliability, effectiveness, cost-benefit
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43536 (URN)978-91-89049-88-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6264-7307

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